Leadership Project Donald Trump Management Essay

Donald J Trump is recognized as the best leader and businessmen in the business world. The Trump brand and organization developed by the Donald Trump is considered as the gold standard brand all over the world. He is recognized as the finest developer of quality real estate all over the world, through the unmatched intelligence and wisdom and through the multiplicity of his interests, he have set the new prototype in the business world. He is strongly committed towards excellence and philanthropy as the part of his ethics and values. He is considered as the icon in New York and also in the countries where he is expanding his business. He possesses archetypal business and leadership skills (Donald J Trump).

In 1980, Donald J. Trump developed The Trump Organization as a group having various real estate operations and corporate associates under a single umbrella. The Trump organization provides various superior office buildings, talent agencies, hotels, recreational facilities and clubs, casinos, golf tutorials, courses and grounds and an international beauty pageant organization in different countries along with various luxuries residential and real estate construction in New York. Trump group is always committed for personal and direct involvement of leader in every respect of the projects undertaken by the group (The Trump Organization History).

The project analyzes the leadership skills and practices of Donald Trump through analyzing the organizational background and theoretical concepts of leadership. In order to emphasize on the industry views about the leadership practices of Donald Trump, the views of various CEO’s, Leaders and the industry specialists of various MNC’s within UAE. Based on these views, leadership skills and practices of Donald Trump are analyzed and critically evaluated. The analysis is followed by effective conclusion and recommendation for further enhancements of leadership skills so as to achieve the strategic objective efficiently and effectively.

About (the organization):

The Trump Organization, INC facilitates various real estate constructions, sales and marketing, property services fro both residential and official purposes and various other retail properties to the customers of the US and the international markets. It was being developed by Donald J Trump, who is considered as the archetypal businessman in 1980 with a great philanthropy and ethics (The Trump Organization History).

History

The Trump Organization is the private company developed by the assets and capital of the Trump Family and acts as the umbrella organization or group for various business ideas and interacts of its founder Mr. Donald J Trump. These assets comprises of premium residential and commercial properties within New York such as Trump Tower, the office building at 40 Wall street in Manhattan, Trump World Tower in New York, The Trump International Hotel and Tower in addition to other residential real estates. Other assets of the umbrella include Florida resort, Golf Courses, Miss Universe organizations that operate various beauty pageants such as Miss Universe, Miss USA and Miss Teen USA and the skyscraper in Seoul, South Korea. The Trump Organization owns the share of 56 % in the public traded Trump Hotels and Casino resorts INC which operates and manages three casinos in the Atlantic City, New Jersey in addition to various other gaming developments. Donald Trump have developed a very high class business group and the empire in 1980 which was about to collapse in the recession and economic downturn of 1990-91. Due to such recession, though the group divest some of its properties but still remain as the market leader in the real estate development and very vital presence in the Manhattan real estate market. In addition to all such businesses, Donald Trump have established his public persona as a key element for his empire through the reality show “The Apprentice” in 2004 and through launching his business books such as The Art of the Deal and How to get Rich etc. Through such strong leadership skills, he is not only able to preserve his empire but evolve as global market leader in the real estate industry. Through such efforts of Donald, he was even recognized by his critics and through his successful marketing tactics he is being named as “The Human Logo” to denote him as a role model for every businessman (The Trump Organization History).

Mission and vision:

The vision of the Trump organization is dependent on the entrepreneurial vision of hard hitting business and setting the big goals to become the market leader in the global market of real estate and development. The Trump’s desires to success direct the vision of the company (Donald Trump).

The mission of the company also directed by the mission of Donald Trump who aims to teach success to the people by giving them knowledge so that they are able to enhance their leadership and decision making skills which eventually helps in the overall achievement of strategic objective of the organization and the vision to become the market leader in the real estate global market. He adopts the hand on approach of learning to train the people so as to emphasize on the practical work rather than learning theoretically (The Trump Organization History).

Markets (local, regional, or international)

The trump organization operates its business in the local and various international markets. It operates its business in United States and across various international borders such as Istanbul, Turkey; Scotland, Manila, Las Vegas, Panama city, the Philippines, Illinois, Seoul, South Korea, Chicago, Canada, New Jersey, Hawaii, New York, Florida, California, Los Angeles, Aberdeen, Rio Grande, Stamford, Rakaia, and Toronto etc (The Trump Organization History).

