Performance Management In Lloyds Banking Group Management Essay

Corporations & organisations look for individuals with potential & techniques to develop their management skills, who in current market conditions are facing many challenges to gain skills, qualification, qualities & competencies that would make them better leaders & managers. Both organisations & individual’s looks to make investment that can get the best return. One way to achieve this is through the Management Development Program that seeks to set out the purpose of management development by considering what managers do in various contexts, and how they learn. As per Cannell. M (2008) Management development is a process through which individuals gain managerial skills through learning in turn helping themselves & organisations. Management Development is an important aspect in an organisation as in house development gives employee a chance to utilize or develop their skills, make them feel loyal to the company and saves cost in the long term. Growing management talent means increased efficiency & profitability for organisations. [www.cipd.co.uk]

Value of Management Development (MD)

As per Mumford, A and Gold, J (2004) MD is valued as it has to be linked & determined by the business needs as per strategic plans and also provide inputs to strategic plans. This top down approach can be contrasted with the one that lays emphasis on the way managers learn & develop through actual opportunities. (Garavan et al, 1999; p.193) In relation to MD, a key consideration for many organisations is to show the improvements in performance of managers leading to success of organisation.

Effective Management Development

As per Mumford (1993) “Management Development is an attempt to improve managerial effectiveness through a learning process”.

Effective Management

Behaviour

Development Focused on Effective Learning

Effectiveness Process

The purpose of this effectiveness triangle is that management development is not only focused on development or learning processes but these directly affect the management behaviour. John Kotter (1982) described effective behaviour as building networks for colleagues, executing by working and developing multiple objectives and maintaining relationships & spending time with other people to achieve those objectives. This can then help managers to assess their development needs based on the meaning of effectiveness that is important to them or organisations. This then looks at the activities that are carried out by managers, meet their requirements to carry out their work, leading us to the second point of triangle which looks at the needs depending on the desired results from managers and action to achieve those results. The organisation then looks at the needs for learning and development depending on the processes through which those needs can be met effectively to help individual/organisation.

Measuring MD through Management Development Audit (MDA): MDA is a tool for organisations to find out what managers want, how they feel about what they are getting & is management development effective, adding value and in line with organisation requirements and goals. MDA is a continuous activity of gaining a broader view of management development needs, assessing its value & controlling costs in constantly changing environment. for e.g. in Lloyds banking group there is a Group Operations team which deal with gathering of data by means of interview, surveys, observations & documentation. They look after the needs for management development and perform assessment gathering data on individual request and offer relevant courses that can be done online or class-room based to develop required skills and measure those in line with the organisation goals or achievements.

Approaches to Management Development (MD):

As per Mumford, A and Gold, J (2004) Organisations have different approaches towards management development, the four stages of management development in any organisations are:

Unplanned experimental Management Development: This informal approach is based on learning by practical experience while working/experimenting things and situations. In past individuals were promoted based on the product knowledge they possessed regarding an organisation who had little training about supervision, e.g., about delegating, interpersonal skills, stress management, career developments, etc.

Unplanned reactive Management Development: This approach is based on immediate situation or pressure. for e.g. the survey of IFA satisfaction report shows dissatisfaction, requires raising awareness or doing courses in respect to those skills. Another example is handling change in difficult situation, where companies like LBG have brought effectiveness by reducing costs.

Planned Management Development: This approach is based on planned & structured procedure of an organisation where appraisals, performance reviews identify the needs of development. for e.g. Formal Development/learning, a job change will identify the skills possessed & required to do the particular job, which will identify the needs of development. An individual with expertise across various management topics is an effective manager. Effective management gives systems view of an organisation, reviewing how major functions affect each other.

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Strategic Management Development: This approach looks at the longer term issues with the management development for e.g. the development of managers required to handle mergers & acquisition over the coming years. Organisations respond to the environmental changes such as customer demands, globalisation and technological changes, here MD could prove to be vital in acting as a tool to achieve & implement the strategy and business performance for e.g. The EFQM Model.

[www.efqm.org]

Learning & Development at Lloyds Banking Group

There are quite a few different definitions of learning. The one provided by Kolb (1984), has been of particular importance in MD.

‘Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience’.

The definition has further two implications, firstly if managers have achieved knowledge, skills and/or insight, learning is an end result or outcome. Secondly, to achieve an end result requires a process by which mangers acquire knowledge, skills or insight. As per Pedler and Boydell (1985) learning was more concerned with increase in knowledge or a higher degree of an existing skills, whereas development was, in their view a move towards a different state of being or functioning. At LBG, executives are committed to the development of every colleague, including themselves, so as one team the organisation is well-positioned to deliver against the strategic priorities. Learning at LBG is as follows:

‘Your Learning’ web portal available for all colleagues to manage learning activities online.

