Literature Review On Employee Attitudes And Job Satisfaction Management Essay
In common, HR consultants recognize that the main idea of work is to include in employee attitudes as a reason, it is a main area HR can assist influence through organization programs and organisation practices. On the other hand, in the last two decades, the major research achieved in recognising dispositional and cultural control on job expectations as well, that is not until now satisfied by consultants. Furthermore, only one most important parts of the work situation to influence job satisfaction, “the work itself” are frequently ignored by practitioners when addressing job satisfaction.
A number of innovative studies have explained the power of a person’s nature on job pleasure. In this area for first study confirmed that a person results in job satisfaction has strength over time. He or she can change their job or companies any time (Staw & Ross, 1985). According to same study, childhood nature was realised to be statistically linked to adult job satisfaction up to forty years later (Staw, Bell, & Clausen, 1986). The issue even indicates that the identical double reared part in the job satisfaction is statistically similar (Arvey, Bouchard, Segal, & Abraham, 1989). It has critics about this writing ( Davis-Black & pfeffer, 1989), a gathering body of data shows that variations in job satisfaction. The workers can be traced it. In this part they can differ in their nature (House, Shane, & Herold, 1996). These various research results show that there is in fact a link between disposition or personality and job satisfaction. Although organisation cannot directly force employee personality, selection methods match employees and jobs to ensure people that are selected and placed into appropriate job which will assist improve their job satisfaction in workplace.
In conditions of other influence on employee attitudes, it is a small, but rising figure of research based on the power of customs or nation on employee manners and job satisfaction. It is a continued globalization of organisation to have new challenges for HR practitioners. The employee can better understand and guide from available explore on cross-culture organisational and human resources issues. (Erez, 1994; House, 1995; Triandis, 1994).
According to Hofsede (1980, 1985), his cross-culture work data on employee attitude is in 67 countries. He found four dimensions such as individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, versus risk taking, power distance and masculinity/femininity. The four dimensions of understanding cross-culture differences is a useful frame work in employee attitude. It is also recognising the value cultural causes of employee attitude. Moreover, current analyses have exposed that country/culture is not only strong a predictor of employee attitudes but also a person has job in different type (Saari, 2000; Saari & Erez, 2002; Saari & Schneider, 2001).
It has been abundant replication of Hofstede’s research (reviewed by Sondergaard, 1994). It is important to recommend, culture factors that influence employee attitudes and measurements are important for HR consultants as a worker manners surveys gradually go across national limitations.
Work situation influences
From the earlier discussion, the work situation also subject in terms of job satisfaction and organisational impact. On the other hand, some practitioners of HR believe that the most important power in the job place how to satisfy employees, it is called “basic job attribute.” The study of research from many years and type of job illustrate that when employee are asked to calculate different parts of their job such as management, pay, advertising prospects, co-worker and the nature of the work comes out as the most important job face in the organisation (Judge & Church, 2000; jurgensen, 1978). It is not to say that good structured reward programs or effective supervision are unimportant. Although it has power to satisfy to employee by guarantee is as attractive and demanding as possible.Unfortunately, few managers believe that employees are most keen of pay to the omission of other job basics, such as interesting work. For example, the important study of job attributes it is the rank of interesting work with the good wages ranked fifth, when mangers think employee wanted (Kovach, 1995).
A conceptual modal of employee satisfaction
The research model scans between Employee Satisfaction and six explanatory variables: Control/Autonomy, Challenge, performance Measures, Feedback, Instrumentality and Stability/Security.
Job expectation is one of the most vital points to satisfy to employee. Employee motivation is a role of the perceived likelihood of a successful achievement and that result will be in securing certain outcomes or rewards, it is an expectancy model proposed (Lawler and Stuttle’s, 1973). Employee satisfaction is coming from positive rewards. Keller and Szilagyi (1976) present evidence from data gathered among employee of a large manufacturing company in the U.S. that positive leader rewards can give positive result in influencing employee satisfaction. The organisation of lower levels in job satisfaction has across multiple occupational levels with levels of role ambiguity and role conflict (Szilagyi, sims and keller, 1976). (Teas, 1981) shows a positive connection between inner control direction and job motivation.
The challenges of employee depend on external or internal in nature. The employee in external stress contains positional rations, officially arranged tasks, and hopes and claims from others. On the other hand, the main reasons of internal stress are morals, desires, abilities, previous knowledge and other personal views. The tasks from challenges indicate high performance to run organizational objectives which is related with him or her (Hall and Lawler, 1990). Ivancevich and McMahon (1997) think that it is a complex tasks that are apprehended when the significant element to satisfy employee instead of impossible to gain.
