Relationship Between Management And Leadership Management Essay

1.1: Explain the relationship between management and leadership. Management and leadership, these two terms are often used interchangeably; management is more usually viewed as getting things done through other people in order to achieve organizational goals. The managers may react to specific situations and more concerned with short term problem solving. Management is regarded as related to people working in a structured organization and with prescribed roles. The emphasis of leadership is on interpersonal behaviour in a broader sense. Belbin (1997, p 98) suggests that, “there is a clear implication that leadership is not part of the job but quality that can be brought to a job … The work that leadership encompasses in the context clearly is not assigned but comes about spontaneously”.

Leadership is one of the many assets of a successful manager which they must have. A leader can be a manager but it is not necessary that a manager must be a leader. The most important aim of a manager is to maximize the organizational output through managerial performance. But leader always seeks new possibilities and understand new possibilities in organization. Most of the workgroups are more loyal to leaders than managers.

According to John P. Kotter (1999, p 67), “All the managers must know that how to lead as well as manage. Because in this era, organizations may face the threat of loss if their managers do not know how to lead as well as manage.”

Organizations hire managers and give formal authority to manage people and other activities to fulfil organizational goals. Employees gladly follow the leaders because they want to, not because they have to. Leaders may not have the power to give rewards to the people. However, employees give power to the leaders by fulfilling what they want. On the other hand, managers may rely on formal authority to get employees to complete goals.

Management, by its very nature, is challenging, precise, detailed and involves specific and usually, timed, actions.  Leadership, on the other hand, requires a much broader sense and involves aligning, goal-setting, vision-sharing, inspiration and an inherent lack of any time criticality. Good management includes aspects of good leadership and good leadership includes aspects of good management.  A leader devoid of management skill and a manager lacking any leadership capability will each fail. From my point of view, management is a science and can be learned. Leadership, however, is an art. While some of the capabilities necessary to being a great leader can be acquired over time, much of what makes terrific leaders great is inborn or, at the very least, was learned much earlier in life. 

A successful organisation cannot exist without both strong leadership and great management.  Over time, an organization will need to expand its team of managers to keep up with its increasing number of deliverables.  The leadership team, however, will grow at a much slower rate or, perhaps, not at all.  Too many leaders, like too many chefs, will really foul things up.

Despite a continuing debate on differences between management and leadership, there is a close relationship between them and it is not easy to separate them as distinct activities.

1.2: Analyse how management and leadership style impacts on the achievement of the objectives of your chosen organisation.

Leadership in Nokia

As the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Nokia Group, Jorma Ollila has very high educational background, he earned a master’s degree in political science from the University of Helsinki, a master’s degree in economics from the London School of Economics and a master’s degree in science from the Helsinki University of Technology. In 1995, he was awarded an honorary doctorate degree in political science from the University of Helsinki, and in 1998, an honorary doctorate degree in technology from the Helsinki University of Technology.

As a worldwide successful leader, he is an expert in the information and communications technology industry, he has plenty experience in this area. He does not only serve for Nokia, he also serves on the boards of Ford Motor Company, Otava Books and Magazines Group Ltd and UPM-Kymmene Corporation. Besides these, he is also a member of several professional organizations in the information and communications technology industry.

Jorma has earned the worldwide respect. He is an Honorary Citizen of Beijing, China, and holds the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany; the Order of Merit of the Hungarian Republic; and the Officer’s Cross, Order of White Star, Estonia. He is Commander of the Order of Orange-Nassau and Commander, 1st Class, of the Order of the White Rose of Finland.

Jorma has led Nokia’s reinvent as a company that sets the benchmark for mobile communications. As CEO he presented an ambitious strategy that successfully restructured the former industrial conglomerate and accelerated its growth into one of the most successful companies in both the mobile phone and telecommunications infrastructure markets. Under his leadership, Nokia has achieved global market leadership and is listed on six major exchanges.

Jorma has his distinctive leadership; he concerns both employees and employees’ tasks. He provides equal opportunities and openness towards people and peoples’ new ideas are also key elements he wants to nourish. Employees are encouraged to be responsible for their own development and to take advantage of the various development opportunities available He encourages his employees to open discussion and debate, “We listen to the views of our employees and act on them when designing our people policies and practices” Jorma said. He also set up the investing-in-people program (IIP), which is a coaching and training program for the employees; such programs are very much focus on develop the managers. He provides the flexible working time to the employees; depending on the local market conditions, employees may take advantage of flexi time including flexible working hours and part-time working. Furthermore, Nokia has very good welfare service for the employees, and very good working environment.

Moreover, he was also concerned about employees’ tasks. The concept of Nokia value is a guideline for the employees, wherever they are in the world. In order to encourage employees to working hard on the tasks, Nokia has Bonus system, which based on the employees’ working result.

By applying the 360-Degree Feedback analysis, we can see that Jorma is a successful charming leader, who has achieved a high level of self-knowledge. He has the ability to motivate his employees, and very persistence on his career. He owns plenty leaderships, he know is business very well, and set clear performance to the employees. Besides, he is respected in the worldwide.