Products and Services provided:

The Trump Organization Inc. provides various real estate development, sales and marketing, and the property management of various residential, office and retail properties in various international markets including the local market of the US. It also offers the brokerage for the real estate services to buy, sell or leasing the commercial or residential developments and properties. It also operates the golf courses in Aberdeen, Hudson Valley, Scotland, Colts Neck, New York, California, Washington, Westchester, Florida and Philadelphia. In addition to this company also operates various restaurants, modelling agencies and pageants, managing various public events and the television production and entertainment business including various television programs and reality shows. It also provides apparels, home furnishings, jewellery and other accessories and home furnishing accessories etc (The Trump Organization History).

Organizational Structure:

Source: (Company Overview of The Trump Organization, Inc)

1.2 About Leadership:

Definition:

Leadership is defined as a relationship in which one individual influences the behavior of another individual at workplace. Leaders in corporations are ought to undertake departmental as well as organizational activities as well responsible for coordination of activities of other team members that motivates them to achieve objectives successfully (DUYGULU, Ethem and Ciraklar, Nurcan, 2008). Additionally leaders are required to avoid conflicting situations and resolve issues whether related to work or pertaining to working conditions at workplace impeding progress towards achievement of organizational goals. Successful leaders are effective in providing information to their team members pertaining to the type of knowledge and skills required to underlie effective performance at workplace. Leaders are also meant for formulation of plan in organizational context successfully communicating mission and objectives and that would also result in motivation of other team members. As a result, leaders must be able to understand and work with others and guiding subordinates (YASIN, Dr. Yasir).

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Importance of Leadership at Workplace:

Effective leadership helps organizations and corporate to fulfill its mission and enables employees to grow string and competitive and become productive resources. Without leadership, organizations moves slowly stagnate and lose their way and much of the focus goes towards decision making and if decision making is timely, complete and correct, things go well within the organization. Leaders certainly influence behavior, change the course of events and overcome resistance and therefore leadership is regarded as crucial in implementing decisions successfully (YASIN, Dr. Yasir).

Leadership Types & Styles:

Transactional Leadership:

Transactional leadership focuses on leaders who influence individuals and employees through means of monetary rewards, praises and other types of rewards in exchange of their performance and efforts they are putting in for development of organization as a whole. They recognize rewards individuals want from their work and try to see that they get them in exchange of performance. Also, such leaders work with employees, first try to understand what they want and then try to help make clearer what they must do to get the results desired in the organization. Even effective transactional leaders help individuals and employees to develop and build confidence in accomplishment of goals and objectives (; WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

Transformational Leadership:

Transformational leadership is the one that requires leaders to influence individuals and employees to perform beyond expectations. This means to create an awareness of importance of achieving valued outcomes and this requires them to define shared values, beliefs and create a type of organizational culture that enable employees to go beyond thinking of self interest and commit themselves to the team (WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

Charismatic Leadership:

Charismatic Leadership style resembles transformational leadership as charismatic leaders inspire enthusiasm in teams and are energetic in motivating to move forward. Such leaders are successful in promoting excitement and enthusiasm within team giving huge benefit to the organization as a whole. The primary difference that exist between transformational leaders and charismatic leaders is that charismatic leaders are often recognized as focused on themselves and do not want to change anything whereas transformational works with an intention to transform teams and organization (; WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

Leadership Theories and Approaches:

The Trait Approach:

The trait approach seeks to determine personal qualities and characteristics of leaders and this theory is based on the fact that there are several traits that of leaders that distinguish effective from less effective leaders and this theory is losing it importance owing to the simplicity of concept applied (; WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

The Behavioral Approach:

In contrast to the trait approach which draws attention towards kind of people who become leaders and in the process had great potential for supplying organizations information about what should be looked for selecting a leader for future positions of leader, the behavioral approach focuses on changing behaviors of leaders. As the behavior is capable of being changed, the focus of leaders is drawn towards provision of training employees (; WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

The Contingency Approach:

The contingency approach to leadership deals with the fact that individuals and employee and other people in the industry have the degree of confidence, loyalty and attraction for their leaders. This theory is effective in situations when executives are task oriented especially in favorable situations and here leaders mainly focus on paying attention on tasks and not only to the maintenance (; WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

Ethical Leadership:

Organizations and large corporations are required to be managed and directed by ethical leaders and in today’s world leaders are raising the bar and inspiring their teams to consider ethical considerations. Ethics are put before the bottom line and as a result have dedicated teams within the organization (WARRICK, D. D., 1981).

2. Data Analysis, Interpretation and Discussion:

The data is collected through a well structured questionnaire which is analyzed on the basis of summary statistics method. The analysis is done as under:

Q. 1. Gender:

TABLE: 1

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Males

59

59 %

2.

