Managerial Roles As Identified By Mintzberg

In this role the managers regularly seek out information related to the organisation and industry. They monitor relevant changes in the environment and also monitor their team’s productivity and well-being. Examples of workplace experience include maintaining personal contact, attending seminars and training; and reading reports.


Managers represent and speak on their organisation’s behalf. In this role they are responsible for transmitting information about their organisation and its goals to the people outside of the organisation. Examples are conferences and reports.


The manager performs social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. The manager is expected to be a source of inspiration. Someone people can look up to, someone with authority. In this role the manager acts as a symbolic leader. An example is the signing of legal documents.


In this role, managers provide leadership for their team, department or organization as a whole; and manage subordinates’ performances and responsibilities. Examples of workplace experience include the training and interactions with employees.


Managers establish and maintain communication with internal and external contacts. This entails the effective networking on behalf of the organisation. An example is the participation in meetings with representatives from other divisions inside the organisation or other businesses.


The manager must create and control changes within the organisation. This entails the solving of problems, generation of new ideas and the implementation thereof. An example is the housing shortlist and the provision of thereof.

QUESTION 1 Continued…

Resource Allocator

In this role the manager needs to determine where the organisational resources are best applied. This involves the allocation of funding, the assignment of staff and other organisational resources. This also involves the drafting and approval of plans, schedules, budgets and setting of priorities.

Disturbance Handler

Deals with the mediation of disputes and problems; and takes corrective actions. The manager settles conflicts between subordinates; choose strategic alternatives and overcome crisis situations.


2.1 The role and importance of a mission statement is to describe the organisation in terms of the customers’ needs it aims to satisfy, the goods or services it aims to supply and the markets it intends to pursue. The mission statement describes the organisations’ purpose for existence and it details facts such as what the organisation is all about, who the organisation is and the type of business it is in.

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The role and importance of a vision statement is to describe where the organisation wants to be in the future. An example would be, a natural water bottling company who wants to expand into flavoured water bottling, and the marketing and selling thereof.

2.2 The mission and vision of an organisation must be enforced through tactical planning. This is the process of making detailed decisions about what has to be done; who will be doing it and how it will be done. The statements are best developed if input by all the members of the organisation is acquired and the people working in the organisation need to believe it, in order for the customers to believe in it.




The benefit that can be achieved by implementing planning is that you will know exactly how you will accomplish your goals for improving productivity. You will know exactly what has to be done, how it is to be done, when it needs to be done and by whom it is to be done. An overall direction will be established, you will identify and commit the correct resources and you will know which tasks have to be done. Planning provides structure and guidelines and the development of strategies will take place.


Through organising, the hierarchy of the production team will take shape. You will determine who is most qualified to perform the work and help you improve productivity. The benefit of organising is thus the establishment of a strong team who can be developed even further through training.


The benefit of leading is that you can influence and motivate your subordinates towards the improvement of productivity.


By implementing control, you will guide the production team towards improving productivity. You will monitor and compare the team’s actual activities against the production goals. The benefit of control is; if the actual doesn’t compare with the plans, you can make the changes needed to match the productivity with the goals as set out.


The eventual benefits of improvement of productivity will mean employee satisfaction. Subordinates will take pride in their jobs, which in turn will mean that the quality of the products produced will be improved. The improvement of productivity will mean higher volumes of products will be produced, which will create customer satisfaction. This will increase turnovers, which will create profit generation for the organisation.

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Document Prepared By: Loriaan Isaacs


4.1 A skill is the ability to accomplish specific tasks by demonstrating specific behaviours, while a competency is the aptitude to participate in non-routine intellectual activities. Skills and competencies can be strengthened through further studies, through hands-on experience and on the job training and also by taking on new responsibilities.

4.2 The six competencies that managers should possess are:

Communication competency

Planning and administration competency

Teamwork competency

Strategic action competency

Global awareness competency

Self-management competency

Communication competency is the effective transfer and exchange of information that leads to the understanding between yourself and others. It includes informal communication, formal communication and negotiating. Informal communication is the building of strong interpersonal relationships via two-way communication, with a wide range of people, formal communication includes clear, concise and effective writing, and negotiating is the skill of exercising upward influence with superiors, laterally with peers, downward with subordinates as well as externally with customers, suppliers and other stakeholders.

Planning and administration competency involves deciding what tasks need to be done, determining how they can be done, allocating resources to enable them to be done and then monitoring progress to ensure that they are done. It includes information gathering, analysis and problem solving; planning and organizing projects; time management; and budgeting and financial management. This competency includes the taking of calculating risks and the anticipation of the consequences, the prioritizing of tasks, monitoring of schedules and the understanding of budgets, cash flows, financial reports, annual reports and the uses of such information.

4.3 Evaluation of Loriaan Isaacs by Duane Spandiel, LLB graduate

Loriaan’s informal communication competency is very good, she communicates well with a wide range of people. Her formal communication competency is excellent, but I found that her negotiating competency requires further training and developing.

QUESTION 4 Continued…

4.3 Evaluation of Loriaan Isaacs by Duane Spandiel, LLB graduate continued…

I found her planning and administration competency lacking. She needs to grow in this department and I am sure that she will be capable to be excellent in risk taking and prioritizing tasks, after she had undergone further development and training.

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5.1 Delegation of authority is the downward transfer of formal authority from superior to subordinate. The employee is empowered to act for the manager, but the manager remains accountable for the outcome.

5.2 The six principles for improving delegation of authority are:

Establish goals and standards

Every manager before delegating the powers to the subordinates should be able to clearly define the goals as well as the results expected from them. The standards of performance should also be notified clearly.

Define authority and responsibility

The manager should maintain a balance between authority and responsibility. If a subordinate is given a responsibility to perform a task, he should be given enough authority to carry out the task effectively.

Involve subordinates

The manager should allow subordinates to participate in brainstorming ideas, the manager must be prepared to consider the ideas of their subordinates.

Require completed work

The manager must be clear with the results expected. The manager must determine the acceptable level of performance.

Provide training

The manager must provide employees with training to prepare them for greater responsibilities.

Establish adequate controls

The manager should measure the employee’s success against the goals set. The manager should stay on top of things and hold the employee accountable. The manager should establish feedback controls.


6.1 The three levels of management in an organization are First-Line Managers, Middle Managers and Top Managers.

6.2 Three primary tasks of First-line managers include responsibility for the production of goods or delivery of services, supervision of employees in their everyday tasks and leading employees who do the actual work. Middle managers are responsible for directing and coordinating the activities of first-line managers, they transform top management’s strategies into specific goals and plans for line management to implement, and they carry out top manager’s directives by delegating authority to their subordinates. Top management tasks include the provision of executive leadership and strategic vision, they are responsible for the overall direction of an organization and they manage the strategic planning process.


Departmentalisation is the grouping of jobs that belong together in order to reach the organisation’s goals, example: National, Provincial and Local Government. The four basic types of departmentalization are:

Functional departmentalization

Place departmentalization

Product departmentalization

Customer departmentalization

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