Task 2: Understand management and leadership skills

2.1: Explain the personal and professional skills required for effective management of your chosen organisation.

Leadership Requirements / Needs/ Skills:

Leadership, as defined by most dictionaries, means “to go before, or with, to show the way; to induce.” Every organization needs a leader (and preferably several leaders) to “show the way” to others as the organization strives to define and achieve its goals.

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Whether these goals are entrepreneurial or humanitarian – or both – the leader’s work is to instill a sense of purpose and passion to the work that the organization undertakes.

Identifying, developing and sustaining leadership within the organization must be one of its strategic objectives. Without leaders at every level of organization, the organization may well under-perform. It may miss strategic opportunities, stifle innovation, underutilize its employees, and fall short of its goals in customer service, quality, productivity, and profitability.

Russell Consulting, Inc. can guide an organization in identifying and developing its leaders. Organizations also help to develop the key competencies that will help develop and sustain leadership, but also sustain your company’s long-term success.

Leadership at every level makes all of the difference as to whether the company will be around for the long haul. Companies should invest in leadership today to sustain their success for tomorrow and beyond.

The Proposed Competencies of Leadership to be develepoed at RCI:

RCI has been developing leaders in its client organizations since 1987. It has designed and developed leadership programs that help define an ambitious role for leaders at every level and then build the competencies to fulfill this role.

Some of the competencies that RCI has defined as core to the role of leaders include:

Strategic Thinking

Coaching

Problem Solving

Decision Making

Systems Thinking

Delegation

Performance Management and Accountability

Inspiring a Shared Vision

Managing Conflict

Building and Sustaining Teamwork

Leading Change

Quality and Productivity Improvement

Servant Leadership

Emotional Intelligence

Innovation and Creativity

Customer Service

Employee Development

Develop Trust

Dealing with Ambiguity

360 degree feedback leadership style

Transformational Leadership style

Participative Leadership

Participative Leadership

Skills required by a manager:

A perfect manager is a boon for any company. A good manager needs to have a strong knowledge about the functioning of a company. There are few who are born with natural skills where as there are some who need to work their way towards it. So, what are the skills needed to be a good manager? Which are the qualities he/she needs to have in order to ensure a smooth sailing at work? Well, let’s look at what makes a good manager and all about corporate leadership.

What are the Skills needed to be a Good Manager?

A good manager should have all the basic leadership skills. There are various ways in which a person can handle different situations through various leadership roles. A good leader should be able to guide his/her teammates to be able to perform well. Leadership does not mean dominating people.

One of the most important skills of a good manager is the knowledge of effective time management. A person who manages to plan the schedule and divide time equally between tasks can be an asset for the organization.

A good manager should also have a visionary sight for the benefits of the company. He/she should plan the future steps for the growth of the company.

For a team to perform well, a good manager should be able to motivate the team for their tasks. He/she should encourage talents. In case of people with low performances, he/she should tackle the situation with professionalism to reach a positive conclusion.

Even in a crisis situation, a person with good managerial skills should be able to perform well. He/she should be mentally tough to handle any kind of situations.

He/she should also be responsible enough to maintain a good office atmosphere. A manager should be sensitive towards others in the workplace. A happy atmosphere would only lead to more productivity for the company.

With these skills, a person can definitely strive to be a good manager and thus be an asset for any organization!

2.2: Compare any four (4) skills and attributes of three (3) successful leaders you know.

LEADERSHIP OF JORMA OLLILA

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Nokia Group, Jorma Ollila has very high educational background

expert in the information and communications technology industry, he has plenty experience in this area

Jorma has his distinctive leadership; he concerns both employees and employees’ tasks.

He provides equal opportunities and openness towards people and peoples’ new ideas are also key elements he wants to nourish.

“We listen to the views of our employees and act on them when designing our people policies and practices” Jorma said.

He provides the flexible working time to the employees; depending on the local market conditions, employees may take advantage of flexi time including flexible working hours and part-time working.

he was also concerned about employees’ tasks.

LEADERSHIP OF REYMIN ZHANG

His leadership is more task-orientated

He set up a very clear and straightforward goal for his employees, and renews the company’s regulations

In order to achieve company’s goal to build up the international brand, he divided the tasks to each department in a very specific way.

He attaches importance to the employees’ recruitment, he recruits thousand of new blood every year, additionally, he have very close contact with the well known universities, 15% of his employees were signed contract with Hair when in the last year in the university.

2.3: Assess the expected impact of your own leadership styles on your work

How Leadership Can Affect Change In An Organization:

The leadership of an organization provides the direction and guidance for the future and can create an environment for growth or destruction dependent on the leadership style and technique that is utilized.   It is inevitable that there will be changes in an organization, whether it is related to downsizing, economic issues or location changes; these are just a few of the current changes that are being dealt with nation-wide.   The leadership of an organization sets the tone and process for others to follow during change.   Decisions that are made and the actions of the leadership mandate what the future holds for an organization’s employees.