This is a vital way that supervisors communicate employee performance to them. When employees identify organisation is attracted, they accept proposal for performance enhancement (Sirota & Mischkind, 2006). They highlighted that the improvement about concern should be particular, truthful, unemotional, and included at performance insisted at employees by oneself.
The employee performance measures depend on principals to classify opportunities and to follow activities (Fago, 2006). It can be used to motivate employees to achieve, plan, and to accomplish specific aim (Blanchar & Onton, 2005).
It is common task related with target setting and notice to the self to give feedback significantly and positively (Kluger & DeNisi, 1981). Furthermore, target setting and feedback outcomes in better employee performance (Kim, 1994). According to Jawahar (2006) informs that evaluation feedback is really related to job satisfaction and managerial commitment. In addition, the feedback in employee satisfaction is not only related to job satisfaction but also related to future performance.
Employee satisfaction is separated into two parts, one is intrinsic other is extrinsic dimensions. Intrinsic satisfaction connected to internal rewards, for example, employees are satisfied with work and prospects for personal development and achievement. Pay, association support and opportunities for advertising include in extrinsic that indicates rewards donated on an employee. It is important that employee’s job role in workplace is another way of personal satisfaction.(Walker, Churchill and ford, 1977).
When employees are more creative, they feel secure in their workplace (Bolt, 1983). Sirota and Mischkind (2006) refers the significance of arrangement the three goals that the vast popular of employee search for job: (1) equity- it is a truthful success in parts such as job security, benefit and pay. (2) achievement- this is including satisfied of one’s job between activities and employer. (3) friendship- it creates dynamic relationships with equivalent employees. The three points is identified in security in work environment. Employees believe that their job becomes danger in workplace and they put their labour perfectly for organisation.
In this present time of the world the workplace need modern activities to encourage employee performance but no longer old organisations. It is a truth and important to introduce new motivational desires of employees because the workplace has been changed with modern expectations and reality is today’s (Roberts, 2005).
Employee motivation Needs theories
The people can choice a particular job and give effort. It is a force of employee motivation (Simon & Enz 1995). Motivation theories can change organisational behaviour from physiological scarcities. The internal factors of employee motivation need to describe by theories (Ramlall, 2004).
Lower levels to higher levels order are arranged by a hierarchical manner which needs to human. The base row indicated physiological needs such as food and shelter. Next row safety and security needs which are fulfil after a person has completed satisfaction of the physiological needs. Above the row safety and security include love, affection and belongingness. The two bottom rows were physical needs. Ego and esteem needs are coming after next row socials needs. The final tier indicates self-actualisation that is concluded development person. According to Maslow, (as cited by Tenone, 2005) it could never be fully satisfied to human by self-actualisation.
Mainly the theory of David McClelland depend on three needs which direct link social obtained through communication with the environment. The motives are – the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. Those are used in environmental behaviour. The need of achievement are explained a wish for achievement. It is social agreement and capacity. Power need describe a person who is a superior can manage an assistant. The affiliation need is illustrated for establishing, sustaining or refurbishing active relationship. McClelland refers that those needs can influence their organization manner. The people of high affiliation do not put perform well as managers as a result of their need to keep helpful social relationships. It is statement to be successful leader, its need high power and low affiliation. Although high achievement needs people aim to perform well as administrators (Ramlall, 2004).
Frederick Herzberg’s Theory
The two factor theory proposes that two dimensions are in job satisfaction. To motivate an employee it is important that manger tries to use hygiene factors such as handsome pay and good working conditions. Managers offer factors when employee will be motivated and produce a high level of satisfaction. From these statements, Herzberg refers that there are two stages for motivating employee to practice. At first, mangers will make sure that hygienic factors are not lacking. There are lots of views that pay and security will be specific, working condition will be secured, technical supervision will be suitable. According to hygiene factors, manger will ensure that employees are not dissatisfied. They do merely stimulate motivation.
The theory of Herzberg was notorious in emotional society but it accepted directly in business. Employees were not expecting improved performance instead of paying high salary. Herzberg confirmed that what was the feeling of employee would not come from top wages but they had opportunities to effect on their job environment. Herzberg completed that successful organisation needs a good framework of jobs (Dent, 1997).
Equity theory is a strong structure in the workplace. Adams (1963) explained understanding conflict theory into two statements. First statement shows that a particular statement of inequity will create a tension. The range of the tension is changeable considering the amount of inequity. The second one, the tension created will take the possessor to struggle to reduce that tension. The three main contains is in equity theory. The first idea refers employee’s intelligence that their labours come back in a fair and equitable method. The second principle states the idea of social contrast. Social contrast mainly focus their outcome should be come back on their input. Inputs are skills, education and effort. On the other hand, outputs are extreme benefits, promotion and job rank. The last one recommends that if employee feels themselves in an inequitable position, they will search for to lessen the inequity.