Literature Review On Leadership Styles
The leadership style is a contextual function which has direct relationship with the leadership approach of the leader. Based on the functionality assumption the leadership style can be identified as two dimensional ways independent of each other, where one of it is task oriented associated with supervision of the performance to ensure task completion in the form of keeping control within the organisation by providing direction and setting goal. The other form emphasizes motivating rather than controlling the subordinates comprises communication ,active listening, support and interaction.
A major number of studies reveal that the primary function of the organisational leadership is the ability to influence person in the line of task performance using motivational methods rather than power of authority over a time(Kotler,1996,Yammarino et al).This definition clearly distinguishes relationship between leadership and coercive rules. It relates to some extent a formal authority with the presence of political environment in the organisation(Wang et al 2005)
The recent theorists of transformational leadership has come out from the leader in internal context to extend its focus to a more broader one.(Higgs and Rouland,2003)However there is always presence of diverse behavioural pattern. It is useful to group them into three broad catagories-
A set of behaviour which is conducive to play a significant role which eventually directs towards a goal and achieve the performance required for it.
Involving is connected with more forces on achievement of goal setting and the direction for how to achieve the goal.
It acts as an facilitating nature of direction and means where the goal can be achieved.
The leaders are similarly referred to as production oriented, production emphasizing, goal achieving, work facilitative or goal emphasizing(Black and Mouton,1964,Bass).There is high psychological difference between a leader and a follower with a concentration on task which is highly necessary for its achievement.(eg.Woffard,1970).Leaders have a great concern for the relationship with the followers tries to create a friendly and supportive environment which is a part of people oriented policy(eg . Beatty 1988, Katz et al 1950).Leaders are commonly interactive, facilitative and supportive and maintain the group concern with a central orientation towards people.(Anderson,1974,Bass1967,Black and Mouton,1964)
Transformational leadership is responsible for bringing institutional change by making a compulsory stricture of vision and where the employees commitment can be mobilized by identifying and involving in person .In the cumulative business environment ,transformational leadership are useful in making provision of a compelling a clear vision by mobilisizing employee commitment through personal identification and involvement and institutionalisation of organizational change.The full range leadership model by Bass and Avolio defines the transformational leadership in terms of four “I”s
such as Individualised consideration,Intellectual stimulation,Inspiritional motivation and Idealized influence.
Burns (1978, p. 20) defined transformational leadership as a process in which “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation”. The transformation is not diverse from the follower it is centered upon to a capability to develop/encourage the wants/desires of a follower. Accountability as per the needs of the follower is the concern of the leader as per Burns.
Burns at first made an assertion in the high moral grounds with a desire to win a cause by creating a strong drive. People wanted to be driven by a motivation with a organizational spiritual mission(Tichy and Devanna1986).The inconsistency present in the organisation should be made understandable by a transformational leader to its followers.
In the case of transformational leaders they are had the advantage of a influencing position so that conflict can be manged and performance can be improved with a direction towards set a decision making team to manage conflict and therefore, to improve the performance to make a decision in team(Amason,Thompson,Hochwarter & Harrison,1995).For example,a team leader can create an environment of disagreement to generate constructive and cognitive conflict(Schwent & Kotlya,Karakowsky/Leader Behaviors and Team Conflict 39 Cosier 1993).The team members are informed about the structured conflict methodology and at the same time motivating them to engage in dialectical interaction.The motivation of making a good decision will lead the team members to likely clarify the objectives and find out and evaluate new alternatives.(e.g..Abelson & Levi,1985)In this process it is more important to give more focus on person than the problem and help the team members to minimize the cognitive conflict so that it cannot further worsen into dysfunctional,affective conflict(Janssen ,Van De Vliert,& Veenstra,1999)
There is only a small number of researchers who has confined their studies to establish a relationship between leadership and information technology and less focus on knowledge management and transformational leadership.However , Klenke(1994),it is the combined actions of leadership and information technology that helps in formation of new organization.
Emperical study aimed at examining the influence of transformational leadership (TL) on organizational innovation(OI) and performance(OP) depending on level of organisational learning.
First- A close relationship between TL ,OP and OI has been detected
Second-The relationships as shown in the first finding are prominent in a high learning organisation than a low learning organisation
Organisational learning is practiced in a group of people with an interaction on technology where the knowledge is evolved and widen up for a cognitive and behavioural change in a constant interaction between tacit and explicit form.Organisations with a high learning structure enable with a network making it easier to learn, innovate and propel to a competitive position as centre of technology.
It can be understand that organisational learning improve relationship to a great extent between TL,OI and OP.However innovation is considered to be vital for a company to survive and grow(Hurley and Hult,1998).There has been different definition of innovation-
According to product development and management association(PDMA,2004)-Innovation is synonymous with a new idea,it may be a new idea or device.Innovation is an act tries to create a product which is new or wants to bring new product which includes invention and ensures the work necessary to bring finally a new idea or concept.
