Management And Leadership Across Culture Management Essay

Leadership and motivation has been very important relating to achieving company goals . We can find lots of theories in leadership and motivation. The main purpose of the study is to critically evaluate theories of leadership and motivation and how this is related to managing cultural diversity and how the organization apply the techniques of leadership and motivation in organization .

These days’ hospitality and tourism has been recognised as a social phenomenon with a variety of social-cultural impacts at both the individual and global levels, and has been a diverse and momentous reality that all social sciences think. The study of tourism and its changes reflect the arrival of new approaches and ways of thinking in modern society as the changes in tourism reflect the changes from modern society to postmodern society. The organisational challenges of tourism are discussed contextualizing the analysis within the concepts of leadership, motivation, work performance, ethics, personality, and rewards. (www.environmental challenges tourism).

Most of business organisations were able to achieve their business goals and objectives by incorporating creative leadership and motivating staff. There are observations which claim that companies are constantly challenge by the fact that the control and creative aspect of business are diametrically opposed. As such, effective planning, control, organisation, and coordination within hospitality and tourism industry must be clear from the efficiency and effectiveness of the services offered. Business leadership and management characterises the process of leading and directing the systems within an organisation by shattering available resources widely so as to achieve the objectives of the business operation. It most of the time includes the conceptualization of business plans and monitoring its execution for assessment and evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the business transactions. Good leadership help in effectively meeting job-related demands, co ordinations, commitment, in creating higher-performing teams, in fostering renewed loyalty and commitment, in increasing motivational level and in reducing absence and turnover of employees. Effective leadership and employee motivation is very essential and crucial to the survival and continued existence of service industry. It is such an important and wide field of study, and thus has enjoyed contributions from a host of authors and scholars. This research attempts an overview of some of the most insightful theories within the field of workplace motivation and leadership (Meyer and Allen, 1997). The very nature of this topic resides on the crossover between psychology and management, and concepts from these two genres will be investigated with a view to setting this research project against some kind of meaningful context. It is hard to cover all aspect of that influence in the success of hospitality and tourism industry but in this assay author tried to explore leadership and motivation of employee’s factors.

Chapter 2: Reviewing theories of Leadership and Motivation

The effective leader should think and act about his own Leadership style, strengths, and development needs. Team leader should make the individuals, feel proud to be part of the team then people will work harder and achieve more. Goals of the organisation achieved or not depended on how effective the Leader was. So leadership play important role in the organisation. Leadership is the heart and soul of organisations, and quality communication is the avenue by which leaders clarify their visions and foster participative management within organisations, no matter which approach best describes their leadership styles

Management and leadership across cultures

The international nature of the hospitality and tourism industry requires managers of the future to be aware of many different issues relating to leading people.

They need the knowledge and skills necessary to lead and motivate workforces across many different cultural backgrounds. This issue is one of great importance and very relevant to effective management of organisations in a global setting.

Indicative content

Leadership in organisations

Culture and leadership

Theories of motivation

Managing diversity

According to Wright & Taylor (1994), Leadership is an activity which influenced the Behaviour, beliefs and feelings of other group members in an intended direction. Influence may take place at a distance without any personal interaction between the people concerned .Leader can acquisitive the interpersonal skills through practice with feedback and guidance. According to Vecchio (1997) view Leadership is a sense-making heuristic to account for organisational performance and is important primarily for its symbolic role in organisations. Zaccaro (2001) said “Leadership is a process of giving purpose to collective effort, and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve purpose”

The first responsibility of a leader is to define reality. The last is to say thank you. In between the two, the leader must become a servant and a debtor. That sums up the progress of an artful leader

Concept, ideas of leadership and leadership practices are the subject of much thought, discussion, writing, teaching, and learning. True leaders are sought after and cultivated. Leadership is not an easy subject to explain. A friend of mine characterizes leaders simply like this: “Leaders don`t inflict pain; they bear pain.”


