Organizational commitment among Public employees in Malaysia
Organization is one of the working places that have two or more people that coordinate the activities with their own mission and vision for ensure there are competitive in the industry, furthermore it is collection of peoples and activities for certain task that to be achieved (Nikmahajan, 2007). The development of human capital is important for the nation because from the good human capital it will realize the national aspiration and it can be perform through the better human resource management practice in every organization. Public employees are people that working in the government sector according to their ministry or department, they were considered as public servants. There are also playing major roles to shown an efficiency of the government functions and responsibilities.
Development human capital is important in creating many high skill and knowledge workers for the giving more quality service delivery for the customers which is peoples, so in the 9th and 10th Malaysia plan the development of the human capital were emphasized to create high skills and knowledge workers (Economic report, 2009/2010). In the organizations also there are many types of attitudinal and attitudes that influence the performance of the organizations, this is related to the organizational commitment, other than that loyalty and give more effort behalf of the company is also commitment that must showed by the employees in every organizations (Utusan, 2010).
The organizational commitment among public servants is important for make sure the quality service be able to deliver to the peoples. Furthermore, there are also factors that influencing the organizational commitment among the public servants that which shows the current commitment towards the ministry or department that they serve. This study will conducted at Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (MOHE) among the management division public employees. This is one of the ministries that facilitate and manage the Malaysia education system. As a result, this organizational commitment study want to observe is it factors of training and development, job compensation, management support and career development will influence the commitment among this ministry employees through their perspective.
2.0 Problem statement
The problems facing by the most of the government is to have more efficient and quality employees in every government ministry and departments. The major problems that can seen is there are cases of the less responsibility that getting attention from many peoples, it showed that it might less advantages and benefits receive by them, therefore it were shows that they are not committed to the department that they served.
The efficient of the public service deliver depend to the performance of the public employees, there are many problems faced by the many ministry and departments for enhance the performance and commitment of the employee such as high absenteeism, low commitment, take it easy of some task given by the management and rude behavior practice. (Nor Hartini Saari, 2010)
Other than that from the observation and according from officers believed that this ministry, there are some of the employees in many public sectors were not showing a good commitment in doing their task. Some of them did not focus and sluggish in doing the job or task given by the top management. So this study kindly wants to know why these kinds of problems occurs that directly affecting the commitment to the organization that they serve.
3.0 Research questions
What is factors that influencing organizational commitment?
How far the level of organizational commitment among Ministry of Higher education employees?
Which factors that mostly influencing the organizational commitment?
4.0 Research Objectives
To identify the level of organizational commitment among the public servants in MOHE.
To examine the relationship such as job compensation, training and development, career development and management support with the organizational commitment.
To identify most of factors that affects the organizational commitment
To suggest and recommend to enhance the commitment to that particular ministry.
5.0 Scope of the study
This research limited to employees in Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (MOHE) Management division:
This research focused on MOHE Management Division in Putrajaya.
The respond from the respondent will collect from January ââ‚¬” May 2011. This is a five months research.
6.0 Literature review
6.1 Organizational commitment
Organizational commitment is related to the attitude and behavior of the person in the particular organizations. It is also an organizational behavior and psychological attachment to any groups, associations and organizations which is not same with one individual to another individual. (Seok Hwan Lee and Olshfski, D. 2002). Organizational commitment is also a loyalty and feels as a part of the organizations; furthermore according to the Seok Hwan Lee and Olshfski, D. (2002) organizational commitment is to predict the job performance, behavior, effectiveness of the employees and better performance of organization.
According to the Allan and Meyer (1991), organizational commitment divided into three types which are affective, continuance and normative commitment among the employees. Affective commitment explained about positive emotional and belief as part of the organization, however it is different in continuance commitment which is commitment associated with the cost if leaving the organizations. They committed because they feel losing their membership, pensionââ‚¬â„¢s accruals and close friendships among co-workers. Furthermore normative commitment is commitment that sense of obligations and responsibility for the particular organizations, as example when organization educate and training them it is makes them feels responsible and should pay that debts through commitment with the organizations.
Organizational commitment among employees also affected with many factors which are job compensation, job satisfactions, job motivations, and organization environment and supervision (Darwish A.yousef, 1999). This past research showed that organization commitment affected with those factors among non-western settings. Other than organizational commitment among the public employees will turn to lower and expose negative impacts because of the low performance of that particulars employee, lastly were affecting them to be more committed to the organizations that they serve. (Khulida kirana yahya , Johanim johari, & etc., 2008)
6.2 Job compensation
Job compensation is one of the important elements in determining the commitment among the employees in organizations because when organization provide stable job compensation it will influence commitment to serve and increasing the level of motivation of employees for working with committed. Salary or pay also associated with job compensation, this is because if the employees satisfied with the pays, salary, incentives, allowance and pension will influence the commitment towards organizations. (Getahun, S. Sim, B. & Hummer D, 2000)
According to the past research indicated that job characteristics which is job compensation and pensions were influenced the parole officer commitment, 89 percent of the parole officer were satisfied with the pay and it contribute for more responsible and loyal in perform their task. (Getahun, S. Sim, B. & Hummer D, 2000). This showed that job compensation is one of the predictors that influence organizational commitment among employees and important factors to make sure those employees committed or loyal to the organization that they serve.