“Although firm innovation is emphasized to improve performance of organization(OP) ,a number of firms donot and fails to develop in proper way.Researchers wants to concentrate on what has enable a firm to enable,it is the beyond semiautomatic response processes.”(Zollo and Winter,2002,p-341)
“leadership style has the highest level of influence on the firm to innovate by bringing a new idea into the technological area ,setting up of goals which is definite and encouraging an initiative for subordinates with innovation (Kanter,1983,Senge et al,1994)
In the transformational leadership (TL) it encourages OI and OP gets advantages from it and defines a leadership which increases the consciousness to achieve the collective interests among the members to achieve it.
Transformational leaders have charisma,inspiration and intellectual stimulation (Bass1999,Conger1999 and Avolio 2000)
Charisma-is the quality which encourages its workers,the leaders and technological organisations to bring a situation of pride,faith and respect.
Inspiration- motivates the followers to a large extent through communications of high technological expectations.
Intellectual stimulation- is a behaviour that is associated with the promotion of employees,intelligence,knowledge and learning for a innovative problem solving and solutions.
The fundamental role of CEOs is to indulge in playing an important role in informing and moulding these variables(TL,OI and OP) by determining the types of behaviour that is upto the expectation and supported(Baer and Frese,2003)
Four factors of transformational leadership (“Four I’s”) can be discussed as below-
The first ‘I’ in the transformational leadership is concerned with providing an umbrella of guidance in the part of leaders with an indivisualised consideration.The leader treats his followers with an individual approach,making explicit about his concerns,listening to his ideas and tries to know him well.The manager in this context sets standard as exemplary decision maker in the organization and gains respect as role model with idealized influence. The indication of his style can be realised by-
As a good listener
Self development is the key importance
Exchange of views from both the sides is expected
Individual needs and ability are reflected in the organizational decision
The quality of possible amalgamation is adhered
However the leader engaged in giving each individual access to teaching and coaching ,encourage them to participate in the project by delegating it and by constantly giving feedback.
Intellectual stimulation(IS) is a kind of motivation where the leaders motivate the followers to build up their own skills by signifying the problems and issues. This is a kind of situation like a parents pursue their child but in managers in most of the organisations prefer an approach where they are directed to do a job rather than made them accountable to it. The key indicators of this style can be drawn as-
To rethink an assumption which is already preoccupied
Ability to recognise the pattern which is hard to imagine
This is an kind of entertaining and bring forward some trivial one
Visualise an existing pattern by revisiting it
However leaders engages himself with the subordinates by providing a series of new ideas and encouraging a new thought of followers by imputing some logic beforehand and problem solving are emphasized.
Inspirational motivation is associated with the encouragement of a high degree of performance stimulating motivation among the followers.Setting a future vision in the mind the leader sets a flow of communication through which a binding has been imposed in an exciting manner and provides a zeal to struggle for it.That is why leaders are sometimes successful to lift the expectation of the followers where key indicators of the style can be identified as-
Foresee a future and confident of attaining it
Making intelligible about the term of the meaning and shaping the expectations
Reducing the complexities by simplifying the meaning
Prioritise and grow the sense of purpose
The leader imparts a sense of mission and vision; articulate a roadmap of pride .respect and faith,inculcates giving utmost importance towards pride,respect and faith,aspire and ignite the excitement of the subordinates.
This is a leadership style in terms of influencing with the element of idealized form(ii) or become a role-model of people around him.There are specific and personal characteristics or charisma inherited and making it explicit through moral behaviour which can be followed on the grounds of trust,morality,honesty and integrity.The key indicators can be attributed as-
The positive gain is achieved by utilising power
Addresses crisis “head on”
The followers achievement is a matter of celebration for him
Proves extraordinary competency
Leader imparts the vision and mission in a way to inspire and motivate the followers by put forward the challenge and establish what it actually mean.
Transformational leader and vision
Leadership authors have given more attention to emotional intelligence towards a competency which is interpersonal.in recent times leaders emotional competency can be effected by-
Awareness about himself
Monitor ones function by himself
Empirical evidence shows that leader with more emotional competencies shows to be visionary leadership behaviour. Akshkanesy and Tse(Theoritical article) defined the emotional leadership as-
Management of emotion
Assert that emotional language and communication
Transformational leaders have intuition about the followers needs values leads to greater interpersonal sensitivity and higher quality relationship with followers. George(2000) describes how aspects of emotional intelligence, including the appraisal and expression of emotions facilitate a leaders ability to develop collective goals, communicate the importance of work activities with followers and motivate by generating enthusiasm, confidence and trust.
The following hypothesis is presented which is dependent on emotional expressivity and visionary leadership.
H1: A wide range of positive results including organisational performance has a positive link with the leaders emotional expressivity(Waldman etal,2001)
H2:There is a positive relationship between visionary leadership and follower ratings of leadership effectiveness.
Empirically it has direct effects on the attitude of the follower and ratings of leadership effectiveness of a leaders visionary behaviour may be viewed in terms of scale of organisational changes that are felicitated in the organisation.