Females

41

41 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 1

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that out of the total respondents of the study, 59 % are males and 41% are females. This shows that the female respondents give their responses involuntarily as compare to males as there is gender biasness prevails in UAE. But as the difference is not more between the responses of genders thus it could be said that the study is done on equivalent grounds.

Q. 2. Age:

TABLE: 2

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

18-24 Years

23

23 %

2.

25-38 Years

49

49 %

4.

39 Years and Above

28

28 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 2

Analysis:

The above graph shows that out of the total respondents of the study, 23 % belongs to the age group of 18-24, while 49 % belongs to the age group of 25-38 years. 28 % of the respondents belong to the age group of 39 Years and above. Thus we can infer from the above graph that most of the respondents of the study relates to the age group of 25-38 years.

Q. 3. Nationality:

TABLE: 3

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

UAE

62

62 %

2.

Other Arabian Countries

25

25 %

3.

Others

13

13 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 3

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 62 % of the respondents are from UAE, 25 % belongs to other Arabian Countries and 13 % belongs to different other countries.

Q. 4. Educational Qualification:

TABLE: 4

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Graduate

27

27%

2.

Post Graduate

37

37 %

3.

Diploma

23

23 %

4.

Highly Professional

13

13 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 4

Analysis:

The above graph shows that out of the total respondents of the study i.e. 27 % are graduates, 37 % are post graduates, 23 % are diploma holders, 13 % are Highly Professionals persuaded their qualification from foreign countries and have global competency and specialty. Thus it could be inferred from the above graph that the respondent of the study have higher educational background and most of the respondents are post graduates. Thus we can say that our research study has been conducted more authentically.

Q. 5. Monthly Income:

TABLE: 5

Sl. No.

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Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

AED 15000-30000

8

8 %

2.

AED 31000 -50000

18

18 %

3.

Above AED 50000

74

74 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 5

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that out of the all the respondents of the study, 8 % have the monthly income of AED 15000-30000, 18 % have the monthly income of AED 31000-50000, while 74 % have the monthly income of above AED 50,000. Thus it could be inferred from the graph that most of the respondents of the study belongs to high income group.

6. Donald Trump creates and maintains a vision, direction, and focus for the Trump’s group of organizations and employee’s training and development to include everyone’s participation in the predetermined vision.

TABLE: 6

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

5

5 %

2.

Disagree

5

5 %

3.

Neutral

5

5 %

4.

Agree

35

35 %

5.

Strongly Agree

50

50 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 6

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 50 % of the respondents strongly agrees with the fact that Donald Trump creates and maintains a vision, direction, and focus for the Trump’s group of organizations and employee’s training and development to include everyone’s participation in the predetermined vision while 35 % give their responses by agreeing on this fact. And 5 % respondents were neutral, 5 % disagreeing and 5 % strongly disagreeing with the fact. Thus we can extract from this that Donald Trump is a visionary leader.

7. Donald Trump demonstrates optimism and high expectations in terms of organizational performance and objective accomplishment from his followers.

TABLE: 7

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

3

3 %

2.

Disagree

5

5 %

3.

Neutral

2

2 %

4.

Agree

55

55 %

5.

Strongly Agree

35

35 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 7

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 35 % of the respondents strongly agrees with the fact that Donald Trump demonstrates optimism and high expectations in terms of organizational performance and objective accomplishment from his followers while 55 % give their responses by agreeing on this fact. And 2 % respondents were neutral, 5 % disagreeing and 3 % strongly disagreeing with the fact. Thus we can extract from this that Donald Trump is optimistic concern about organizational performance.

8. Leadership practices implemented by Donald Trump in his organization include the values and behaviors that support individuals and organization in achieving objectives and collaboration at all levels of organization.

TABLE: 8

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

3

3 %

2.

Disagree

7

7 %

3.

Neutral

5

5 %

4.

Agree

40

40 %

5.

Strongly Agree

45

45 %

Total

100

100 %

Analysis:

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 45 % of the respondents strongly agrees with the fact that Leadership practices implemented by Donald Trump in his organization include the values and behaviors that support individuals and organization in achieving objectives and collaboration at all levels of organization while 40 % give their responses by agreeing on this fact. And 5 % respondents were neutral, 7 % disagreeing and 3 % strongly disagreeing with the fact. Thus we can extract from this that Donald Trump is behaviorist and team spirit concerned leader.

9. Decisions have been shared by Donald Trump whenever practical in the organizational functioning and employees get authority along with responsibility in order to make decisions at each and every level wherever applicable.

TABLE: 9

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

3

3 %

2.

Disagree

5

5 %

3.

Neutral

2

2 %

4.