Effective Performance Management

Leadership & Management at Glance

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Performance Management in Lloyds Banking Group

Holbeche (1999) refers Performance Management is about setting clear and measurable objectives, taking time to regularly monitor performance, having open and honest conversations and coaching colleagues on their performance and development. Organisation like Lloyds banking group concentrates more on their performance management which is a key driver to keep track of improvements, skills & achievements. Effective Performance Management to LBG means that colleagues are clear about what needs to be done and this is communicated in regular conversations throughout the year. These conversations may be formal, for example 1-2-1 meetings or annual reviews, or informal, such as quick chats with managers. Staff can also discuss their performance with colleagues other than line managers, such as peers or colleagues whom they work regularly with. These reviews provide an opportunity for colleagues and managers to identify any areas of improvement or development required, where colleagues have the capacity to stretch themselves in their role. LBG performance management comprises of five elements as shown in the figure below:

1 – Effective Performance

Conversations

Across the whole

Business we act

As one

5 – Clear & Simple Actions for 2 – Clear, Consistent and

For Development and Aligned Objectives

Improvements

4 – Effective Differentiation 3 – Performance Ratings Based

of Performance on Overall Contributions

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Effective Performance Conversations (EPC)

As per London and Smither, (1995), the purpose of EPC is to enable an improved understanding amongst managers and employees. Managers strengths or weaknesses could be recognised via staff feedback, thus needs for development are recognised where MD can play important role. EPC could be of any form between staff, managers or colleagues; like informal chats about the aspirations & frustrations or a formal chat regarding a particular objective & its achievement progress. EPC should be conducted regularly so they form an integral part of the daily activities.

One of the major drawbacks for EPC is, can mangers take criticism in a positive manner or would they act defensively. As per Meyer et al, (1965) research suggested that it is a very sensitive issue and the key findings from a research carried out onto the impact of feedback on managers during performance appraisals was that, the more criticism a manager received the more defensively they reacted by denying shortcomings and blaming others. It was further found that criticism continued to negatively affect performance after reviews.

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Clear, Consistent and Aligned Objective

LBG (Lloyds Banking Group) objectives ensure that the deliverables are aligned with overall objectives of business where all employees actively work and contribute to deliver the organisational strategic goals by appropriate approach. LBG uses Balanced Scorecard approach for clear, consistent & aligned objectives.

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The Balanced Scorecard: The balanced scorecard approach focuses on the clarity of organisations overall business strategy and objectives and the will to work towards them as per Kaplan and Norton’s (2001, p52). LBG focuses its development activities on the whole of its workforce because of the importance of high quality customer service. In seeking to develop the talent and capability that are key to its future growth, it is interested in mapping the skills and attitudes of employees at all levels. Balanced scorecards are set at the beginning of each year and have structured objectives with clear metrics, covering five categories. Each category represents elements essential for long term growth and success. Every colleague will have their own balanced scorecard and the content should be appropriate to their role.

This means that every scorecard supports individual, team and organisational objectives. The use of balanced scorecard in LBG is to support delivery of business objectives and values in the context of prudent risk management, and ensure that all colleagues work together to achieve this outcome.

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Effective Differentiation of Performance (EDP)

LBG staff is distinguished through their performance and thus recognises those individuals who would require more support for better performance. This would imply that ratings are fairly and consistently applied throughout the organisation.

Peer Comparison Approach for EDP: LBG uses peer comparison as a technique to differentiate performance. In particular, it helps to ensure that the performance ratings provided are fair and accurate reflection of colleague’s performance in relation to the rest of the organisation. For example, it helps prevent one colleague from receiving the same performance rating as another when the evidence shows that they have contributed less during the year. As part of regular reviews, line manager will consider staff performance in relation to their peer group. This could be members of team at the same level, or other colleagues performing a similar role at the same level in another part of the organisation. Bettenhausen and Fedor (1997) found that peer comparison was viewed positively when used for development but negatively when used for evaluation. For example, because managers often have to work closely and associated with other managers, their peers, they tend to give positive feedback because they do not wish to disturb the relationship or damage careers. Peers may require making comparisons between individuals, and this may harm the working of team.