KONOPASKE (2008) said thinking and discussion about leadership evolved from a trait-based approach to the concept of teams without bosses. Trait approach is an attempt to identify specific characteristics (physical, mental, personality) associated with leadership success. Trait theory of leadership is based on intelligence, personality, physical characteristics and supervisory ability. In trait approach leaders are born, not made because some people are born with their charisma and other personality traits, seems to be natural born leaders whom others will follow automatically. People possessing charismatic traits need to learn to use and develop those leadership traits consciously. Many successful leaders do not possess a common body of personality traits which explain their leadership abilities. In fact, many great

Quality leadership depends neither on charisma nor on personality traits (www.1). Surveys of early trait research by stodgily (1948) and Mann (1959) reported that many studies identified personality characteristics that appear to differentiate leaders from followers (www.2). Peter Wright (1996) has commented, ‘others found no differences between leaders and followers with respect to these characteristics, or even found people who possessed them were less likely to become leaders’ Central to effective leadership.


According to Taylor (1994) behavioural approach of leadership concerned with the behaviour, rather than personality traits. Behavioural theories concerned with the leader in the context of organisation and identify behaviours exhibited by leaders that increase the effectiveness of the organisation. In mastering the role of leadership, leaders must discern between behaviour modification and attitude modification. Behaviour modification implies that people change their outward actions, while their attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and opinions remain the same. Attitude modification implies that followers change their inward thinking; hence, their attitudes, feelings, and opinions are brought into line with those of the leader. It is clear that attitude modification is more important to effect lasting change than behaviour modification (www.3). Two sub-categories:

Examines how managers spend their time and the typical pattern of activities, responsibilities, and functions of managerial jobs

Leadership effectiveness depends in part on how well a manager resolves role conflicts, copes with demands, recognizes opportunities, and overcomes constraints

2) Identifying effective leadership behaviour

Purpose of Leadership

Leadership is involves making employees into group and being accountable, responsible for focusing and motivating to achieve goals.

A leader should:

provide continuity and momentum

be flexible in allowing changes of direction

Ideally, a leader should be a few steps ahead of their team, but not too far for the team to be able to understand and follow them.

a. Skills needed

b. Different Ideas of Leadership

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Skills Needed

Leaders must have a wide range of skills, techniques and strategies. These include:


Communication skills


Awareness of the wider environment

As hospitality and tourism industry based entirely on service quality so manager need to use their communication skill as there are customers and employees from all over the world they have different language background so it is important to use effective communication skill also aware of wider environment.

Different Ideas of Leadership

Leadership should be concentrated in one person or distributed among members of the team. Leader was appointed by more senior levels of management or elected by the group. This technique relies on the assumption that one single person has all the strengths required. [www.5]

Olmsyead (2000) said directing the team is critical tests of leadership skills because it is a growing and shifting relationship between the two people. According to Olmsyead (2000) directing the team is motivating the subordinates Motivation means

“Cause (person) to act in a particular way; stimulate interest of (person in activity) [www.3].

The effective leader should think and act about his own Leadership style, strengths, and development needs. Team leader should make the individuals, feel proud to be part of the team then people will work harder and achieve more. Goals of the organisation achieved or not depended on how effective the Leader was. So leadership play important role in the organisation. Leadership is the heart and soul of organisations, and quality communication is the avenue by which leaders clarify their visions and foster participative management within organisations, no matter which approach best describes their leadership styles


Hospitality industry is a big industry in the world and the world’s largest employer. It is a labour intensive Industry. Wherever you need human input, motivation is crucial for success, especially for service industry. People are the part of the product in delivery service. If employees are not motivated, their performance will drop or customers will know and complain. The question for hospitality industry businesses is how to get the best from employees, how to encourage and persuade them to do what they are supposed to be doing to the best of their ability all the time. So that, it is strongly proved that motivating the employees is essential key to increase the competitiveness in the organisation environment.

