Knowledge Management Is A Very Important Field Information Technology Essay

Nowadays, the knowledge management is a very important field to the organization. This is a new, abstract idea, and it is very hard to master it. An organization is considered a strong one if only it has a well-managed knowledge system. Because it is the specific intellectual assets that owned by each organization, it plays a true value key within the organization compared with many other things else.

The knowledge captures, codification, transfer and creation is the system chain of the knowledge management, it includes: the explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge capture. In the present, many companies have faced the same problem of how to capture and store that knowledge efficiently for using in the future.

Besides that, the knowledge management life cycle has been helping technique which data, information, and knowledge can use to support each other, identify main points, and capture the benefit of them. Basically, there are four models: Meyer and Zack Knowledge Management Cycle (1996), Bukowitz and Williams (2000), McElroy Knowledge management Cycle (2003), Wiig Knowledge Management Cycle (1993).

Learning organization helps to create the improvement of the quality and performance of organizations, groups, and individuals. This system program’s goal is to aim to the development of how to get a better understanding of the challenges, techniques, and tools for planning and implementing the organizational development.

Researching the learning organization has played a vital key, since the enterprises are facing with challenges and problems that they usually got in the fast developing economic every day. It is because the corporate knowledge management is the system that helps the business to consolidate in the market and also avoids the problems which are not essential.


As mention above, knowledge management has a very important role on organization nowadays. It is the understanding and the skills of a personal or a group that help to solve the occurred problems more effectively and faster.

Many modern organizations are facing an environment of global competition, it is the increasingly fierce driven by rapid changes in science, technology and the demands from its customers, and thus it is increasingly more and more difficult for the independent labor and labor management.

Learning organization – somehow much likely a learning environment, it appropriates for all employees within an organization. It is a place where employees can learn and exchange knowledge from each other. Learning organization is a huge repository of knowledge which is started from many different sources. It is also a brainstorming place for everyone to open their minds, creativity and inspiration.

The purpose of this assignment will talk about “learning organizations and how best practices can be shared through the organization”.




Organization cannot know what data, information and knowledge mean; because they are very abstract. If organization just receive data, information and knowledge which do not process, recognize, analyze to useful source, they are so hard to do business or anything else. So, they need some technique which can put data, information, and knowledge on line, support each other, identify main points, and capture the benefit of them. From that point, four models are stabled. But what does each knowledge management cycle meaning?

First of all – The Zack Knowledge Management (KM) Cycle (1996) was found from the process of designing and developing for information products.

[1] ) Knowledge Management in theory and practice” book

Seeing on picture above, the Zack KM Cycle has five steps is acquisition – notice to high quality of data or information; refine is a first place where valued is added, creating more and more useable data or information, or keep data or information for next using; store – like as refine, but in store, it do not need to find new data, it just need to save it carefully, maybe physical or digital; distribute is important step because at here data and information is decided to move necessary place, how it use; and present, this is a step to appreciate value which was added at acquisition and refine steps.

Second – Bukowitz and Williams Knowledge Management (KM) Cycle (2000).This cycle have more steps than the Zack Knowledge Management Cycle. It involves two processes, and in every process, it has from three to four stages. For organizations manage, maintain, control and expand information to create new values, Bukowits and Williams KM cycle divide into two parts which always interdependent – is shown as chart below:

2Knowledge Management in theory and practice” book

– The first stage is Get; it includes finding significant information that needed to make decision. In the internet era, with the large amount of information that can be searched or captured, the problem is how to catch the right information which is necessary and useful for solving problem.

– The second step is Use; this step we use to combine all the right information that we have had into a clear way and easy to understand.

– The third step is Learn; learning is an important step, it emphasis how to create the completive advantages for an organization. Learning from the failures in the past to consolidate and complement for the existing knowledge, in order to avoid the similar failures or problems in the future.

– The Contribute is the fourth step of this cycle; this stage acquires people in the organization contribute what they have got. Sharing their own knowledge to the other people. This stage turns the personal knowledge into the organization’s knowledge.

– The next step is the Assess; this is a complex step which is dealt by the high level of organization. Usually the organizational level will judge that knowledge to see if it is the right and needed knowledge for the future needs of the organization. It is very important because it relates to the success of the organization.

– The sixth step is The Build and Sustain; this step will make sure the knowledge that they have gained is the right one and keep it as the intellectual capital of the organization and use it as the competitive advantages against their competitors.

– The last step is the Divest; this step has used to quit of using the current knowledge that it is no longer bring or create the value, benefit for the organization.

