Major concepts of training development and learning

I have linked the whole report with the major concepts of training, development and learning while the consequent paragraphs have been elaborated on the facts and information availed and presented in the initial stages and thus all important and relevant elements have been woven the way that give an apparent picture of the chief concepts and processes therein. The differences between training and development have also been cited so that the validity and authenticity of both are assessed individually as well as being interlocked. The different methods and techniques usage and applications have also been encapsulated. The major problems concerning the both in general have also been signified and finally closed up with the conclusion. The report presents with the whole functioning and processes taking place thereupon under the chief elements as main heads. The free flow of the smooth and important facts with the simple expressions make the report more interesting and comprehensive so that the assigned problem is solved and well understood in the first instance.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

My main objectives during the studies and preparation of this report have been

To have better understanding of the chief concepts and components of training, development, learning and possible problems

To base the problem on the validated reasoning and solutions

To explore the possible ways for problems in the methods while processes taking place

To conclude the whole report in a way which is comprised of the major recommendations as the remedies to overcome the presented with problems thereupon

INTRODUCTION

It is true that HRM is to fulfil its aim of valuing human assets by investing in them and this implies a positive attitude towards training and development . hence to proceed and simplifying the theory i would like to start with the clear conceptions concerning the training and development so that the importance of both could be capsulated in the first and lateral stances.

TRAINING: We can define training as the process of improving the job knowledge and skills of employees so as to enable them to perform well at their jobs where they are appointed and located in present. It is called an organised and systematic activity wherein people acquire knowledge and skills for doing a specific job. Being a two way process it comprises of someone to learn and someone to teach. It is mandate for the both existing and the new employees so that they may perform their jobs properly.

Thus , training is a continuous and never-ending process and learning has no end at all.

DEVELOPMENT: It can be defined as a process which involves growth of a person in all respects. So this process is comprehensive in its nature by which managers and executives acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs but also capabilities for future tasks of increasing difficulty and scope.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE BOTH (TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT)

There is a need to differentiate between the both as well so that the added value of both could be well assessed to the enterprise where they are implied thereupon.

In the organisational context the term training is meant to the lower level employees while the term development is meant to the higher level personnel or managers

Training has a purpose to make workers and employees proficient in their present jobs while development is to prepare employees for handling more responsible and challenging jobs

training imparts to teach technical skills while development to human and conceptual skills.

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the participants in the training have non-managerial background while development has participants who come primarily from a managerial background

training focuses on developing skills already possessed by workers while development focuses on developing hidden qualities and talent of personnel

training methods include apprenticeship, coaching etc. While development methods include off-the-job-training methods as job rotation, lectures, role playing, brainstorming, sensitivity training etc.

training is time bound while development is career bound.

EXAMPLE: An employee may receive training to operate a computer but he may attend a management course to develop leadership skills. Training and development programmes may be beneficial to both managers and workers but the contents of the programmes are likely to differ. Managers receive instructions in developing leadership skills whereas workers are trained in technical skills.

NEED FOR (OBJECTIVES OF) TRAINING

Training and development are necessary for the following reasons:

To prepare employees for the right jobs by imparting the required knowledge and skills.

To build a second line of competent officers by preparing employees to occupy higher positions.

To enable the employees to work more effectively and efficiently.

To expose them to the updated and latest concepts and techniques in the concerned discipline.

To match the employees specifications with the job requirements and organisational needs.

To pace with technological advances and latest researched and developed managerial theories.

NEED FOR (OBJECTIVES OF) DEVELOPMENT

The management development programmes are organised with a view to achieving specific objectives which may be cited as follows :

To overhaul the management machinery

To improve the performance of the managers

To give the specialists an overall view of the functions of an organisation and equip them to co-ordinate each other’s efforts effectively

To stimulate creative thinking

To understand the problems of human relations and improve human relation skills

To understand the conceptual issues relating to economic, social and technical areas

To broaden the outlook of the executive regarding his role , position and responsibilities

To improve thought process and analytical ability

To create the management succession which can take over in case of contingencies

To keep the executives abreast with the changes and developments in their respective fields

To increase the versatility of the management group

To increase the morale of the members of the management group

To identify the persons with the required potential and prepare them for senior positions

ESSENTIALS OR INGREDIENTS OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES

Analysis of organisational present and future developmental needs

Appraisal of present management talent

Inventory of management power

Planning of individual developmental programmes

Establishment of development programmes

Programmes evaluation

Now we can say that training and development are chiefly learning experiences. A lot of an employee’s learning about a job takes place outside of specific training activities and this is why i would like to clear with this concept of LEARNING hereunder.

LEARNING: It is concerned with bringing about relatively permanent change as a result of experience which can be done through direct experience-by doing or indirectly through observation. Regardless of the means by which learning takes place, we cannot measure learning per se. We can only measure the changes in attitudes and behaviour that occur as a result of learning.

PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated.

Learning requires feed back.

Reinforcement increases the likelyhood that a learned behaviour will be repeated.

Practice increases a learner’s performance.

Learning begins rapidly then plateaus.

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Learning must be transferable to the job.

These cited principles should guide the human resource manager in designing, implementing and operating any employee training.

