Leadership is empowering others an art of example an art of influence

I think the good leaders are the ones that sees strengths with other people and drive those out and help them find the direction and then those leaders that were empower want to do those to other people and it’s kind of generative cycle.

It is also realising that you have to lean on others in order to be successful anything you want to do. The best leaders have accountability of one another and desire to help other people to grow and to mature.

Over the time a number of theories of leadership have been proposed. Here are some of the main ideas.

Leadership style has been shown to be a major factor in the effectiveness of the organization, and different leadership styles are sometimes more effective in different situations. DuBrin (19 89) note that effective organizational leaders are generally consistent in the way they try to influence the behaviour of group members, with this consistent pattern of behaviour being the leadership style of a given manager. The behaviour of most managers is too complex to be described by a single style, and a manager may modify his or her style to match a given situation. Different approaches have been used to try to categorize leadership style, using different terms and different criteria for analyzing the issue.

The classical method of classifying leadership styles is based on a range of authority exerted by the leader. The styles of leadership identified under this approach are autocratic, participative, and free-rein, as indicated by DuBrin (19 89).

The autocratic leader maintains the most authority by issuing orders without consulting group members. The basis for leadership is formal authority. Such a leader may have a few favoured subordinates, but in general the autocratic leader regards close interpersonal relationships with group members as superfluous. In some situations, the autocratic style is appropriate, but one argument against this style is that executives using it are not completely effective because they create so much chaos for their subordinates.

A participative leader is one who shares decision-making authority with the group. The consultative leader is one who solicits opinions from the group before making a decision, though he or she does not feel constrained to accept the thinking of the group. A consensual leader encourages group discussion on an issue and then makes a decision reflecting the general consensus, so such a leader gives more authority to the group than does the consultative leader. A democratic leader places final authority in the group, functioning as one who collects opinions and takes a vote before making a decision. Such a leader may give away so much authority as to be classified as a free-rein leader.

Great man theory early research on leadership was based on the study of people who were already great leaders. These people were often from the aristocracy, as few from lower classes had the opportunity to lead. This contributed to the notion that leadership had something to do with breeding.

As we know Jesus everyday served others and no matter what his he had gone on his life. He everyday set out to serve people who followed him. To giving his own life at the end what he viewed as his purpose in life.

In the great man style, the emphasis is almost exclusively upon results. People are seen as commodities to be used up and replaces as needed and in the present day is often referred to as a “people eater”.

The idea of the Great Man also strayed into the mythic domain, with notions that in times of need, a Great Man would arise, almost by magic. This was easy to verify, by pointing to people such as Eisenhower and Churchill, let alone those further back along the timeline, even to Jesus, Moses, Mohammed and the Buddha.

In this style, the manager has complete responsibility for direction and decision making without reference to anyone else and high degree of dependency on the leader. Employees are expected only to follow orders and perform assigned work. A well defined boss-subordinate relationship exists, and obedience to authority, loyalty and appreciation are expected. Strong control and accountability are seen as essential, accounting for centralised power, careful definition of line and staff responsibilities, and a span of control that is kept tight by limiting the number of individuals reporting to any one manager.

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The system assures a logical and rational approach to achieving results. Feelings and personalities are not to interfere with objectivity, and conflict cannot be tolerated. There is a well-known system of rewards and punishments. The incentives of pay and security are seen as sufficient motivation for work.

Meetings are believed to be nonessential except for giving out assignments and information and getting reports back. The one-to-one pattern of interacting with subordinates is preferable because of the control that can be maintained over individuals, and it presumably assures better communications.

Great man Style may possibly also create de-motivation and alienation of staff. May be valuable in some type of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively.

Trait Theories of Leadership,

Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non leaders.

Qualities of Trait Leader are ambition and energy, desire to lead, honest and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, high self-monitoring, job-relevant knowledge.

Criticisms of Trait Approach

Different traits required in different situations.

Who is seen as a ‘good’ or ‘successful’ leader is subjective.

Not always agreement on what are the most important traits.

Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.

There is no clear evidence of the direction of causality (cause and effect) between leadership and traits.