Next is the McElroy Knowledge Management (KM) Cycle (2003),

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3Knowledge Management in theory and practice” book

Including to knowledge production and knowledge integration; but two processes are linked together by organizational knowledge. And rely on broadcasting, searching, teaching, and sharing, knowledge integration can find new knowledge, at the same time it can abolish old.

Finally is the Wiig Knowledge Management (KM) Cycle (1993). I think Wiig KM Cycle is popularized until now because it can address how knowledge is built and used as individual, team or organization through four steps: Build knowledge, Hold knowledge, Pool knowledge and Use/ Apply knowledge. Although four steps happen independent but it helps business successfully.

Pool knowledge

Hold knowledge

Build knowledge

Use/ Apply knowledge

Wiig Knowledge Management Cycle (1993)

– Build knowledge learn from all kind of sources (personal experience, book, media, peers, education and training) to obtain knowledge (means do ways to create new knowledge as research plan, innovation by individual, hire new people, etc.), analyze knowledge (collect what appears to be knowledge from obtain knowledge), synthesize knowledge (combine different ideas and facts into single idea and impression), codify and model knowledge (represent knowledge in mind, document knowledge through book and manuals) and organize knowledge (by specifies uses – frequently asked questions (FAQs), or framework). For example, if someone wants to open Noodle restaurant, following the Wiig’s KM Cycle, the first step, they must have restaurant plan, where they begin, hire employees (for cooking, servicing), how to decorate for place, how to promotion which people can know their store, services’ criteria which employers train their employees.

– Hold knowledge mean knowledge is in tangible form which held in mind, book or document, databases, etc. It consists remember knowledge, cumulate knowledge, embed knowledge and archive knowledge. We must save and arrange it logically. It will be easy to find and understand when we need to have a merger with other knowledge. Remaining above example, with hold steps, employers’ Noodle restaurant should find out about flavor, taste, decoration’s food, etc. after that, they must make recommendation to chef in order to cook right food. It is so necessary, because if chefs do not make satisfy customers’ taste, customers will not come back again, because they will think food is bad so they do not need to waste their money.

– Pool knowledge, it is shared or put together so that it can be used for a particular purpose. Individual or organization may pool knowledge in several ways, as if they can coordinate knowledge of collaborative teams, identify who know knowledge or consult about difficult problems or opinions with scholars. Restaurant will have two parts which need to deploy that, one for employees and one for customers. With employees, managers need to organize team work, every team do their own work. Sometimes, they should have competition between teams that create excitement and interesting at workplace. About customers, managers should always ash them about taste, decorated form, services of employees, satisfaction or not, etc. Customers will feel that they receive attention kindly; they will like and come back. That is useful for restaurant; they will know strength points to keep developing and weakness points which are changed.

– Use knowledge to perform work, projects, collect information, provide standard services, products, describe or analyze situation and scope problems. Other points, this step identify knowledge sources, options, determine risks and benefits. After, it decides what need to do, compare with others and create decision making process.

So, in short, both of four knowledge management cycles are so important. Every cycle has it own special particularity. Because they are help organization identifying, and locating knowledge or knowledge source; but depending every cycle, it has their way to collect knowledge. For instance, the Zack Knowledge Management Cycle can be applying information to learning organization. Moreover, different business has unique information which is useful for them, so thanks to the Zack, people can discriminate many kinds of information. Or as people know, organizational memories are created from best practices and bad practices. Information is the main point to link all memories. From the Bukowitz and Williams knowledge management cycle, people can make decision, combine information, practice all information what they learn to real situations, or reject or repair failures. One more points, that all cycles can address how knowledge id built and used as organization. They are also depicting all respect of information, from the beginning as data to knowledge; it creates opportunities to manage knowledge so that the expected value added to organization.

In the other hand, knowledge management can be influenced at several levels, such as people, product, process, and performance which make knowledge to improve performance of organization. Like knowledge management cycles, four levels inter-depend each other. Both of them are want to increase profit and revenue for organization. Thus, the link between leaning organization and knowledge management is unquestionable, because learning as the same as knowledge management cycle, in there idea, knowledge can change, apply new knowledge, and refine old knowledge.


The knowledge capture, codification, transfers and creation is the system chain of the knowledge management, capturing knowledge is the basic step of all. The general problems of many companies which want to build an effective knowledge management system are how to capture and store that knowledge nowadays. Usually, there are two kinds of knowledge capture those are the explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge capture [ [4] ].

The explicit knowledge is the general knowledge that popularize for almost people in the organizations, companies. They are codified as the documents, reports, text, recording clips, images, video clips which may contain subtitle and sound or not, etc… Sometimes they are expressed as the books, magazines and outspread to people.