Motivation is the key for employees to run the hospitality industry successfully, if the industry does not possess the ability to motivate its employees, the knowledge within the organisation is not practically used to a maximum. Therefore, it becomes the aim of every successful learning hotel industry to find the factors that enable it to motivate its employees to continuous learning and to take advantage of this knowledge to ensure its living. Many motivational theories have been constructed to find these motivational factors, but the values of the employees in the specific organisation like tourism are seldom included in the theories. Since a suitable combination of motivational factors only can be created through an understanding of the values in the measured object (i.e. employees), this can be seen as a risk for validity problems in the measuring instrument.

Significance of Motivation in Hospitality and Tourism Industry:

Motivation refers to the reason why we do things. A dictionary defines motivation as:

“The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action towards a desired goal, the reason for that action”. (Source:

A simple definition of motivation is the ability to change behaviour. It is a drive that compels one to act because human behaviour is directed toward some goal. . Motivation is internal; it comes from within based on personal interests, desires, and need for fulfilment. However, external factors such as rewards, praise, and promotions also influence motivation. As defined by Daft (1997), motivation refers to “the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action”.

Here is the particular importance with the motivation, because the organisations always expect a high quality performance. All the time it is not possible to the employees, so that the training needs and motivation is essential to the employees. Motivation can do such things as they are

1. Direct behaviour towards to particular goals.

2. Its lead to increase effort and energy.

3. Increase their initiation, persistence and activities.

4. Enhance the cognitive processing.

5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing.

6. Lead to improve their performance.

The persons in their employment they usually try to motivate themselves, even though organisation can maintain the crucial role to motivate the employees.


The employees can be motivated by different factors in a learning organisation, such they are

The works itself that many people believe in their work and feel they are making a difference. that is enough to motivate them

Recognition – being recognised for the contribution that you are making is something that many of us want and need

Achievement – seeing the results of what we do and knowing that we had a part in that result

Responsibility – being given responsibility is something that people enjoy, they respond to being given responsibility

Advancement and personal growth – part of recognition is the opportunity to be able to advance yourself – to be given more challenging tasks and be seen as being capable of doing such tasks.


The employees who are committed to achieving organisational objectives generally outperform those who are not committed. Those who are intrinsically rewarded by accomplishments in the workplace are satisfied with their jobs and are individuals with high self-esteem. Therefore, an important part of management is to help make work more satisfying and rewarding for employees and to keep employee motivation consistent with organisational objectives. With the diversity of contemporary workplaces, this is a complex task. Many factors, including the influences of different cultures, affect what people value and what is rewarding to them.

From a manager’s perspective, it is important to understand what prompts people, what influences them, and why they persist in particular actions. Quick (1985) presented these four underlying principles that are important to understanding motivation:

People have reasons for everything they do.

Whatever people choose as a goal is something they believe is good for them.

The goal people choose must be seen as attainable.

The conditions under which the work is done can affect its value to the employee and his or her perceptions of attainability or success.


Process theories help to explain how individuals motivation of an employee to select particular behaviours and how individuals determine if these behaviours meet their needs. Because these theories involve rational selection, concepts of cognition are employed. Cognition, according to Petri (1996), “is generally used to describe those intellectual or perceptual processes occurring within us when we analyze and interpret both the world around us and our own thoughts and actions.

The expectancy theory is based on an individual’s effort and performance, as well as the desirability of outcomes associated with high performance. The value of or preference for a particular outcome is called valence. To determine valence, people will ask themselves whether or not they can accomplish a goal, how important is the goal to them (in the immediate as well as the long term), and what course of action will provide the greatest reward. An individual’s expectation of actually achieving the outcome is crucial to success, and many factors influence this.

The expectancy theory says that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:

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There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance,

Favourable performance will result in a desirable reward,

The reward will satisfy an important need,

The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.

Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes like rewards. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic money, promotion, time-off, benefits or basic satisfaction rewards. Management must discover what employee’s value.

Expectancy Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need.

