Leading In the Affective Domain
Describe the effect behaviors have on productivity.
Contrast the cognitive and affective domains.
What is the relationship between the domains and learning?
Identify a cognitive skill and an affective skill?
The concept for learning domains and educational taxonomies evolved from the 1948 American Psychological Association Convention (Menix, 1996). There are three domains involved in the process of learning which exist as separate yet interactive processes involved in the Human learning outcomes. The cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains epitomize the different aspects and degrees of learning complexity (Menix, 1996).
The cognitive domain is often described as “what we know”, but is more the interaction of knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Jensen, 2003). This encompasses the psychological and intellectual functions that facilitate comprehension and subsequent formation of rational judgments and includes perception, memory, imagination, thought and language (Brühlmeier, 2010). An example of a Cognitive skill is comprehension-to successfully interpret the meaning in order to develop an understanding of what is required.
The affective domain concerns empathy and behaviour by the interaction of receiving, responding, valuing, organization and characterization by a value or value complex (Gronlund, 1991, p. 34). Emotions stimulate our learning and determine whether we are confident in this learning. Only when we have strong feelings about it do we believe something and give significance to it (Gazibara, 2003). An example of an affective skill is Value- to attach values to concepts and express an opinion as to its worth.
Between the domains which one has the greatest impact on productivity?
I feel that affective domain has a more significant impact on productivity in that the cognitive domain imparts the knowledge of how to do the task and the psychotic domain gives us the manual dexterity however the intention to do the task is carried out by the affective domain-attitude and motivation. Koul et al (2004) suggested that students’ perceptions of biology and physics classroom learning environments and their biology and physics classroom anxiety are conditioned by their motivational goal orientations
Contrast the tasks, obstacles and goals of the “Bully” versus the Charismatic” Leader.
The authoritarian leadership style is the historical model of leader, based on the power being held exclusively by an individual leader who dictates policies and procedures, determines goals and strategies and directs without input by the subordinates, possibly modelled on historical feudal leadership where the word of the leader is absolute. It is largely dismissed as a leadership style. Smither (1991) wrote that it is not advocated in any management textbook recommends it. Many people who have under an authoritarian leader, describe their experience as a nightmare. Authoritarian methods of operation are dysfunctional, causing breakdown in the organization, in work accomplishment, and in interpersonal relations (Fisher, 1978). It is not without advocates however, in certain situations. Smither (1991) wrote about cases where a team management approach has been ineffective, and that authoritarian leadership as a management style has seen some revival. Researchers have found that there are cases where teams respond well to this management approach. The article suggests essentially that some people like to be led, and do not want responsibility of decision-making concerning organisational operations. Many individuals favour the structure and order of an authoritarian workplace. Additionally he writes that changing one’s leadership style to fit the situation -has been found ineffective by a great many managers. While it is important to remember that authoritarian management is not a synonym for oppressive or punitive management, there is no cause to assume that teamwork or quality circles in themselves will result in higher productivity (Smither, 1991). Clegg et al (2003) described three forms of authority-charismatic authority as authority denoted due to the attractiveness and power of the leader, in that the leader is effectively owed homage through personal magnetism, grace and bearing. Traditional authority where the authority is owed by birthright e.g. the class system. Rational-legal authority holds that authority is given due to the position held by the leader in that it is not the individual but the office that commands authority.
Kuhn (2012) described a charismatic leader as a person who creates the belief that anything is possible, via the command of three elements-branding, articulation and affection of the team. Tuomo (2005) wrote that a charismatic leader is effective when the leader behaviours are motivated by altruism as opposed to ego. Raelin (2003) warned that though charismatics can charm employees with their rhetoric and can draw the big picture, they can display such traits as grandiosity and suspicion. This was further tempered with the lack of availability with born leaders, and the requirement to recruit the capable. Traits required included innate intelligence, a desire to learn and work with others, giving them the ability to become effective leaders.
The key issue with an authoritarian leader is one of staffing retention and low morale. The key issue with the charismatic leader is to perform and produce the promises.
Describe a memorable leader: How did they impact Stress, Control and Satisfaction?
Greg Dyke amongst other achievements served for a short-lived tenure as the director general of the British Broadcasting Cooperation. This was terminated following a disagreement with the government of the time concerning an edition of the current affairs programme Today questioning the justification from the government for the role of the United Kingdom in the conflict.
During his tenure, Greg Dyke achieved several significant victories overseeing the transition from analogue to digital television, the rise of the MTV phenomena. He significantly reduced costs by terminating consultancy and agency staffing which was a contributory factor to the cooperation’s lack of success, as was the extant management style at the time which was responsible for eroding the BBC’s
Creativity (Schlesinger, 2010). Overturning this and effectively empowering his staff helped to regain creativity within the cooperation which effectively defines his tenure. Additionally, he had a management style that one many allies within the cooperation in that he was an approachable individual who interacted with all levels of staff. Such was his popularity that when he was forced to resign the cooperation saw industrial action as workers went on strike in protest. His success as a leader was according to him, down to making sure staff who worked closely with him, broadcasted the right message to others.
Clegg. S., Kornberger. M., Pitsis. T. (2011) Managing & Organisations An Introduction to Theory & Practice. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Fisher, J. (1978). The Authoritarian as Anti-Manager. Public Personnel Management. 7.1 (Jan./Feb. 1978): 33.
Gazibara, S, (2003) “Head, Heart and Hands Learning”. – A challenge for contemporary education. Journal of Education Culture and Society No. 1_2013
Gronlund, N. E. (1991). How to write and use instructional objectives (4th ed.). New York : Macmillan Publishing Company.
Jensen, E. (2003). Super teaching: Over 1000 practical strategies. Zagreb: Educa.
Koul, R, Roy, L, Lerdpornkulrat, T. (2012) Motivational goal orientation, perceptions of biology and physics classroom learning environments, and gender. Learning Environments Research; Dordrecht15.2(Jul 2012): 217-229.
Kuhn, M Alexander.Â (2012) Charismatic Leaders. Leadership Excellence; Aurora29.7 (Jul 2012): 20.
Menix, K,. (1996) Domains of Learning: Interdependent Components of Achievable Learning Outcomes. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing; Thorofare27.5 (Sep/Oct 1996): 200-208.
Raelin, J (2003) The myth of charismatic leaders. Profile. T + D; Alexandria57.3 (Mar 2003): 46-54.
Schlesinger, P. (2010) The most creative organization in the world? The BBC, ‘creativity’ and managerial style. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 16(3), pp. 271-285. (doi:10.1080/10286630903302766)
Smither, R. (1991). The Return of the Authoritarian Manager. Training. 28.11 (Nov 1991): 40.
Tuomo, T (2005) Problems and Perspectives in Management, 3/2005 45 Charismatic Leadership and Power