Thus, explicit knowledge is captured, codified and transfer easily among people, since that knowledge has shown themselves as a tangible (books, reports, documents, etc…), everyone can approach and acquire from them. Somehow explicit knowledge has a big amount about quantity aspect, but doesn’t have a really high value about the quality aspect. Because that knowledge has been mastered or absorbed by many people.

The other kind of knowledge capture is the tacit knowledge (or experience) capture. This subject is much harder to master then the explicit knowledge. Because tacit knowledge has not been codified or written as the documents, reports; its repository is usually in people’s brain or mind and cannot be easily accessed or transferred among people.

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It is very hard to reason or demonstrate the tacit knowledge because it is the personal experience, belief, feelings or the sensitiveness on their work. Thus, the tacit knowledge is very hard to encode or document as text, video clips, recording clips, etc… then transferring among people [ [5] ]

For this reason, the transferring for tacit knowledge is pretty difficult. Beside the encouragement individuals to share their own knowledge to others, it is important to create a sharing environment such as building intranet webpage, internal blogs, holding some interview events among senior and staffs, etc… These activities will help transfer tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge for people to learn, codify and store them as the value knowledge used for organization’s purposes.

Brainstorming is also the best way to transfer knowledge among people in organization, this practice is not only help figure out the best solution for each problem, and it is also help to share individual experience. Hence, enriching the knowledge for both people and the organization, and also motivate the staffs continually learns from each other.


Modern organizations are facing an environment of global competition is increasingly fierce driven by rapid changes in science, technology and the demands from our customers increasingly more difficult, the independent labor and management more difficult. To survive and thrive in the business environment [6] of these dynamic, organizations must constantly change to meet the demands of customers, employees, and market competition. So learning organization created to improve the quality and performance of organizations, groups, and individuals. The program aims to develop a better understanding of the challenges, techniques, tools for planning and implementing change and organizational development to create a vibrant organization with good adaptation environmental change and global competition is increasingly fierce.



What is the learning organization? Learning organization is like a learning environment appropriate for all employees within an organization. It was a place where employees can learn and exchange knowledge from other members of the company. It was because as a huge repository of knowledge starts from different sources. Is a place for everyone’s minds to open, creative and inspired paintings reflecting the ability of each person.

What the learning organization do is to make people feel free because the employee is no longer passive players in the equation (just follow the assigned work that is limited ability to share and communicate), they will learn to express ideas and challenge themselves to contribute ideas and energy into a work environment by participating in a shift from a traditional working model to arbitrary a working model more open where hierarchy is clearly divided, and human potential is anticipated. Organizing training making an environment in which people can “create the results they really want”, and where they can learn to learn together for the advancement of the entire

How is it work? Main activities of academic institutions include the following basic operations: create a system to resolve the problem, but to experiment with new approaches-to ensure the steady flow of new ideas, learn from their own experience and history through multi-learning and gain experience from the incident has occurred and recognized the value of production failure instead of success is not effective, learn from experiences and best practices of others, transferring knowledge quickly and effectively in the organization-through reports, the training program.

The transfer of knowledge requires it accessible to everyone when and where they need it [8] . It is also important that knowledge is presented in a way that users can understand [9] . It must match the user needs to accept and absorb.

Acquiring knowledge related to the collection and use of relevant knowledge from many sources, to solve a one or many problems. Using knowledge can be reused through the solutions have worked before. A learning organization also learns from the mistakes or recognize when old solutions no longer apply [10] . Beside that can synthesis of old knowledge to create a broader meaning or a deeper level of understanding [11] . Clearly, more knowledge can quickly be mobilized and used to help organizations more competitive.

Why do we need to use this program? To compete in this environment saturated information that we currently live, the program is necessary to try to maintain all the activities, competition and continue to find ways to improve the organization. Learning organization accepts changing and continuous creation of favorable conditions for building a sustainable competitive for their company.

The possibility that organizational learning can bring to companies such as:

Increase the ability to think and improve the quality of team work of every employee – through programs that employees can share information to each other more easily. In addition the program also helps employees identify the necessary changes and provide workplace learning opportunities to meet these needs.

Changing trends management – helping leaders have a clear vision and also help leaders get the admiration of the staff.

Raise the quality of the work [12] : the results of our data are shared quickly and widely.

Building a clearer vision: the staff never stops learning from “best practices” of the competition or in our local and national.

