Processes of human and non human resources
Management is defined as a set ofilizing of process on ut human and non-human resources to efficient and effectively achieves the organizational goals (Davidson, Simon, Woods & Griffin. W. 2009, p.5). These processes are planning, organizing, leading and controlling. According to Robbins. P., Bergman and Stagg (1997, p.8) & Bateman. S. and Sneel. A. (2009, pp. 19 & 20), planning is about analyzing current circumstances, forecasting future, defining goals, establishing strategy and determining the resources needed; organizing is coordinating the resources by knowing what task need to be done, distribute jobs to group of people and allocating the resources; leading is to enhance the performance of people by directing, communicating and motivating all the parties involved; controlling is monitoring activities as what has planned and made and necessary modification. However, these are not the only responsibilities of managers, as they have to perform managerial roles, apply management perspectives and deal with management challenges.
Firstly, managerial roles need to be played by managers when they are performing their jobs. Three of the managerial roles are interpersonal roles, information roles and decision roles. Interpersonal roles are about the communication, interaction and relation with people. It is divided into figurehead, leader and liaison. Mullins. J. (2007, pp.424) states that figurehead role is regard to manager formally denotes as symbol and representative of company in giving speech for companyââ‚¬â„¢s activities, etc. Moreover, leader role is the responsibility of managers to lead and motivate their underlings such as giving incentive to the workers if the organization reaches their goal. The relationship of managers with people out from their organization, such as personally promote their product to the public, is known as liaison role.
In addition managerial roles, information roles is about gathering of information and providing them to the people. It is classified into monitor, disseminator and spokesperson. Monitor role consists of the action of managers to achieve information from newspaper or environmental events to keep an eye on customers and competitors; disseminator role is that managers have to be able to share the information which have been collected with people in the organization, for instance, through e-mail; spokesperson role is the sharing of information with people outside their organization through the annual meeting or press conference (Williams. R. 2009, p. 20). Decisional roles involve managers making of decisions and establishing of strategies while obtaining and sharing of people. It is divided into entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. In Mullins. J. (2007, pp.425), entrepreneurial role is managersââ‚¬â„¢ function to introduce new ideas and plans to improve their current circumstances, for example, while financial crisis; disturbance handler role is responsibility of managers to react to unpredictable or unfavorable events; resource allocator role is managers decide on how the resources available can be efficiently allocated to parties involved in a program; negotiator role is participation of managers in negotiate with customers or suppliers in trade. Hence, these managerial roles are things that managers need to be provided with.
Other than that, managers also have jobs to apply some essential management perspectives, classical management perspective and quantitative management perspective, to the organization. Classical management consists of scientific management and administrative management. Scientific management involves using of scientific method to improve the productivity of each labour, such as implement a more efficient way for each part of the production process and give better payment to those who have produce higher output (Davidson et al. 2009, p.41). Whereas, administrative management is more emphasize on managing the whole organization (Davidson et al. 2009, p.41). Some of the principles advocate by Henri Fayol was division of labour, discipline, remuneration, stability, etc. For example, division of labour is to divide tasks to specific worker to make the process more effective.
Furthermore, there are 2 components, management science and operations management in quantitative management perspective. Management science is about ââ‚¬Å“uses mathematical modeling to simplify the representation of systems processes and relationships, often to predict human resource needs or product designââ‚¬ (Davidson et al. 2009, p.51). It is basically means that everything can be represented in mathematical form so that it is easier for people to analyze. After that, operational management is to apply management science by going through a transformation process of converting inputs into final goods and services (Davidson et al. 2009, p.41) & (Robbins., P., Bergman & Stagg 1997, p.713). For instance, good operational management may help the company to produce and deliver goods to their customers in an efficient and saving cost way. Thus, these are some theory that managers to do in the production process.
Besides that, managers will also have to deal with some challenges such as technology transformation and globalization of business. These challenges may be a threat for the organization, but it also could be an opportunity for them. In technology transformation, it is important for managers to pay attention to it as technology can help improve quality of products, enhance productivity and enable easier achievable of information. For example, a car manufacture company can use the most advance technology to provide their customers with better facilities so that they can satisfy their customers and have a stronger predominance in the market than their competitors.
Other than that, globalization of business is also one of the challenges as political and economical changes in other countries may affect every business around the world. At the same time, organization may seize the opportunities to extend globally. For example, in 1970s and 1980s, Japan began to export and manufacture and distribute their product in markets within Europe and United State. They begin to improve the quality of their product and soon their product became the world- class quality standard in the market (Cook. W. & Hunsaker. L. 2001, p.26). Hence, how the managers deal with these challenges is very important for the organization.
In conclusion, we can see that managerial roles, management perspective and management challenges are some of the tasks that managers need to do other than planning, organizing, leading and controlling. To be good managers, these are things that they are essential to know and they should be able to master them. With these skills, they could help the organization get rid of rumors; bring appreciable benefit to the organization in long run.