Key Factors That Can Influence Management Styles Management Essay
Management is described as what managers should do and what they need to do Cole, 2004. Good management keep people motivated, focused and productive since careless attitude are not permitted to excuse by customers (Daft, 2010). Managers have to control the company before knowing how to handle various situations by using different management styles. It is accepted that each style has its own features and when applied it will have different effects in different cultures. Therefore, it made a significant affect when use the most appropriate management styles at the most appropriate time. Briefly, the essay is concerned with identifying and discussing some factors that influence management styles, which will be greatly helpful for people especially managers to recognize the importance of management.
Experts defined that management styles can be divided into three parts. The most common used in business are: Autocratic, Democratic, Laissez- faire management styles (Vugt et al, 2004). Autocratic is described as a style that lacking of democracy and decided by entrepreneurs. Democratic style seems to be significantly reversed from Autocratic style, managers and workers are equal and employees are more pleased and humbly to accept opinions by employers. In addition, managers work by rules. Therefore, Democratic style become the most popular styles that accepted by individuals (Yuan and Yi, 2010). Moreover, for Laissez- faire management styles, workers are freedom and managers are free to make a decision (Vugt et al, 2004). The essay tends to mainly focus on this three management styles because these styles are chooses by managers to control the enterprise in a large amount of cultures.
After understanding the definition of management styles, figure out the factors would be a vital step. It is known that one key factor always influences one culture. Culture is relative to a group of people who has special characteristics in work place. The individual behavior is strongly influenced by the local culture. In addition, there is something that managers should be awareness in order to make a successful company and really understand different management styles. The rest of the essay will compare with the management styles in Norway, China and Japan and describe how different management styles influence in these countries.
China is seen as a typical high-context culture country which included social and cultural conditions and have a greatly impact on communication (Laroche 2003 cited in Hestflatt 2005). Connecting in this type of business to China, the connection place, including environment, it is awareness that leadership is important and helpful to build the successful relationship between employees and employers. Chinese prefer to use an informal way to communicate and get a better understanding of the counterpart. For example, inviting counterparts to restaurant, sending gifts to counterparts and playing together in private home or public entertainment places are always a procedure to talk about the business and strengthen the relationship between each other. Owing to this kind of culture in China, in the management of China, the manager makes decisions by considering the group’s behalf in authority and the lower workers have no useful methods to show their opinions. This decision making process is hierarchy with thinking themselves is the most important, the counterpart is the second (Hestflatt, 2005). In general, China focus on Autocratic and Bureaucratic management styles, it means that collectivistic thinking is considered to be pervasive and hard to change, managers are the leaders who make the decision.
In comparison, Norway representative a kind of low-context culture which included social and cultural conditions, and it have a greatly influence on circumstance (Laroche 2003 cited in Hestflatt 2005). Although people rely on particular data and connection between them, it works when individuals make decisions by using their own ideas instead of irrelevant messages. Norwegians prefer to work by rules (Hooker 2003 cited in Hestflatt 2005). A case in point is that in 1980’s Norway, management were lack of authoritarianism which reflective strikes in workers (Hestflatt, 2005). As a result, it extremely changed the working environment in that ages and everyone fought for their rights. As well as this indicated that in the management process of Norway, managers focus on cooperation and consensus methods to make a decision. Thus, the concept of Democratic gradually transforms into Norway and is greatly accepted by people (Hestflatt, 2005).
Compared Chinese management styles with Norway, leaders in Automatic styles made decisions when attached to their benefits, Chinese managers are a case in point. Conversely, as Vugt et al(2004) states that leaders of Democratic style will make decisions and cooperative with group members by using rules. As a result, Democratic style leaders improve the performance of employees better than the other one. Even though China use Automatic style, however, it is considerably appropriate for China. As we known, China is a country governed by party and government, if Chinese management styles separate from its national conditions instead of using Democratic style, decisions would not match the suitable process of the company and its economy could be decreased.
Another culture is Japanese, a country which is near to China but has totally different cultures. Culpan (1993) stressed that Japanese companies are considered to be the world’s most successful ones in the world markets, and the harmonious relationship between managers and workers boost its success. An example of this is an expert uses a “seven S” model to explain that the concern in staff is one of the most vital styles which make Japanese companies mostly use. Similarity, its effective on goals are suitable for companies (Culpan,1993). Thus, it can be seen that the management style in Japan is Laissez- faire. As a result, stressing the importance of human resource management which including continuously communication between employees and employers make a significant to set goals in Japan.
Comparing with all three cultures which are China, Norway and Japanese, two of them are focus on the importance of leadership and Japanese concentrate on goals. In fact, using harmonious type of human resource management mode is not only benefits the management measures, but also more effective to promote the enterprise culture. Thus, entirely different management styles which including Democratic and Laissez- faire are appropriately for capitalism. Conversely, it can be predict that Autocratic is suitable for communism. If using management strategy just by respect or expect the culture, it would get out of control by taking management measures and use of the management tools in enterprise differently. Therefore, staffs may different to recognize the target and measure the effective implementation. Also management performance will appear artificial barrier and management effort will take a greatly discount.
It is obvious that the management styles among the three countries are completely different and the factors influenced them are various. However, cultural differences are the most vital factors influenced the management style and one factor suit for only one management style. The information about the business culture of each country is vital for the companies and individuals to be success. Admittedly, with the development of globalization, the trend of management style in each country has some similarities and absorbs the benefits of other countries. However, it is not permitted to completely apply different management styles to its own culture because it is not allowed by national situations. Thus, combine different management styles with its own cultures are alternative methods to solve the problem.
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