Instrumentality The awareness of employees whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that

The expectancy theory can be applied through incentive systems that identify desired outcomes and give all workers the same opportunities to achieve rewards, such as stock ownership or other recognition for achievement. Given that communication satisfaction plays an influential role in motivating employees, it would be important for hotel managers to pay attention to communicating with employees. In this regard, it would be beneficial for hotel managers to understand how well satisfied employees are with communication. managers needs to be open to new ideas; managers listen and pay attention to employee; manager’s communications with employee to make them feel an important part of hotel also offers guidance for solving job-related problems and receive on-time information needed to do job. Conflicts are handled appropriately through proper communication channels; management’s communications with employees are accurate and organised; managers know and understand the problems faced by employees. Overall, managers are willing to listen to employees and accept ideas from employees, so employees feel they are part of the organisation.

Other issue employees may face is whose first language is not English work in the hotel industry. Here, communication might play a more important role in motivating employees. Managers should respect employees and understand cultural differences. In particular, managers should give clear and precise instructions to let employees know their job description, performance evaluation, service quality, and hotel values. Always providing prompt feedback, encouraging job involvement, and truly caring for employees make communication successful.

The equity theory focuses on individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are treated in comparison to others. The equity exists when people consider their compensation equal to the compensation of others who perform similar work. People judge equity by comparing inputs (such as education, experience, effort, and ability) to outputs (such as pay, recognition, benefits, and promotion).


A theory of reinforcement explains employee should have time maintenance as well the motivation structured by management. This theory based not on need but on the relationship between behaviour and its consequences. In the workplace, these theories can be applied to change or modify on-the-job behaviour through rewards and punishments.

This theory takes into consideration both motivation and the environment, focusing on stimulus and response relationships. Through his research, Skinner noted that a stimulus will initiate behaviour; thus, the stimulus is an antecedent to behaviour. The behaviour will generate a result; therefore, results are consequences of behaviour.(McCoy, 1992)

The four types of reinforcement are the following:

Positive reinforcement: The application of a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a desired behaviour, such as giving praise.

Negative reinforcement: The removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behaviour, such as a manager no longer reminding a worker about a weekly deadline when the worker meets the deadline. This reinforcement is also called avoidance.

Punishment: The application of an unpleasant outcome when an undesirable behaviour occurs to reduce the likelihood of that behaviour happening again. This form of reinforcement does not indicate a correct behaviour, so its use in business is not usually appropriate.

Extinction: The withdrawal of a positive reward. If the behaviour is no longer positively reinforced, then it is less likely to occur in the future and it will gradually disappear.

From the argument clearly conclude that motivation is the essential need to the employees to enhance their abilities, it is also important to the management, to provide the training needs to motivate the persons and involve them particularly in socio cultural things.

Chapter 3 :A Case of Leadership and Motivation in Hilton Manchester Deansgate

The management and leadership method of Hilton Manchester Deansgate has a huge effect on its working atmosphere and the employees’ inspiration. The progress of a finest leadership style and executive skills that is the most proper to an organization is vital, having a key effect on its life duration. Hilton’s Managers world class leadership style helps the hotel to attain its goals . There are two types of leadership styles, one that is task-oriented and the other that is employee-oriented. A manager with a task-oriented style will have work results as his major concerns; and therefore, he will enlarge rigid policy that would lead the subordinates into working their errands to reach his preferred results.

Case Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in motivation and organisational commitment of employees and employee motivation and their level of organizational commitment.

Interviews are taken from the basic stage of work group in Hilton hotel. Those interviews are in the form of face to face interviews, direct interviews. Interview questions in the form of multiple options with agree, strongly agree, disagree, strongly disagree and not applicable. So that involving employees can express their views by choosing the options, in this survey, over 25 employees from Manchester, involved and responded for the following 16 questions. It gives the view of leadership and employee motivation level in organisation.

1Q:- My work gives me feeling of personal success.

A: Organizational success is ultimately depends on employee motivation and participation. Every job design will define the employee responsibilities, most of the employees feel that they are giving a good performance.25 employees responded, in that 19 employees agreed, 2 strongly agreed, 4 disagreed.