Help employees feel free and independent: workers find joy working. Personal development is encouraged and rewarded. Staff saw a passion for personal development and organization


Buckman Laboratories International is the chemicals manufacturer in US. It opened in 1945 by Mr. Buckman and it is a $270 million company with 1,200 people working over 80 countries. Beside that, somebody doesn’t know that Buckman Labs also sell knowledge. This company has the huge network of communication within the company. Buckman does not just focus on the manufacture of chemicals that he wanted to create a perfect working environment and easily connect with people. In a disease he had accidentally invented a completely new operating system with these conditions he can help managers and executive staff more easily, and collect customer information found quickly. He calls it a learning organization environment. It is an internal website, where every employee has a separate account and can access the site to find out and chat, discuss issues that people are interested. In addition, customers who wish to learn and interested companies can access the site with as guest and asking questions on forums, the issues that the staff can be exchanged quickly and commentary rapidly. It is a means easier than the old style of communication (letters, papers, bulletin board, news ….) Now the information concerning the company can be updated quickly and websites can work 24 / 7 regardless of time. Help employees and management will catch information and current trends change. Buckman’s program has made and has been applied to other companies and are pleased to cooperate with Buckman Labs to application programs that in their company. [13] 

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What is best practice and relationship between Best Practice and Learning Organization?

With the high failure rate of the current project, the company may think the only way to accomplish the goals set forth as the objectives can be met through the use of effective program management and engineering projects. So the “best practice” programs are being mentioned at companies. A best practice is a technique or method through experience and research, has proven a reliable guide to a desired result [14] . Best practice also means finding and using ways work best to achieve business goals. In business, it relates to how businesses operate successfully in the marketplace and compare the way the business with other business leaders.

The level of progress will move much more slowly if an organization started a job where they have never done before, they will have to use one or more test methods to determine the effectiveness and problem of tasks before putting it to proceed. Through many course of figuring out how to most effectively perform their tasks. But to do that will make them lose a lot of time and effort, difficulty competing with other companies (when that time is an important factor in the competition). However, by relying on the experience of others or other organizations through the trials and errors to develop a method has been proven to be most effective, they can begin work by using a proven method [15] . Such method is known as a “best practice”.



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Benefits of best practice are to communicate goals and strategies of the best companies. A better communication of this policy will ensure that everyone in your business knows the direction in which the business is heading, and understand their part in its development [16] . A program that best practice is when it applies to all technology and modern techniques in the application. Information that gives the best practice for staff was helpful, the staff there to help useful information to apply to the work and goals.


In the modern life, having a solid development depends on the management knowledge in each organization. Most of enterprises are facing with challenges and problems that they usually got in the fast developing economic every day. Today, the employee are improved their knowledge by studying from other’s experiences so that the organization can save time and money for the training courses. Corporate knowledge management is the system that not only helps the business to consolidate in the market but also avoids the unwanted problems. Moreover, using the system can aid the organizations as well as individuals who could touch to the goal without mistakes easily because they knew how to pass up the mistake from the prior lessons of the other companies. In addition, living in a modern life liked today, the people are much more depending on the high technologies such as computers, internet etc day by day. They cannot even work efficiently without high-tech. however, everything has two aspects which are advantages and disadvantages. It leads to switch over from the offensive to the defensive. That is the reason why human are lazier than in the past. Their brains are not usually used for developing thinking anymore as well as they are losing the concentration skills for producing the new knowledge. As the results, corporate knowledge management was born to collect the data in the past and add the information in the present together for complement each other.

Explicit knowledge could be considered as a useful technique which creates the efficient effect for the company. Furthermore, the enterprises also need some software to contain all the knowledge and classify documents according to parts. The managers and staff should collect as well as sharing the knowledge together. That is not only the best way to update the new knowledge but also known as a tool to help them manage the knowledge in professional and reduce the lost for organizations.


As we can see, knowledge management holds an important role in nowadays business. They are quite hard to control and it is new to the system. A strong or weak organization can only be defined with their knowledge system, they do a shabby job in managing the knowledge system they failed, and they exceed the others in managing the knowledge system they gain control of the situation. The knowledge system is the specific intellectual assets of each organization, and they play the main role within the organization compared to anything else. The system chain of the knowledge management is knowledge captures codification, transfer and creation. They also include the explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Capturing and storing that knowledge efficiently for using in the future are the problems that many companies still find it difficult to solve nowadays. The four models: Meyer ad Zack KM Cycle (1996), Bukowitz and Williams (2000), McElroy KM Cycle (2003) and Wiig KM Cycle (1993). They are the helping hands by providing techniques which data, information, and knowledge can use to support each other, identify main points, and capture the benefit of them. Learning organization helps to create the improvement of the quality and performance of organizations, groups, and individuals. This system program’s goal is to aim to the development of how to get a better understanding of the challenges, techniques, and tools for planning and implementing the organizational development. The research of learning organization has play a vital key, since the enterprises are facing with challenges and problems those they usually got in the fast developing economic everyday. The corporate knowledge management is the reason; it helps businesses to consolidate in the market and avoids making mistakes which are not essential.

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