There are many studies were done in organizational commitment but this job compensation are less tested in many those research. According to Yi Jen (2007) the job satisfaction particularly job compensation has positive relationship with the organizational commitment. Then supported by another by Sanguan (2000), which is also has positive relationship in pay and prospect and organizational commitment among Thailand telecommunication industry employees.
There are also positive correlations were influenced the organizational commitment, this stable job compensation such as pay, promotion and pension were increase employees commitment and they will be perform well in do the task or job better and effective. (Andrew Hale Feinstein, 2000)
6.3 Career development
Career development is getting up on the hierarchy of the organizations or simply called promotion in one position to high position. This career development also were influence the employees to stay or loyal to the organization, if they get more opportunity in develop their career until superior level such as managers, they will more committed and attached in the organizations that they serve. This can seen during economic crisis in 1997 in Korea, many young employees were forced to leave their company because do not do not guarantee long-term tenure and less opportunity career development, so this showed organizational commitment and good service delivery among employees also depend to the career development opportunity.( Ji hyun Jung & Jinkook Tak, 2008)
An employees will be more satisfied with their job and if they know a good future in the organization that they served, so this will lead them to be more committed and do the task effective and efficiently. They will more have an spirit and determination for work very hard for achieve what they want in their own career. Other than to more develop to better work position or promotion in an organization they must know the requirements such as knowledge, development and skills to that particular position offered. (Sajid Bashir and Mohammad Ismail Ramay, 2008)
6.4 Training and development
Training and development assisting employees be more understand and improve the skills for perform their task, and it were policies from the organization for enhance the skills of the employees. Training and development will encourage employees be more experienced and shaping their talents for the improvements of individualsââ‚¬â„¢ skills and organization mission. Organizational commitment will increase when the employees have expose with training and development of their talent according to the job scope. According to the Michel J. Schats (2007), there are emerging of increasing of organizational commitment with the training and development. This showed that in order to retain and increase commitment an employers must be take care this kind of practice which is give more training and provide a platform to develop their talents and skills. Training and development were focus in term of improvement of job performance, such as to train the employees for using particular technology, machines and others. Furthermore it also to make sure the workforce were adapt and flexible with the nature of the work and contribute for better service delivery to the stakeholders (Smith Hayton, 1999).
6.5 Management support
Management support is about the management and leadership of the organization to assist their employees. The management supports were enhances the commitment of the employees and also engaging the employees to help achieve their goals. Management support can be one of the actions to make sure employees can be influenced through the leadership (Dominic cooper, 2006). Leadership also an activities or process to organized group and efforts towards achieved mission and vision of organization. Leadership according to the Kedsuda Limsila and Stephen O. Ogunlana (2007) describe that there are 2 types which is transactional style and transformational style which is transactional leaders emphasize on the physical and the security needs of subordinates and transformational style encourages subordinates to put extra effort and to go beyond what they (subordinates) expected before. So this showed that to achieve the vision and mission of the organizations it depends on the management support or leadership of the particular management.
A quality leader will influence the subordinates which are the subordinate were satisfied and can enhance the level of commitment from normal rate to higher and also make them desired to succeed in achieved the goals of the organizations that they served.( Kedsuda Limsila and Stephen O. Ogunlana, 2007). According to the research conducted on relationship with leaderships have positive relationship between work performance, commitment and satisfaction with the job that they performed (Euske and Jackson, 1980; Savery, 1994).
6.6 Conceptual framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AMONG PUBLIC EMPLOYEES
Opportunity for promotion
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
Training & encouragement
Responsibility of the organization
(Adapted from: Khulida Kirana Yahya ,Johanim Johari, & etc., 2008)
7.0 Methodology of study
Sources of data
The data for this study will be collected through personally administered questionnaires and it is quantitave study. The advantage of this method is the completed data can be collect from the respondents in one time or period.Questionnaire of organizational commitment adapted from (Khulida Kirana Yahya ,Johanim Johari, & etc., 2008)
The researchers using stratified sampling technique.
8.0 Significance of the study
The benefits that the researcher is hoping to find from this study are:
This study to reveal the factors influence the organizational commitment that should be identifies and solve. While, the result of this study it will provide relevant information for the Ministry of Higher education management division, about the commitment and factors that influence among their employees towards their organization. Lastly, results from this research also to know the level of organizational commitment among the Ministry of Higher Education management division employees.
9.0 Potential Limitations of the study
This research scope only will study on job compensation, training and development, career development and management support with the organizational commitment, this result from this research not shows the whole of the country and cannot be generalize on others public organizations.
10.0 Propose Structure of Research
The researcher has proposed the reliable structure of research on organizational commitment among public employees.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter will discuss about the background of the study which is organizations, development of human capital and organizational commitment. Furthermore the problem statement, research objectives, research question, scope of study, and significant of study.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Chapter 2 will discuss about the literature review for identify any past research findings, theories and any supportive argument. Therefore, literatures review important as a guideline for this research which is mostly about the organizational commitment literature.
Chapter 3: Methodology of Study
In the chapter 3, the researcher will discuss the method that will perform for collecting and measuring this study. Other than that the researcher will discuss about the research design, sampling technique and sample size.
Chapter 4: Findings
In this chapter it will have the results of the data collection using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). This is for measuring the any relationship in organizational commitment and for the descriptive analysis priory on demographic of respondents. Furthermore, it is also to answer the objectives of study.
Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusions
Final chapter will discuss about the results of findings that will use to determine the solution and recommendations in order to solve the problem that have been highlighted.