2Q:- I like the kind of work I do

A: organisation responsibility to create the likely environment, so that all the employees can like to work. 25 employees responded in that 21 agreed, 2 strongly agreed, 2 disagreed.

3Q:- I know how my work relates to organisation mission and goals

A: management needs to make aware their employees of organisation vision, mission, and goals. Employees should need to know what the goal of organisation is so that performs their work towards to organisation goals. 17 employees responded as agreed, 1 strongly agreed, 7 disagreed,

4Q:- I do give importance for my work

A: it describes the organisation attitude and having impacts on outcomes. If employees feel their job is much important to them, than they can involve with much effectively. In higher range 23 employees agreed and 2 employees are disagreed.

5Q:- I feel my department gets support and teamwork from other areas within the Company.

A: organisational development depends on employee training and development. Employees need proper training according to their jobs, to effective involvement. 18 agreed, 2 strongly agreed, 5 disagreed.

6Q:- Overall I am very much satisfied with my job at organisation.

A: satisfaction does cost much in organisation. It effects on employee performance. 22 employees were agreed, , 3 disagreed,.

7Q:- My manager clearly defines my job responsibilities.

A: job enrichment is the key factor to feel employees more responsible. Employees need to know their job responsibilities, management need to assign tasks to their employees. 24 employees responded as agreed only one employee disagrees with this issue.

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8Q:-My manager/supervisor encourages high achievement by reducing the fear of failure.

A: employees need motivation, encouragement to produce effective performance. 25 employees responded as agreed.

9Q:- My manager/supervisor takes responsibility for shaping the attitudes and relationships within our department.

A: employee relations key task in organisation run successful for managers, they need maintain a good relation with employees, so that they can easily shape their attitude. 20 employees agreed 5 disagreed.

10Q:- My manager/supervisor clearly communicates what is expected of me.

A: Employee communications mechanisms involve the provision and exchange of information and instructions, which enables an organisation to function effectively and its employees to be properly informed about developments. 24 employees responded agreed, 1disagreed.

11Q:- My manager/supervisor provides me with continuous feedback to help me achieve.

A: every organisation need to provide the feedback so that employee can improve his performance to achieve organisation goals. 14 employees responded as agreed, 1 strongly agreed, 10 disagreed.

12Q:- Employees have a feeling of personal empowerment and ownership of work processes.

A: empowerment gives to employees having autonomous decision-making capabilities and acting as partners in the business. 16 employees responded as agreed, 6 disagreed, 3 strongly disagreed.

13Q:- Satisfaction with involvement in decisions that affect work

A: Employee satisfaction is an emotional state resulting from the experiences an employee feels at work. 17 employees responded as agreed, 1 employee strongly agreed, 7 employees disagreed with a kind of disappointment.

14Q:- I have a high level of respect for my organisation’s senior leaders and my colleagues.

A: organisations values give feel employees to be respectful, so that everyone respectable with another. 24 employees responded as agreed, 1 employee disagreed.

15Q:- In the last 3 weeks, I received recognition or praise for doing good work?

A: Performance appraisals have a great impact on employee performance. Performance review can give clear indication to employee’s performance recognition and opportunity to increase performance. 18 employees responded as agreed, 7 employees responded as disagreed.

16Q: – Since a year, I got more opportunities to learn and grow my skills.

A: employee involvement and participation is a key task to organisation. For high involvement practices, employee needs to get proper training and development. 12 employees responded as agreed, 10 disagreed and 3 employees strongly disagreed.

Summary of findings

Survey finds out that how organisation motivates their employees to effect on their success. Questionnaire pointed out the key factors such like employee involvement, organisational success, job responsibility, how organisation determine the vision includes within the employees, organisation culture, employee development towards to organisation development, job enrichment, performance appraisal, empowerment levels, employee satisfaction, and communications. Employees at the Hilton hotel most of them are aware of what the organisation expecting from them, and they felt they are satisfactory with their organisation.

