Major Trends In Management Approaches
In order to achieve the aim and objective of a project in an organisation, the best way to determine an effective organisation is to apply a suitable management approaches. This report is to describe and outline the major trends in management approaches which people are always implementing in their project organisation. There are four types of management approaches will be mention clearly in this report include classical approach, human relation approach, system approach and contingency approach. From the management approaches analysis shall be carry out at the same time in order to choose and clarify the most effective in promoting a good organisational structure and organisational relationships. Besides, a good leader is also important to leading the team in achieving the organisation goals. Thus, the attributes to be a good leader will be discuss and identified as well.
Types of management approaches
Management plays a crucial role in the making of the organisation and therefore effective management is required to ensure every organisation is working towards a common objective or goal. Hence, it is essential to produce a good organisation structure and organisation relatioship. The four different major types of management approaches will discuss in the following.
Classical approach is mainly concerned with the increasing the efficiency of the workers and organisations based on management practices, which were on outcome of careful observation. Classical approach mainly looks for economic efficiency with the universal principles of operation. (Abhijith 2011) In a management sense, classical approach is tried to develop and operate universal principles or models that will applied in all circumstances. Basically, this approach is looking for the best way which they believed can be exposed by the use of rational method. (Sharon 1997)
According to Laurie J.Mullins (2005) also mentioned that the classical approach is encouraged the scientific view of the management and provide some common universal principles applicable to all organisation circumstances. Classical approach can be classified into three management includes scientific management, administrative management and bureaucratic management.
According to Taylor (1856-1915), scientific management was a theory of management that analysed the objective of increasing the labour productivity. Taylor also mentioned that management of business, industry or economy must be according to principles of efficiency from the experiments and operation in methods of work and production. Besides, Taylor also insisted that the manner of change in management could be determined by scientific study. (Abhijith 2011)
Taylor believed that the management could be formulated as an academic discipline and the best results could come from the partnership between qualified management and a trained. The key concept of scientific management includes time and motion studies, standardization of management, functional foremanship and differential piece rate system. (francis 1908) According to Sharon Jones (1997) also stated that scientific management is relied on increased mechanism to be subdivided into highly specilised and routine task. “There is a best machine for each job, so there is a best working method by which people should undertake their job” (Mullins 2007, p.43), which mean need to select the right people for the right job with his abilities, so the best method of doing a job can be achieved and resulting in increasing production line.
Bureaucracy is the name of an organisation used by organisation design professionals. Bureaucracy described a set of characteristics or attributes who deal with or who work with the organisations. In the 1930 Max Weber, a German sociologist described the bureaucracy as being a way of organising government agencies. (Gaurav 2011) The characteristics of bureaucracy management is based on the rational authority would be more adaptable to changes. (Abhijith 2011) Besides, system of written rules and standard operating procedures are prescribed to provide certainty and facilitate coordination. Impersonal relationship is maintained between the managers and employees. Moreover, only competence people are hiring for jobs based on their competence and technical qualifications. (Mullins 2007)
Human Relation Approach
Human relation approach was emphasis on structure and the formal oraganisation, but the social factors at work and behaviour of workers within an organisation need to pay greater attention. The human relation approach took virtually the opposite on management. This method much more focused on the workmanships themselves and their satisfactory needs. They will ensured that the environment of their workplace provide a completely safety precautions. (Mullins 2007)
This approach also worked on self-confidence of their workforce. This would involve a degree of encouragement and recognition for the work that they were doing. It was suggested that this was a greater approach to securing more productivity because the workmanships felt much more motivated to do their very best for the management. (Patterson 1958) Besides, it also means people go to work to gain recognition, appreciation and not just simply for financial gains. Thus, managers should understanding the feelings and emotion of the workers and not treated them as machine. (Bratton et al. 2007)
Neo-Human Relation Approach
According to Laurie J.Mullins (2005), the neo-human relations are focus on the personal adjustment of individuals within the structure of the organization and effects of group relationships and leadership styles. It gave rise to several famous theories, including Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, which suggests that workers are motivated to satisfy basic needs at five levels. Then, it also includes physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization. This approach also includes Theory X and Theory Y. A project should therefore offer incentives to employees in order to fulfil and progress up the hierarchy. (Wan 2012) Attention shall be taken from the organisation structure, job satisfaction, communication, motivation and leadership styles.