Agree

40

40 %

5.

Strongly Agree

50

50 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 9

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 50 % of the respondents strongly agrees with the fact that Decisions have been shared by Donald Trump whenever practical in the organizational functioning and employees get authority along with responsibility in order to make decisions at each and every level wherever applicable while 40 % give their responses by agreeing on this fact. And 2 % respondents were neutral, 5 % disagreeing and 3 % strongly disagreeing with the fact. Thus we can extract from this that Donald Trump is participation seeking leader and good motivator.

10. Donald Trump encourage creativity, innovation, and suitable risk-taking in compliance with the employees needs and wants in the organization.

TABLE: 10

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

7

7 %

2.

Disagree

8

8 %

3.

Neutral

5

5 %

4.

Agree

44

44 %

5.

Strongly Agree

36

36 %

Total

100

100 %

GRAPH: 10

Analysis:

The above graph depicts that 36 % of the respondents strongly agrees with the fact that Donald Trump encourage creativity, innovation, and suitable risk-taking in compliance with the employees needs and wants in the organization while 44 % give their responses by agreeing on this fact. And 5 % respondents were neutral, 8 % disagreeing and 7 % strongly disagreeing with the fact. Thus we can extract from this that Donald Trump is good at encouraging employees and bringing innovation in organization.

11. Under leadership of Donald Trump, most employees feel insecure about their work and need direction.

TABLE: 11

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

15

15%

2.

Disagree

45

45%

3.

Neutral

35

35%

4.

Agree

5

5%

5.

Strongly Agree

Total

100

100%

GRAPH: 11

Analysis:

The above figure shows that out of the entire hotel and real estate industry experts in Dubai who have been associated with the Trump International and with the Donald Trump, 45% are disagreeing to the fact that managers and executives feel insecure about their work and therefore needs his direction and supervision to undertake work activities. Some of them making 15% of the overall respondents are strongly disagreeing to the fact. About 35% of overall respondents are giving neutral response whereas very few making about 5% are agreeing to the fact.

12. Employees are treated fairly and workload equity is addressed in an appropriate manner under direction of Donald Trump.

TABLE: 12

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

5

5%

2.

Disagree

10

10%

3.

Neutral

40

40%

4.

Agree

30

30%

5.

Strongly Agree

15

15%

Total

100

100%

GRAPH: 12

Analysis:

Out of the total respondents, it can be observed that almost half of the population is giving neutral response to the fact that employees are treated fairly and in an appropriate manner. About 30% are agreeing on the basis of their association with the organizational environment of Donald Trump. Also, 15% are showing their strong opinion in the context of fair and appropriate treatment and on the other hand very few are disagreeing to the fact of employees’ treatment within the organization.

13. Donald Trump maintains objectivity and an appropriate concern for the well being of others, even under trying conditions.

TABLE: 13

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

3

3%

2.

Disagree

10

10%

3.

Neutral

32

32%

4.

Agree

40

40%

5.

Strongly Agree

15

15%

Total

100

100%

GRAPH: 13

Analysis:

Donald Trump appears to be a successful leader as majority of the population around 40% in the UAE are agree to the fact that he is maintaining objectivity and is also maintaining concern for the well being of other employees and managers even in trying conditions. Also, 32% are giving neutral responses and some of the industry experts are strongly agreeing to the fact in the context of Donald Trump. Very few in the industry saw or heard about him not maintaining appropriate concern and well being of managers and employees.

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14. Under Donald Trump’s leadership, people feel comfortable to speak freely to express new ideas.

TABLE 14:

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

8

8%

2.

Disagree

12

12%

3.

Neutral

30

30%

4.

Agree

40

40%

5.

Strongly Agree

10

10%

Total

100

100%

GRAPH 14:

Analysis:

On conducting survey in the Dubai city, it was observed from the industry experts of hotel and real estate that under the supervision and direction of the renowned personality Donald Trump, employees and managers and all of the subordinates feel free to discuss and express new innovative ideas without bringing any hesitation. Half of the population agrees to this fact where few of them are in strong favor of opinion.

15. Donald Trump has an accurate view of what is going on, individual or group needs and concerns.

TABLE 15:

Sl. No.

Particulars

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1.

Strongly Disagree

5

5%

2.

Disagree

20

20%

3.

Neutral

25

25%

4.

Agree

30

30%

5.

Strongly Agree

20

20%

Total

100

100%

GRAPH 15:

Analysis:

Donald Trump certainly has an accurate view and has knowledge about what is going on as well as about individual and group needs within the organization. The results have been determined on the basis of view of industry experts where majority of 30% is agreeing to the fact. Some of them have also shown disagreement to the fact.