Porter et al (1975) found that the correlation between traits and leadership effectiveness was very low (0.1 to 0.2).

Although popular for the first 50-60 years of the twentieth century, the trait approach is not academically sound.

However recent research has shown renewed interest and some support for the trait approach -see transformational leadership model

Correlation is a statistical measurement of the relationship between two variables. Possible correlations range from +1 to -1. A zero correlation indicates that there is no relationship between the variables. A correlation of -1 indicates a perfect negative correlation, meaning that as one variable goes up, the other goes down. A correlation of +1 indicates a perfect positive correlation, meaning that both variables move in the same direction together.

Behavioural Theories of Leadership specific behaviours differentiate leaders from non leaders.

Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.

Behavioural theory: Leadership traits can be taught

Behavioural Studies focused on investigating other characteristics than their innate traits or qualities

The most important studies were:

Adair’s action centred leadership,

The Michigan and Ohio studies,

Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid

Organisation Man – Bureaucratic Bargaining

Production philosophy great system emphasis, rules, regulations, procedures, technology, traditional and conventional values, people must have a voice in decisions.

Responsibilities for involvement in decisions are informal negotiating and bargaining

Role – systems man technician super salesman compromiser negotiator

Motivation philosophy status recognition and fringes achievement

Handling of feelings controlled, low-key expression more important than new-ideas

Communications information programmes openness to encourage fairness and bargaining mode

Meetings committees and staff meeting abound and are run with formal rules and procedures.

Productivity is less than maximums’ because of tendency to compromise

Informal organisation is well organised to over-come bureaucratic structure and for behind scene negotiating.

Organisational as a system – organisational dry rot occurs, means over ends organisations become systems heavy and slow to change

Social Man

Production philosophy considerations for people, letting them participate are primary. A happy family is a productive family, comfort and fringe benefits.

Responsibilities for involvement in decisions given to employees

Role – Human relations expert, nice guy, father figure, big brother

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Motivation philosophy acceptance, belongingness

Handlings of feelings are major determinants of action. What the people want is what they get.

Communications openness to find out what people want, accentuate positive and hold back negative information

Meetings are groupiness a way or life meetings for good relations.

Productivity is low – sacrificed to comfort of employee

Informal organisation prevails openly

Organisation as a system is overly complacent organisational fail

Retired on Job – Any School or Laissez-Faire

Informal organisation is strong to weak, depending upon how much workers care

Organisational as a system is low concern leads to failure

The leadership responsibilities are shared by all can be very useful in business where creative ideas are important. This type of leadership style can be highly motivational as people have control over their own working life and can make coordination and decision making, time- consuming and lacking in overall direction. Relies on good team work and relies on good interpersonal relations.

Professional Management – behavioural science

Production philosophy is highest attainable organisational results come through highest achievement of individual goals and team management over great-man or great system.

Responsibilities for involvement in decisions are shared but recognise management’s final accountability.

Types of roles are goal setter, problem solver, team handler, change agent, educator, goal directed, and self-management.

Handling of feelings working with feelings can bring creative ideas and overcome hang-ups.

Communication is two-way dialogues mutual influence confrontation of differing views.

Meetings team approach, development of team skills, group problems solving etc.

Productivity is maximum achievement for both organisation and individuals

Informal organisation is formal and information integrated

Organisation as a system is goal-and-change directed for maximum effectiveness.

As the President has a cabinet and they do so much his work in the same way Jesus had those twelve apostles that he created really intimate bonds with and that after he was gone really carried out what his mission was.

About watching how he interacting with people by watching how he build relationships you automatically knew what leadership was and what he meant and what he stood for because that is how he lived all his life for authentically every single day.

While he knew there were large things going on and he was responsible for great deal. He shows to become whilst of those and he shows to empower others and he chose to lead by example. That example was serving them because he knew that in serving them he was fulfilling the worlds as a father and best leaders I believe are those who realise that they are not only serving other people but they are serving actually serving god.

Therefore in conclusion I would say that leadership behaviours can be learnt thus you there are some of us who have already got the leadership skills but it are hard for them to recognise it. They can find their skills either by going and studying or researching in the libraries or enrol in the training it could be at the work place or at any institution.