The characteristic about a system is the element from which it is built up. The term “built up” would indicate that a construction is somehow artificial and that is the meaning to be showing. A system also to be a whole composed of elements that are related to each other. (Wouter et al. 2002) This approach can be differentiated with a view of the organisation as separate parts. The systems approach encourages managers to view the organisation both as a whole and as part of a larger environment. (Mullins 2007)
It seeks to understand how they interact with one another and how they can be brought into proper relationship for the optimum solution of the problem. The systems approach relates the technology to the need, the social to the technological aspects. (Simon & Robin 1998) The interaction has two components which is input and output. Input is use to enters the system from the outside whereas for the output is use to leaves the system for the environment. In order to differentiate about the inside and outside of a system, the system itself and its environment shall be distinguished and separated by a boundary. (Heylighen 1998)
Contingency approach is an extension of the systems approach. This approach is differentiating between alternative forms of organization structures and systems of management. There is no one optimum state. The most suitable structure and system of management is therefore dependent after the contingencies situation for each organization. (Mullins 2007) The manager need try to identify which technique will be the best solution for a problem. Example is the problem of increasing productivity. At this time it will depends on the possible fit of each solution with the goals, structure and resources of the organisation. The contingency approach may consider, for policy reasons, that an incentive scheme was not relevant. The complexity of each situation should be noted and decisions made in each individual circumstance. (Nikmahajan 2007)
The Most Effectiveness Management Approach
Effectiveness is concerned with doing the correct things which is emphasis on outputs and the achievements required. Effectiveness management approach will deliver a good organisational structure and relationship through their situation or circumstances. By taking into consideration through the reviews and analysis of the different management approach, I found out that contingency approach is the most effective in promoting a good organisational structure and organisational relationships as compare to other management approach. This is because contingency approach has no one best design of organisation while it is a form of structure, management, and success of the organisation dependent upon a range of situational variables. (Mullins 2007)
As we know that sometimes an organisation would come out the issue, argument, and conflict. To overcome the problem, contingency approach is the most effective to manage it because this approach is not seek to suggest a one best way to do the thing or manage the structure organisation but should provide some other situational and influences of management decisions. (Mullins 2007) Then, contingency approach seeks to apply the situations ideas drawn from various circumstances management. In classical approach, system approach and human relation approach all of this approach have their own managerial decision through the organisation structure and relationship whereas for this contingency approach it consider of no one approach is universally applicable and different problem and situations required different management styles. In order to achieve their goals or objective, contingency approach can be examine the relationship between the internal and external environment circumstances of an organisation. (Nikmahajan 2007)
Unlike other management approach, different approach will have their different rules and particular principle of management styles. Some of the management approach for example classical approach is more focus on formal structure, technical requirements of the organisation and general sets of principles. It is more concentrate on universal principles in their circumstances and to develop a best way for their organisation structure and management. (Sharon 1997) While for the human relation approach was emphasis on structure and the formal oraganisation, and the social factors at work and behaviour of workers within an organisation need to pay greater attention. This approach probably concentrated and focused on the workmanships themselves and their satisfactory needs and the rules and principle of management is fixed for their organisation. (Mullins 2007) Then, the system approach is differentiated with a view of the organisation as separate parts. The systems approach relates the technology to the need, the social to the technological aspects and the two components are input and output. (Simon & Robin 1998) As compare between the three management approach and contingency approach, it show that contingency approach is more flexible and the management decision will looking on different situation with different management styles while the three management approach is more emphasis on particular aspect and lack of flexibility.
The size of organisation will also affect the management decision. In a small organisation it will employed informal organisational structure while large organisation employed formal organisational structure. By using contingency approach, manager can direct control all the thing done in a small organisation whereas for the large organisation manager required more complex and indirect chain of command. (Tyson and Jackson 1992) For the external environment of an organisation such as technology and markets, the contingency management approach will produce a well organisation under the uncertainty circumstances. (Fryer 1997) As we know the contingency approach is flexible organising and managing so that a manager could build up the most suitable and proper organisational structure and relationship for the technology and market competitive.
With the contingency management approach, it will offer an opportunity to integrate perspectives from management and marketing. Manager can evaluate possible option to promote the most suitable and proper organisational structure and relationships that concentrate on marker demand and company attractions. Besides, it is a flexible management with the different management styles and structure in an organisation.
Attributes to be a good leader
Leadership can be defined as ability to influences others to willingly follow instruction. A leader must has a clear vision of where to go and how to achieve and success it. A leader must also communicate clearly and passionately. A good leader must obtain the discipline to work toward his or her vision inspection as well as his or her vision is toward the action of achieving goals and objective. There are some of the attributes to be a good leader which will describe further in the following.
First, a good leader shall be integrity towards all the situations and decision making. Integrity is the fundamental that keeps everything in a right way and secure. Without integrity, sometimes thing will break down critically. Integrity will allows a leader to shows or assume important characteristics about how their performance and works done in any circumstances. As a result it will facilitate trust which will leads to a higher productivity. Second, a good leader must know how to do a good judgement. A good judgement means a good decision making. Sometimes a judgement is sound simple but thing come to the decision it make people quite complex and stress. As a result a good leader must make sure the judgement is in the right way and in the right time. Third, a good leader is important in the passion because he or she will create positive energy and influencing. A leader’s passion will attract followers and act as catalyst for the formation of highly motivated teams. Sometimes there is always a conflict in an organisation so that leader shall assist and show their high passion although the organisation is in the conflict situation. (Michael 2011)
Then, a good leader should have a good visionary. It is important for a leader to define, inspire a practical, easily understand when vision something different and adapt the circumstances change. Leaders must be able to anticipate and think about the future and how they will guide and adapt their business performance when they faced on uncertainty or unfamiliar circumstances. After that, a good leader shall have a good communicative with each other. A leader should provide a consistent, clearly and optimistic communication to all levels within a company. To be an effective communicator, a leader should have also a good listener. At the end, people who feel that information is shared with them stay in their jobs and more motivated. (Kevin 2005)
Besides, a good leader shall be in touch with their employees. They should let their employees know and feel that their leader is keep in touch with them which will give them a sense of security and calms the emotional. When the emotional is less, sometimes the brain can be thinking new information and ideas and responds better to others. Furthermore, a good leader shall keep their emotions in check. Leader must use their emotions to help for the decision making or practice emotional intelligent skill. It is useful because it will help to recognise their emotions and try not to show to other people. In the other hand, a good decision making skills also need for a good leader. As a leader knowing how to make rational decision at the end they will know how to make decision to leading others. In order to sharpen their decision making skills, they need to determine consequences for each possible solution and practicing identifying problems. (Marilee 2011)
As a conclusion, attributes to be a good leader is very important for any organisation or employment. As all these aspect play an important role in the organisation management as if the leader is not capable to handle the situation or problem well, it will affect the whole system in the organisation from workers to the management level. To make sure an organisation or employment is success, a good leader is the most important to leading towards achieving the objective and goals.