Pakistani & Indian Relations


From the beginning the seeds of conflicted have been impartially implanted in the roots of Pak-India Relations. These two nations never considered each other as their friends but remained and wanted to be foes. At the time of the partition, about half a million Muslims and Hindus were killed in mutual insurgences following the partition of British India. Millions of Muslims living in India and Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan immigrated in one of the most massive transfers of population in the modern era. Both countries blamed each other of not providing suitable security to the minorities immigrating through their territory. This served to increase tensions between the newly-born countries. This created instability in the area and never lead each other to prosper economically.

The relations between India and Pakistan have been influenced by a number of historical and political issues, and is defined by the crucial partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the number of military conflicts fought between the two nations. No doubt that the nations share the same historic, cultural, geographic, and economic terms In the Sub-Continent and their relationship has been critical by aggression and doubts.

Countries Comparison:

Wars, Conflicts and Disputes:

  1. Kashmir Issue:

The emerging, countering and the most deadly issues in the world is the cause of major tension and conflict between two countries. It was from the beginning when the Ruler of Kashmir decided to remain independent at the times of division. Now after the division Pakistan is claiming its Dominance and India is claiming its reunion with Kashmir which is leading to a critical situation and insurgency.

  1. 1965 War & Kargil War (1998-99)

After the independence, India had left no stone unturned to bring harm to the sovereignty of Pakistan. Moreover their actions of the 1965 war claimed their aggression towards Pakistani community. Moreover it is still pressurizing the army of Pakistan. Another incident when Pak become nuclear superpower in 1999 the Kargil war broke out. But some analysts claim that they have been the victim of releasing of tensions from the both sides. But both were solved by the International communities.

  1. Water dispute

Since independence the water dispute emerged as major dispute between the two nations about rivers Ravi,Sutlej,Chenab,Beas,Jehlum and Sindh.So after the cooperation of World Bank, In 1960, Indus Treaty was signed to resolve the conflict.Pak get Chenab,Indus and Jehlum and India got Ravi, Sutlej and Beas according to the treaty.

  1. Bangladesh Liberation War

Since independence, Pakistan was geo-politically divided into two major regions, West Pakistan and East Pakistan. East Pakistan was occupied mostly by Bengali people. In December 1971, following a political crisis in East Pakistan, the situation soon risen out of control in East Pakistan and India intervened in favor of the rebelling Bengali people. The conflict results in a brief but bloody war and lead to the independence of East Pakistan. In the war, the Pakistani army swiftly fell to India while forcing the independence of East Pakistan which separated and became Bangladesh.

  1. Control Line Issues

A number of times when the relations and tensions between India and Pakistans seemed to be decreasing the control line issues came into existence by the Military of both cuontries. The true example is Kargil war (1998-99).Firings, bombings and arresting of innocent people are key findings of these issues.

Conflicts Reborn:

  1. Samjhota Express Bombings (2007)

The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombings was a terrorist attack targeted on the Samjhauta Express train on 18 February. The Samjhauta Express is an international train that runs from New Delhi, India to Lahore, Pakistan. It is one of two trains to cross the India-Pakistan border. At least 68 people were killed. Mostly were Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. Prasad Shrikant Purohit, an Indian Army officer and leader of a Hindu Fundamentalist Group.It was identified and investigated as a key suspect responsible for the bombing. The attack was a turning point in Indo-Pakistani relations, and one of the many terrorist incidents that have effected relations between the two countries.

  1. Mumbai attacks (2008)
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The 2008 Mumbai attacks by ten Pakistani terrorists killed over 173 and wounded 308. The single surviving gunman, Ajmal Kasab (who was arrested during the attacks), was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. In May 2010, an Indian court condemned him on four counts of murder, waging war against India, conspiracy and terrorism offences, and sentenced him to death. India blamed the Lashkar-e-Taiba, a Pakistan-based militant group, for planning and executing the attacks. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets. Indian officials demanded Pakistan deport suspect for trial. They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the criminals must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan.