Furthermore visionary leaders who also acquires this skill where expressivity in terms of emotion is practiced will likely to articulate their vision in a strong way with more compulsion and persuasion that result in high magnitude of organisational changes than leaders who does not have such skill
H3: A close bond between visionary leadership and organisational change will vary in degree depending on the level of leaders emotional expressivity.
The regression analysis done through empirical analysis found that there is a strong relationship between visionary leadership and organisational change in magnitude under conditions of leaders high emotional expressivity.
Frances Westley and henry Mintzberg formulated the theory of visionary leadershipn on the basis of Miss Follets work.There are three main assumptions of the visionary leadership.
First assumption is associated with the dynamic nature of visionary leadership where the drama,action and communication occur at the same time.As the actor does his rehersal when he goes up to the step for the moment ,at that moment of time visionary leader practices the vision.
The visionary leader connects the idea and action and at the same time establishes a relationship with his followers.This kind of leader is capable of moulding strategy into vision.
The second assumption is about the content as well as context strategic vision.The core of the vision is a strategic content and has a focus on organisations,markets,products or even services.The external influence on vision comes out with the context one.This aspect has been effected by the organisational variation in terms of structure,ownership and size etc.
The third and the final assumption stresses on the variety of visions and it can visualise many shape and sizes.Mary Parker Follett emphasises that the leader should have the capability to identify the potential of its followers and with a cohesive bond they should be able to integrate them.
There sould be reciprosity in the gtoup and the leader and the group members should influence each other.It is not only the leader who should have influence on group members but the group member should also influemce leaders(Follett,1930a,P213).The another point is repetation which drawn by Westley and Mintzberg(1989)it enables the visionary leaders to identify the issues.According to Folletts study the leader should harmonise the external and internal situation i case of group.Follett,1930a,p214 describes it as an functional unity.The leader should overcome the factionalism by uniting them. It is not only the leader who should have influence on group members but the group member should also influemce leaders(Follett,1930a,P213).The another point is repetation which is drawn by Westley and Mintzberg(1989)it enables the visionary leaders to identify the issues.According to Folletts study the leader should harmonise the external and internal situation i case of group.Follett,1930a,p214 describes it as an functional unity.The leader should overcome the factionalism by uniting them.The third important part is representation where the leader(ACTOR) should be able to communicate its follower(AUDIENCE)
Leader should energise its followers.According to Miss Follett, the three main function of the CEO includes to define a organisations purpose,to maintain co-ordiantion of its activities.to foresee a future.The leader provides a long range vision by combining into a team effort and gives the purpose of the group.
The final element is assistance where the audience or the followers should follow up the vision of the leader and take part to shape the vision.
All of the analysis has come into a result of group power where the group is not like a team of uniformity but its a convergence of all opposites and Vision become live when it is shared and all the group member pull together to avhieve it and the leader should bring together all the group members to achieve the goal.
Vision may be an outstanding achievement with a binding to a people in a society together,It may be an inspiring goal where involvement of people is spontaneous .Vision is deep rooted in cherished “core ideology” and at the sametime stimulates the progress and change in anything that is not part of the “core ideology”.There is some core values which is independent of time and enduring core purpose (which should never change) from the operating practices and business strategies(which should be changing constantly in response to a changing world).
ARTICULATING A VISION
A comprehensive vision consists of two major part –
An envisioned future
A good vision build on the interplay between two complementary Yin-and-Yang forces:it defines change(the core ideology) and sets forth “What we aspire to become ,to achieve,to create” that will require significant change and progress to attain(the envisioned future)
THE VISION FRAMEWORK
Core ideology is authentic and been derived by looking inside not by external environment.The core ideology guides and inspire but doesnot differentiate with others . Core ideology bears and inspires the meaning of the people inside the organisation and people inside the organisations neednot compel by core values and tries to generate long term commitment.It is an intrinsic matter to the organisation.
The basic difference between the “core ideology” and “core competency” can be derived as -core competence is a strategic concept that captures the organisational capability where you are particularly good at and core ideology is what you stand for and why you exist.
It is the second primary component of the vision framework which consists of two parts-
A ten to thirty year ” Big Hairy Audacious Goal”
A vivid descriptions of what it will be like when the organizations receives BHAG
BIG HAIRY AUDACIOUS GOAL(BHAG)
It is a term which was first proposed in a 1996 article with a title “Building Your Companys Vision” by James Collins and Jerry .A BHAG is a particular mechanism to stimulate progress.A true BHAG is distinct and creates immense team spirit by unfying the focal point and reaches out to the people and enhances their courage.It is tangible,energizing and highly focused and it is astimulation above the traditional corporate statement.
1.VISION LEVEL BHAG
A vision level BHAG applies to entire organisation and requires 10 to 30 years to complete the cycle.BHAG stands for beyond the capabilities of organisation and current environmental trends,forces and conditions.
Vivid description is the second component of envisioned future necessary to achieve BHAG is a vibrant and specific component of the organisation.
However there is a certain difference between “core ideology” and “envisioned future”.
The first one is like a star in the horizon which cannot be reached wheres it guides and inspires and its the fundamental reason of existence.
The second one is the specific goal to achieve to achieve a specific time frame.