DETERMINING TRAINING NEEDS AND PRIORITIES

The management can determine training needs and priorities by answering the following questions:

What are the organisation goals ?

What tasks must be completed to achieve these goals ?

What behaviours are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his or her assigned tasks ?

What deficiencies , if any, do incumbents have in the skills, knowledge or attitudes required to perform the necessary behaviours ?

PLANNING THE TRAINING PROGRAMME

A strategy of industrial training is essentially concerned with preparing creating and using facilities so as to secure the training initiative and ultimate success.

Assessment of training needs

Training objectives and criteria

Design of training content

Matching capacity to learn

Training methods

Specific methods like information processing models, personal models, social interaction models and behavioural models

Making choices

Implementation

Execution which in itself is a process of seven distinct steps as object, preparation, presentation, reception, assimilation, assessment and feedback

Measurement and evaluation and modifying as needed and desired changes being raised therein

HOW TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ADD VALUE TO THE ENTERPRISE ?

Training is beneficial to the both, employers and employees. A well-trained employee is an asset to the enterprise because his or her efficiency and productivity is high. Training enables the employees to obtain job security, higher earning and promotions. In fact, management has no choice whether or not to train employees. The only choice left is whether training will be imparted through a formal and systematic programme or not. In the absence of formal training , employees learn by trial and error. They pick wrong ways of doing things and the time involved in learning is very long. Formal training helps to minimise time, cost and wastage involved in training. The major benefits to the enterprise by training are as follows:

Higher productivity

Stability and growth

Promotion and career growth

Higher morale

Economical use of the organisational resources

Better safety

Reduced supervision

Personality development

Builds self confidence

Develop the potentialities and talent of employees for the higher level and challenging job

widening the mind and thinking of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences

Ensuring needed talent

Assisting in attracting and retaining

Reduced frustration of the both employees and managers

TECHNIQUES AND METHODS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

There are chiefly two types of techniques by which employees and managers can acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes and make themselves competent managers. One is through formal training and the other is through on-the-job experiences and this is of utmost importance as the real learning takes place only when the learner uses what he has learnt but it should also be kept in mind that class-room training or pedagogical techniques have also got their own importance in gaining new knowledge, techniques and broader concepts.

Learning is haphazard without theoretical background and learning can never be called true learning if it is just theory without practice. When on the job training is properly balanced with the class-room training (off-the-job-training) the real learning takes place.

OFF-THE-JOB-TRAINING METHODS

Lectures

Conferences and seminars

Case studies

Role playing

Business games

Programmed instructions

Sensitivity training

Vestibule training

Brain storming

ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING METHODS

Job rotation

Apprenticeship

Coaching

Understudy

Multiple management

FORMAL TRAINING

Formal training entails the deliberate and structured presentation of experiences which may be considered helpful in aiding individuals to change their knowledge, understanding attitudes and behaviours .

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The major methods under this cited head are as follows

INDUCTION: Induction is used to complement and complete the selection and placement process by providing a systematic approach to the induction of the new entrant to the organisation.

SKILL ACQUISTION: The aim of this , is to implant and develop new skills and abilities

SKILL DEVELOPMENT: It is employed to update a person’s knowledge or skills at any stage in his or her career, and whenever changes occur in the work environment to make this necessary.

INCREASING MOTIVATION: This is to increase the individual’s willingness to work to the required patterns and standards.

ATTITUDE CHANGE: This is the most difficult objective to achieve through training. In the primary sector, the high level of investment in the training of core workers is likely to focus attention to be paid to the perspectives and attitudes which these workers adopt or develop in relation to the organisation adopt or develop in relation to the organisation and their work within it whereas in secondary sector organisation, strategy of selection is used as the method of recruiting appropriate work attitudes, this is, not so readily on so cheaply available to the primary sector organisation. The task of changing attitudes has therefore to be tackled.

TEAM BUILDING: Training may help here to realise objectives, without itself being capable of delivering the whole result. It can help to create new awareness while at the same time transferring new skills of a social or interactive kind.

PROBLEMS

Despite the need for training and development and its significance, organisation of these training and development programmes faces certain problems which include the followings

Inadequate training and development facilities to train the trainers

Absence of rewards and awards to the trainers

Duplication in training programmes organised by companies and training institutes

Absence of rapport between the industry and the independent training institutes

Improper design of the course content and training programmes

Lack of initiative on the part of the superiors to allow the employees to implement the knowledge or skills gained through the training programmes

Absence of seriousness on the part of the trainees

Relatively little importance is given to the behavioural training programmes

Failure of the institutes in offering the training programmes really based on the practice

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Having gone through the above discussion it can be concluded that training and development are the most important ingredients in the entire system of the organisation and if the needs of the both are not met by the organisation in effective and efficient ways then the organisational goals may not be attained and the investment would thus be lost and put at stake the corporate image of the organisation and would also make a huge loss to the organisational resources. We also need to design training and development programmes in such a way that the needs of the both employees and employers are met in time very efficiently and effectively without any failure. The proper method and technique should be balanced with the needs of the trainees and the trainers so that the organisational end objectives could be attained in the planned ways and the employees could be able to develop their career and grow within the organisation they work for.


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