Role of Media in Promoting Peace:

No doubt, over the last two decades, media has been playing a vital role over the peace and trade development talks of Pak-India relations. Not only Pakistani media but foreign media is also participating very actively. From ages these sides have never been to the soft corners of the issue but are always the grand part of mishaps. The both media men and media partners are also demanding their home countries to ensure easy visa policy to promote harmony among the countries. Singers like Atif Aslam and Rahat fateh Ali khan also go India for performing musical activities for the film industry of India. This shows a major peace initiative by media side.

The Lighter Side of Diplomatic Relationship:

  1. Aman ki Aasha:

“Aman ki Aasha” (Hope for Peace) is a campaign jointly started by the two leading media houses The Jang Group in Pakistan and The Times of India in India. The campaign purposes for mutual peace and development of the diplomatic and cultural relations between the two nations in South Asia. It was started on January 1, 2010. The campaign never received warm response from India and Pakistan.

  1. Shoaib and Sania Relationship:

The one of the greatest relationships ever made in the history of world and the most renowned one is “Shoaib and Sania Marriage” which has weaken the strong holds of hatred and anger between two nations. This has also presented a soft image of Pakistani personnel in the light of Indian dilemmas.

  1. Bilateral Sports Promotions:

Sports have always been a key player in promoting peace and harmony. Both countries were mutually involved in number of sports like Cricket, Hockey and Kabbadi. And both countries important persons often and several times go to their neighbors to see these cricket and hockey matches. Moreover, the recent Kabbadi Final match was warmly attended by Chief Minister Punjab, Mian Shahbaz Shareef. This was an important initiative regarding peace promotion.

Trade and Development Talks:

In Second Indian Expo on December 14, 2013, Leader of Businessmen Group (BMG) and former President Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI), Siraj Kassim Teli, has advised business community of India to pressurize their government to resolve issues and normalize trade and political relation with Pakistan. While Inaugurating 2nd Indian Expo at Expo Center, he said that both the countries should visit each other’s country frequently and conduct trade. He was of the view that army and politicians both the countries, do not like to normalize relation whereas the business community and general public are in favor of normal relations. There should be no restriction on movement between the two countries.

In New Delhi on December 9, 2013, a Pakistani delegation led by Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) said there is a need to take bold steps to encourage business relations and to make changes in investment laws in both the countries. According to him, It is time to take action and to take bold steps. Tourism is an important sector and there is a need to promote tourist movement. There is the need to change the existing investment laws in both the countries.

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Railways Minister of Pakistan Khawaja Saad Rafique has said that the Pakistan Railways will soon send a delegation to New Delhi. According to the minister, the main purpose of the visit is to learn about the functioning of the Indian Railway System. Rafique acknowledged that the Indian Railways is a profit-making entity unlike the Pakistan Railway. Pakistan also needs to take help and guidance from the Indian Railways to make it economically possible and bring it back on the right track. Addressing a press conference at Pakistan Railway headquarters in Lahore, he also said that Indian Railways, one of the largest railway networks in the world, has 115,000 km of track with a route of more than 65,000 km connecting 7,500 stations. We have to do away with the policy of hatred with neighbors, especially India, as we cannot afford it today.

MFN Talks:

India-Pakistan relations got an additional setback after the announcement made by Pakistan’s Finance Minister that the MFN status, i.e. the most favored nation status, to India will not be considered. Although the improve trade relations would have a significant impact on the political issues between the two countries, and this announcement makes it more likely that bilateral relations will continue to weaken at current low levels. The latest figures show that India’s 2012 trade with Pakistan accounted for a mere US$2.15 billion of its total trade of US$778 billion (less than 0.3 per cent). Exports to Pakistan accounted for only 0.56 per cent of India’s exports, while imports constituted 0.11 per cent. Given the size of both countries’ economies and the complementarily of their trading baskets, the present level of trade should be higher. The rejection of MFN status compounds these difficulties, and reduces the effect of positive steps taken by both countries over the last few years.