3. Research Methodology:

Survey Tool: Questionnaire:

The Leadership qualities of Donald Trump and the leadership practices implemented by him in the Trump’s organization is analyzed with the help of well structured questionnaire which comprises of the questions asking about the tactics and characteristics of the leadership and its practices. The questionnaire is based on the 5 points Likert scale for the responses of the respondents in order to analyze the characteristics and strategies associated with the leadership practices effectively. The questionnaire comprises of questions which are based on various leadership skills, qualities and practices experienced by the CEOs, leaders, industry specialist of various MNCs with in UAE.

Please refer Questionnaire Document for the Questionnaire.

Data Collection:

Information associated with Data Collection & Research Instruments:

Methods of Data Collection

Research Instruments

Analysis Details

Details of the Analysis

Primary Source

Questionnaire

Evaluation of the Leadership qualities of Donald Trump and the leadership practices implemented in Trump’s Organization in order to develop our teamwork skills in compliance with the dynamic business environment.

Responses of different CEOs, leaders, industry specialist of various MNCs with in UAE would be used to obtain the required views as per the questionnaire developed for this purpose.

Secondary Source

Books, Demographic Surveys, Government Publications, Journals, Magazines, News Papers, Reports, Scholar Journals, Previous Research Studies etc.

Statistical analysis of the data and evaluation of cross tabulation of the variables to check the reliability and validity of our research study.

The company’s and industry’s reports pertaining to the

Strategies associated with the Leadership Skills and Practices.

Sample Size & Sampling (Random Sampling):

The sample size of the study is 100 and the respondents of the study are key industry experts, leaders and CEO’s of UAE hotel and real estate industry, specifically Dubai. The questionnaires are distributed among the respondents randomly and thus random sampling is used for the study. We have selected random sampling method for the collection of data from the respondents by distributing questionnaires. Random sampling methods include the acquiring of data from a non-specific selection of the target population so as to get a non-uniform data for the area specified.

Limitations of the Study:

The problems faced by us in conducting this research study especially in the process of data collection are as follows:

The intellectual and perception level of different respondents are different regarding the leadership skills, qualities and practices of Donald Trump and his organization respectively, hence getting proper response and reaching to an exact conclusion is difficult.

Our research study executes the survey at the sample size of 100, this leads to arising various statistical errors like volatility.

Differentiation in the responses of the individuals leads to create difficulty in extracting the exact finding of the research study.

Research study includes various variables and the analysis of all the variables is not feasible.

Many respondents have different beliefs associated with the leadership, leadership skills and qualities and leadership so reaching to any one conclusion is quite typical.

Problem of disinterest of respondents in providing their proper responses about the research study and also the short time availability affects the research study.

The study is based on the random sampling method which gives rise to various associated statistical errors.

Our questionnaire is restricted to only 15 questions which lead to ignore various important aspects of leadership.

Methods of Data Analysis:

The data analysis is done with the help of Summary Statistics so as to analyze each and every response to each question more efficiently and effectively. The summary statistics is the method through which analysis is done with the help of statistical figures such as mean, percentage, graphs, charts etc.

4. Conclusion:

The exploratory research in the area of leadership revealed about the fact that Donald trump, a renowned personality in the industry of hotels and real estate business operating well in different locations across the globe is certainly has an entrepreneurial vision and direction with hard hitting business tactics. Donald Trump places a great emphasis on both people and performance and is genuinely interested in people while expecting a high level of performance in terms of both quantity as well as quality. He views management as a professional and takes the time to establish clear objectives, define responsibilities and provides clear leadership and direction to develop and reach a level of both productivity and satisfaction.

5. References:

Charismatic and Transfromational Leadership/Cross Cultural Leadership.

Company Overview of The Trump Organization, Inc. [online]. [Accessed 5 November 2012]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=344985>

Donald J Trump. [online]. [Accessed 4 November 2012]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.trump.com/Donald_J_Trump/Donald_J_Trump.asp>

Donald Trump. [online]. [Accessed 5 November 2012]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.achieve-goal-setting-success.com/Donald-Trump.html>

DUYGULU, Ethem and Ciraklar, Nurcan. 2008. Team Effectiveness and Leaderhsip Roles.

Ethical Leadership.

The Nature of Leadership.

The Trump Organization History. [online]. [Accessed 5 November 2012]. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/the-trump-organization-history/>

WARRICK, D. D. 1981. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences. Journal of Experiential Learning and Stimulation.

YASIN, Dr. Yasir. Leadership and Team Effectiveness: Week 1.


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