Adair’s three circles (1970s’)

adair_circles

John Adair found that effective leaders pay attention to three areas of need for members of the team: those relating to the task, to the team itself, and to individual members of the team.  At any time, the emphasis on each circle may vary, but all are interdependent and so the leader must watch all three.

Advantages and disadvantages of Adair’s Three Circles model

It’s simple, so is easy to understand and apply, and is therefore frequently used on management training courses.

Adair was one of the first to look at effective leadership from the point of view of those being led. He observed what effective leaders did to gain the support and commitment of the followers – at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst during the 1970’s.   

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BUT

Is now seen as rather basic, especially by managers who want to be considered sophisticated and up-to-date. 

Michigan and Ohio Studies

These were two separate projects

They represented a switch from selecting leaders based on personality traits to training and developing leaders in ‘appropriate behaviour patterns’

This tradition argues that a considerate, participative, democratic and involving leadership style is more effective than in impersonal, autocratic and directive style.

Michigan: Survey Research Center, Michigan, 1940’s and early 1950’s. Katz, Maccoby and Morse (1950)

Ohio: Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University, same time period. Edwin Fleishman and Ralf Stogdill.

Both studies developed the dichotomy between democratic and autocractic leadership – which is the foundation for Blake and Mouton’s management grid, who also argue that effective leaders and managers are those who combine what they call ‘concern for production’ with ‘concern for people’.

University of Michigan Studies

Employee-Oriented Leader

Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.

Production-Oriented Leader

One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

Their main concern was in accomplishing their group’s tasks and the group members were a means to that end.

Ohio States Studies

Initiating Structure

The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub-ordinates in the search for goal attainment, play a very active role in directing group activities through planning, scheduling and criticising.

Consideration

The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings, and a certain warmth between the individual and them.

The Michigan Survey Research Centre model is one-dimensional

Production-oriented

Employee-oriented

Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid (1960’s)

Leadership+grid+2

Transactional and Traditional Leadership

An analysis of leadership originating with Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) and now being revisited.

Transformational leadership is seen by many as “the answer” to the question of how to be an effective leader.

Transactional Leadership: Bass & Avolio (1990)

Management exception + Contingent reward

Expected effort

Expected performance

Individuals consideration

Intellectual stimulation

Inspirational motivation

Idealised influence- or charisma

Heightened motivation to attain the designed outcomes

Performance beyond expectation

The four components of Transformational Leadership

Individualised consideration: The leader treats each follower on his or her own merits, and seeks to develop each follower through mentoring, coaching and delegation.

Intellectual stimulation: The leader encourages free thinking and emphasises reasoning before any action is taken.

Inspirational motivation: The leader creates an optimistic, clear and attainable vision of the future, thus encouraging others to raise their expectations.

Idealised influence, or charisma: The leader makes personal sacrifices, takes responsibility for his or her actions, shares any glory, and shows great determination.

Transactional vs Transformational

Transactional Transformational

Top down Enterprise wide

Traditional Entrepreneurial

Tight programmes Energising

Task prescription Engaging

Task driven Empowering

Behaviours Exhibited

Transformational

Compassionate leadership

Thinking outside of the box

Encouraging innovation

Building and sharing vision

Coaching and mentoring

Walking the walk

Transactional

Clear deal: “if you do as we agreed, you’ll get the reward”

Putting out fires

Hands off Leadership

A challenge to the idea of a “Transformational Leader” Beech and Crane (1999)

Leadership should not be done by the few to the many but is a process which draws on each individual in the social situation …

Leadership is a communal process in which all the actors in a social situation are dynamically involved.

Leadership requires participation from everyone so that all members are engaged in creating meaning and acting on that meaning.

… a climate of community

‘Leadership is an observable, learnable set of practices. Leadership is not something mystical and ethereal that cannot be understood by ordinary people. Given the opportunity for feedback and practice, those with the desire and persistence to lead – to make a difference- can substantially improve their abilities to do so.’

Kouzes and Posner (2007)


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