MFN status would not only help provide stability in trade relations between the two countries but would also assist Pakistan in technology upgrades, greater productivity gains, and increased revenues from legal trade. It is reported that India-Pakistan informal trade (trade occurring through a third country) accounts for more than formal trade (which is around US$4 billion). Further, consumers would experience lower product prices and greater variety. Despite Pakistan’s recent rejection of MFN status to India, India could unilaterally reduce all kinds of non-tariff barriers that would be capable of creating confidence among Pakistani traders. A good and stable political relationship would help trade but opposite is quite possible.

Whereas, nowadays Pakistan is closely watching the high-decibel campaign for India’s general elections, andNarendra Moodi has surprisingly emerged as the favorite candidate for many across the border who want peace and trade with India. They believe that Moodi, who boosted trade and investment in Gujarat, may also give a big push toIndo-Pak trade. Observing the Most favorite Nation (MFN) status to India by Pakistan would be a positive step forward in improving the relation between the two neighbors, Islamabad may decide on it after the elections in India, said James Dobbins (U.S Special Representative).

Global Views:

At their much anticipated meeting in New York, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and his Indian counterpart Manmohan Singh guaranteed to find ways to restore calm on their disputed border in Kashmir as an initial step towards reconciliation. An Indian official said that the two leaders have decided to task senior military officers to “find effective means to restore the ceasefire” in Kashmir.

U.S. Special Representative James Dobbins said ahead of an expectedmeeting in New York between the prime ministers of the two neighboring countries.Improvement in Pakistan-India relations is akey to South Asian stability and Washington would support any initiative towardsthat goal. He also said that on India and Pakistan relations, we would support any initiativeswhich led to an improvement in those relations. We think it’s importantfor both countries, it’s important for the stability of the broader region, it’simportant for the world, at Washington’s Foreign Press Center.He was commenting on peace prospects between the two nuclear powersthat saw a cooking of tensions this summer with repeated violations ofnegotiating periods in the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharifand his Indian counterpart Manmohan Singh are expected to hold peace discussions in New York, where they will both address the 68th UN General Assembly session.
They’re both nuclear-armed powers, and a conflict between them wouldbe disastrous not just for them, but for everyone. The special representative also reminded U.S. backing forimprovement in Afghanistan-Pakistan relations specifically because it would easesome of the pressures and tensions that give rise to the conflict in Afghanistan. And so from our point of view, there is everything to be gained from animprovement in the relationship between two countries.

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Current Scenario:

The Global Discussions for maintaining peace between India and Pakistan are at its peak these days. The newly elected Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Nawaz Sharif has taken a step forward towards India. Peace between the two nations seems to be his first priority. Mian Nawaz Sharif in his several speeches talked about the betterment of relation between the two nations. He also talked to one of the leading media group of India to play a positive role in this situation. He also invited Indian Prime Minister to visit Pakistan.

Recently, Chief Minister of Punjab, Mian Shahbaz Sharif visited India and watched Kabaddi match between the teams of both nations. He said if India wins the match we will congratulate you as our neighbors won and if Pakistan wins, India should do the same as their neighbors won. He invited Chief Minister of Indian Punjab to visit Pakistani Punjab.

This shows the positive stance of Pakistan’s government. On the other hand, India is not showing any response to this due to several reasons in which Indian elections are one of the main. Elections are going to take place in India hopefully this year and Monmohan’s government in about to finish its tenure. It seems that Monmahan Singh’s government is not willing to take any step for the peace between the nations as it might harm their party in the coming elections. At the same time, the Prime Minister candidate of BJP India, Mr. Narinder Moodi is using Anti-Pak relations as one of its main stance in his campaign. Both India and Pakistan are looking forward to improve their status economic development, globally. Both the nations are seen in a competition.


To sum up this scenario, only one-sided soft corner is seen which is from Pakistan as they are not leaving a single chance to improve the relations but Indian government is not looking forward to it. The relations cannot be improved until or unless both the governments sit together and resolve their issues. The gigantic spending on Defense Budget from both countries is leading them to an economic “Black Hole”. They should follow the famous sayings;

“Let Bygones, Be Bygones”

The Government of Pakistan has decided to give the MFN status to India after their elections. This status will increase the trade between then the two countries through land border and it is hoped that trade normalization can help in resolving the issues.


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