Quantitative data of survey providing the entire descriptions, Job satisfaction at there was, 80% employees satisfied with their job, least 20% having unsatisfied. It shows that organisation need to evolve more strategies to make the job interesting and create healthy environmental at work. Organisational success also higher at Hilton, they prefer their employees as a key assets, it is quite interesting about only 60% employees satisfied with organisational strategies. It means that the company needs to reach more employees in order to get more success. Training and development procedures at higher rate and should leading as example to others, overall 89% employees satisfied with their procedures and low level group of employees strongly argued that they are not really affecting their work. It explains that management needs more attention to develop their training strategies useful to all the employees. Communications among different role of employees were too poor, 45% people satisfied and 55% employees strongly disagreed with their superior’s communications, it indicates that there is a no perfect communication systems are following, so organisation needs to develop more communication and employee relation strategies The research of Marchington et al (2001) demonstrated that employers in the 18 organisations they studied valued the voice of the employee in contributing to management decision making because they believed it contributed to business performance.

Chapter 4: Recommendations and Conclusion

Employee motivation is essential to the success of organisations. A lack of employee motivation may cause organizational problems in turnover and retention, morale, and poor productivity. Hotel industry is not unfamiliar with these human resource issues, however, many restaurants choose to accept these issues as part of the business or utilize ineffective, outdated motivation techniques. Recognition of the problem of employee motivation is the first step a restaurant. Organisation may choose to tackle the problem

Today most of the organisations turning into employee voluntary programs such as a key strategy to increase their business goals while positively involving their employees to meet the needs of the organisation. Management should ensure that, employees are committed about getting involved, it is important to find most satisfactory way for them to participate so that their efforts can really make a difference to organisation. Having a number of perspectives, it is clear that employee motivation is central to the modern organisational practices. Moreover, the benefits of employee motivation and effective leadership are more if company implement effectively.

In implementing employee motivation theories in practices, a number of general principles apply the needs of tourism industry, the provision of education and training, the multiplicity of arrangements, top management commitment and adequate resources.

Wilkinson (2001) has also pointed out that the theory assumes that participative decision making is likely to lead to better quality management decisions, so that empowerment represents a win or win situation with gains available to both employers and employee to get increased efficiency and job satisfaction.

Training, information and appropriate authority to do the job well, Regular and effective team meetings, and need to recognition for successes and fair reward based on performance also need to create an equality of opportunity based on merit.

Concluding the survey organisation is following the high level involvement strategies to show their impact on employees to produce a higher success. There were many areas of notable strength one of the most outstanding was engaging with people and employing a vast cross section. There were also very strong results demonstrating that staff had the best coaching available and felt their managers were strong leaders and inspiring leaders.

Employee satisfaction needs more motivation through their own performance and communication of their expectations.

Chapter 5 : References

1.Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

2.Coch, L and French, J.R.P.(1948) ‘Overcoming Resistance to Change’, Human Relations, Volume 1, pp512-532.Hiebert, M and Klatt, B.(2001)The Encyclopedia of Leadership; A Practical guide to popular Leadership Theories and Techniques. United States of America, McGraw-Hill.

3. Daft, Richard L. (1997). “Management”, 4th ed. Orland, Fl.: Harcourt Brace.

4.Ivancevich J.M, Konopaske R, and Matteson M.T (2008), Organisationalbehaviour and management, newyork, 8th edition, Pg no: 413-426, McGraw-Hill companies,Inc.

5.Michel Armstrong`s. (2006). “A hand book of Human Resource Management Practice”, 10th edition, kogan page published in London. p.p: 251-269.

6.Petri, Herbert L. (1996). “Motivation: Theory, Research, and Applications”, 4th ed. Pacific Grove, pCA: Brooks/Cole.

7.Quick, Thomas L. (1985). “The Manager’s Motivation Desk Book”.7th edition, New York: Wiley.

8.Richard M. and Carlos J (2002). Management crosses cultures strategy” Cambridge university press).

9.Wright P.L. and Taylor D.S.(1994) Improving Leadership Performance; Interpersonal Skills for effective Leadership; 2nd ed.Hertfordshire, Prentice Hall International Ltd.







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