Managing change in organizations assignment
Introduction of change through systems:
Following is the example of change at my workplace. I worked in an NGO (non profit organisation) .Things are smooth before the introduction of computers. As most of the work done is on books and register which not only take too much time but there is also the chances of error. We often got complaints from Auditors that our system is not right and there are many mistakes and loop holes in it. Therefore our top management decided to introduce the computers in the organisation. As this is big organisation and also funded by government. It has many departments in it. Most of people don’t know how to use computers. They resist the change. So we have to look at different systems to make this happen. This is the big change in the system and we also have to keep in mind reactions of different stakeholders.
Importance of stakeholders:
Stakeholders are people who have some form of interest in the change, whether they are the targets of the change, managers or other interested parties. They can be anybody like directors, shareholders or even creditors.
A lack of stakeholder management is one of the key reasons why change projects fail, so understanding them and ensuring they are addressed in all plans and activities is a critical activity.
Qualities for a successful system:
Following are the qualities of the successful system.
1. Leadership – The leadership team is aligned with the business direction and engaged in driving behaviours and practices to achieve change.
2. Culture – The work climate and the employee values and behaviours adapt to new business situations and encourage excellent performance.
3. Commitment – Employees throughout the organisation are willing to embrace new ways to think, behave, and perform.
4. Capabilities – Employees at all levels develop and share the skills and knowledge to perform in new ways.
5. Structure – Organisational structures including roles, responsibilities, and relationships are designed to support organisational agility and performance.
6. Communication – Employees at all levels share information in a timely manner.
7. Performance – Processes, incentives, and management practices recognise, reward, and reinforce the achievement of goals.
System modelling shows how the system should be working. Use this technique to examine how various components work together to produce a particular outcome.
By diagramming the linkages between each system activity, system modelling makes it easier to understand the relationships among various activities and the impact of each on the others. It shows the processes as part of a larger system whose objective is to serve a specific client need.
System modelling uses three elements: inputs, processes, and outcomes.
Inputs are the resources used to carry out the activities (processes).
Processes are the activities and tasks that turn the inputs into products and services.
Outcomes are the results of processes. Outcomes generally refer to the direct outputs generated by a process, and may sometimes refer to the more indirect effects on the procedure and the still more indirect impacts on the wider community.
Ref: Quality Assurance Tools and Methods website
Therefore we develop four systems through which we are going to implement the change.
Change through Mutual understanding:
We can use collaborative system for this because its suits our organisation. We have different staff in different cities. Like the larger family of distributed applications, collaborative systems are distinguished by the fact that the agents in the system are working together towards a common goal and have a critical need to interact closely with each other, sharing information, exchanging requests with each other, and checking in with each other on their status. The problem with collaboration is that it takes time and effort. When speed is important and resources are limited on the ground, then investing in collaborative efforts can seem wasteful.
Further, the system captures user’s feedback, which can be verbal requirement, facial expression, and keyboard input. Then the system analyzes user’s response, compares to predetermined goals or expert’s requirement, and provides user advices in various desired formats. Care must be taken during consultation to ensure that people know the process, and that they perceive it to be fair. As you move away from collaboration, greater trust is required of the decision-makers and thus more trust-building activities may be required.
Previously a bureaucratic approach is used in all the decision. The organization is told how it will go to work. This is thus using the principle of push to drive through change. The problem with this is that there is often a fear that there will be greater resistance to change if people know what is going to happen. Resistance comes particularly from those who hold power.
To help reduce the problem of resistance, very high levels of communication may be required.
A coercive approach is also in the list as it pays little attention to the people, their ideas or their needs. Changes are implemented in a relatively mechanical way. Typical of a coercive approach is the shock and surprise that people encounter as change is thrust upon them. Not all coercive approaches are unethical and some are simply born of the need for urgency. Ethics lie in the values of the people who are planning and implementing the change, rather than the fact that a coercive approach is being used.
Analyse and evaluate these systems:
A Collaborative approaches are particularly important when you have a high level of professionally qualified people like in our organisation almost 50% of people are highly qualified and rest are qualified by experience .
Consultation is, in many ways, a watered-down version of collaboration. The views of people are elicited, which does take some time e.g. achieving an acceptable decision with a lot of people is often very time-consuming.
Under directive system a flip over from pull to push required and you thus need the power to be able to make this work, particularly getting people all going in the same direction rather than scattering as they run away from the push.
Direction thus needs to be done firmly and quickly e.g. every body know how to do and when to do it and have proper resources to do that and also suits situations where time is of the essence.
As discussed earlier it an aggressive way to implement change , coercive suit only those situations where you need people to move particularly fast or where human relations have broken down to the point where nobody listens to anyone else and the only option is force. Of course this is not a desirable option, but when the alternative is total failure, it may be the best (or only) choice of action.
Ways of implementing the change:
1) Developmental Change:
Developmental change occurs when a company makes an improvement to their current business. If a company decided to improve their processes, methods or performance standards this would be considered developmental change. This type of change should cause little stress to current employees as long as the rationale for the new process is clearly conveyed and the employees are educated on the new techniques. When major change such as the decision to close a division, if the company attempted to implement developmental change as the first step in streamlining the business, employees may be more likely to accept the change. The employees could see that the company attempted different strategies before determining that closing the division was the only option.
Transitional change is more intrusive than developmental change as it replaces existing processes or procedures with something that is completely new to the company. The period when the old process is being dismantled and the new process is being implemented is called the transitional phase. A corporate reorganization, merger, acquisition, creating new products or services, and implementing new technology are examples of transitional change. Transitional change may not require a significant shift in culture or behaviour but it is more challenging to implement than developmental change. The future of the organization is unknown when the transformation begins which can add a level or discomfort to employees.
Transformational change occurs after the transition period. Transformational change may involve both developmental and transitional change. It is common for transitional and transformation change to occur in tandem. When companies are faced with the emergence of radically different technologies, significant changes in supply and demand, unexpected competition, lack of revenue or other major shifts in how they do business, developmental or transitional change may not offer the company the solution they need to stay competitive. Instead of methodically implementing new processes, the company may be forces to drastically transform themselves.
Analysis of Changes:
Articulating the reasons for the change and sharing the vision of the senior leaders of the organization can help alleviate some of the resistance to change. Employees will naturally resist change but are more likely to accept the change if they view top management as keeping them informed and supporting them throughout the process. Employees will look for a rationale for the implementation of this major change. Top management should be prepared to involve employees in all phases of the transition.
Any change requires a typically set up through a series of regular and formal meetings at all levels of management through the organization.