Clear & Simple Actions for Development & Improvements

Colleagues should constantly look for opportunities to develop themselves. For example, staff can be thinking about how to improve performance in current role or even what they need to do to move into a new or promoted role. If everyone focuses on development at an individual level, this will in turn have a positive impact on the success of organisation.

Businesses tends to change and therefore even colleagues who have been in their role for a significant period of time will find that they need to develop in order to meet the objectives set at the beginning of the year. Every colleague should have a Development Plan, which they will discuss with their line manager. This should include:

• What staff needs to do to develop them in current role (closing any skills gaps you have).

• What behaviours you need to develop.

• What aspirations you have for your long-term career and how you will work towards this.

Our approach to Performance Management also allows us to identify at an early stage where colleagues may need support/development to help them meet their objectives, for whatever reason. If you are experiencing difficulty in meeting your objectives at any point in the year, you and your line manager will work together to recover your performance via an Action Plan. Action Plans are required for all colleagues who are considered to be underperforming.

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Case Study:

This case study is about LBG undergoing change due to acquisition of HBOS and the employee engagement survey indicated that the change was poorly managed by the organisation and the line managers. There was a very low level of employee satisfaction with both the organisation and management behaviour. Customer satisfaction was worse/lowest to such an extent that LBG was top of the customer complaints with 22,242 complaints in first half of 2010 (Jill Insley 2010 Guardian.co.uk). Analysis of questions used in employee survey showed that the crucial elements of satisfaction were:

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From Employers/Organisation: Employees wanted job security, generalised market pay and decent conditions for working environment.

From Team Leader/Managers: Employees wanted to be kept informed about organisation changes, realistic targets, clear direction, notice taken of their views and setting SMART goals.

From Team: Employees expected team bonding/socialisation, fairness of system for deciding duties and opportunities to influence decision.

The response for many of the items on this satisfaction index can be influenced by changing management behaviour (i.e. upward appraisal approach Jones, 1996 and conducting workshops). The key aspect was to develop management/organisation behaviour which was linked to effectiveness.

LBG provided workshops for senior managers on process skills and their application in developing staff, input of ideas for quality improvement, vision building & team problem solving. These workshops were then cascaded down to lower managers and then all employees. As a result of these workshops many new processes were put in place (e.g. People Voice & Going for Gold), most of them for solving the problems associated with change.

The effect of this was then monitored on employee satisfaction through quarterly surveys. The results from survey were compared with high average scores to those which had lower scores for effectiveness. LBG improved communication to ensure colleagues are kept up to date on the integration programme and other projects within organisation. Managers held daily team huddles to provide information on the current changes within organisation, suggestion boxes were placed in each teams for employees to have their say. The feedback from employees/managers implemented change into infrastructure that provided small pods for meetings, group discussions and appraisals within group areas to give managers and staff more privacy. Meeting rooms were designed with new technology for managers to present clients/customers with product information & building relationship. Relaxing areas were introduced for staff and managers with facilities like TV, Xbox, reading rooms & message chairs for time out from busy working environment.

Executive managers hold quarterly meeting with teams, using the sessions to provide update on organisation, also expectations & reflections on teams followed by Q&A sessions for colleagues to put forward their views on current issues. These sessions provide management team with useful feedback from the business and enables them to take action accordingly as to what colleagues want to make organisation a great place to work. The result of which provided employees to socialise with other teams and learn their processes/ways of working, it also provided teams to have quarterly business lunch to enable better bonding between teams.

This change implemented a People voice team which would now collect data from staff members and understand their requirements or any achievements that were made by them. The Intranet published stories about staff members providing excellent customer service and feedbacks from customers to make colleagues feel as one team. Rewards were offered to staff members providing excellent service or the best recommendations made, this helped to manage changes/improve things in working environment. Staff suggestions helped LBG to implement these strategies and help them to boost motivation, efficiency & performance and as a result it had the highest level of sigma scores for IFA satisfaction in October 2010.The overall effect was staff innovation, working as one team & increased loyalty of staff towards organisation.

[Lloyds Banking Group Internal Database]

Conclusion

The management development programme demands a lot of commitment and desire to participate in learning process. This requires an evaluation of the situation and thus formulating the appropriate strategy or plan for effective development to work in any given organisation. The techniques used for development in the above case study have effectively achieved the strategic goals of the organisations thus proving to be successful. Provision of the facts or the realisation of short comings could not improve the situations in this case; some sort of strategy was required to be implemented to effect all these changes. The timely implementation of these development & learning plans implemented across all levels in LBG lead to better customer relations, improved team bonding and achieving target objectives of the organisation.


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