Leaders have different traits that are inherent in their management techniques, those traits can be magnified during change and can help or hinder their leadership opportunities.   During organizational change, goals are set and a leader must possess the aptitude to help employees reach those goals.   A study by R.M. Stogdill discovered that the conception of a leader was someone who acquired status by showing the ability helps a group attain its goals (Yukl, 10.2.1, 2010).   Related to that study, it was noted that “relevant traits included intelligence, alertness to the needs of others, understanding of the task, initiative and persistence in dealing with problems, self-confidence, and desire to accept responsibility and occupy a position of dominance and control” in leaders (Yukl, 10.2.1, 2010).   Not all traits are universal, as noted by the study by Stogdill (Yukl, 2010), but the relevant traits appear to be found in many leaders.   Self-confidence is a powerful trait for a leader to possess, but “excessive self-confidence can make a leader overly optimistic about the likely success of a risky venture, and it may result in rash decisions and denial of evidence that a plan is flawed”.

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A small company had been acquired by a larger firm. With this, the current leader had been let go and a new leader was appointed to take charge.

Anticipate and Prepare-Being acquired by a larger firm may bring more awareness to a company or provide better benefits, but several cons may get in the way at first. During a transition period, many employees are sometimes left without a job, or have decided to move on to other things in the wake of unsatisfied changes. It was no different when a well-liked president of the company was phased out due to financial setbacks. The firm took a lengthy process to make a move until finally appointing an internal employee to serve as the interim president. Left with a lot of the dirty work, the new leader immediately went to work and restored and initiated productivity with his employees. His biggest attribute was that he was prepared for this new role before he was even appointed as the new president. His natural work ethic had already groomed him for charismatic leadership and when the opportunity for advancement came, he wasted no time in taking charge and continuing the work. Likewise, a strategic leader will be able to pick up the pieces and restore work productivity regardless of a drastic change.

Being the cheerleader and still an enforcer, Teams leaders are versatile figures held accountable for their employee’s work performance.

Get positioned for the future- A team leader’s major objective is to keep worker performance at a high and encourage improving results that would ultimately lead to a brighter outlook and future. Preparing employees now enables them to do such. Team Leaders have a weekly, monthly or even yearly report to give so their main motivation would be to constantly focus on the progress and performance of their individuals. In order to maintain and continue a future of positive results, an effective team leader will use strategic planning in his/her strategic management. Mentally, he/she will find ways to encourage employees to perform high to obtain team incentives, but will also encourage strategic planning at the individual level. Training employees to strategically plan in their prospective territories will alleviate the leader with multiple responsibilities and generate a more productive outcome in the work area. With a focus on the individual employee, a team leader will have the power to influence his/her employees to control their progress and look towards a better outcome.

One department is flourishing with work productivity, while one department is far behind.

Focus on the right energies- In a business world where deadlines are demanding and profits are important, companies and their leaders will hold work productivity as a high priority. A strategic leader will observe less than optimum circumstance and move quickly to create beneficial change. Saving time by focusing only on the right energies will help a company profit. For example, an employee serves in two departments, splitting duties between each. It is evident that his/her skills are stronger in research and development rather than in the sales department. A strategic leader may see more value in changing this employee’s role to work in this stronger area of expertise. At the same time, a strategic leader will realize that this employee may be able to provide unique insight across both functions that others can not. Strategic leaders will observe these situations quickly and waste no time in shifting employees to areas where both the individual and organizations can benefit the most.

These glimpses give you some helpful scenarios of how strategic leadership can be applied in your work environment. Should you have any future problems with work productivity, profits or even issues with your employees, address those concerns with some professional guidance and you’ll discover how an investment in your team will result is bottom line results.

Task 3: Be able to apply theory in an organisational context

3.1: Select four (4) appropriate theories of management and leadership to identify

leadership requirements in given situations in your chosen organisation

1. Trait Theories:

Similar in some ways to “Great Man” theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership.

2. Contingency Theories:

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

3. Situational Theories:

Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variables. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision-making.

4. Behavioral Theories:

Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.

5. Participative Theories:

Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision-making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others.

The Advantages of Emerging Leadership Theories

During the first half of the 20th century, leadership theories focused on traits and skills that were inherent in leaders and assumed that leaders were “born, not made.” Around 1960, new theories of leadership were developed that considered the impact of followers and tasks on leader effectiveness. These emerging styles, also called modern or current styles, include contingency models, situational and transformational leadership.

Predictability

Flexibility with Precision

Lasting Motivation with Better Results

The Advantages of Participative Leadership Theories

Participative leadership theories encourage participation from employees on the decision-making process with organizational management. Sometimes the democratic style of leadership allows the employees to give suggestions on how a corporation operates and on decisions that facilitate change. Advantages of the participative theories include better employer and employee relationships, the discovery of future leaders, motivation, team spirit and employee productivity.

Team Spirit

Employee Productivity

Motivation

Employer/Employee Relationships

Future Leadership Discovery

4.2: Plan the development of management and leadership skills for a given job role in your chosen organization.

4.3 Make justified evaluations of the management and leadership development methods selected in 4.2 above

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Plan the development of management and leadership skills and evaluation of these skills

Strategic leadership is a self-explanatory term, and even when separated, still provides a meaningful definition. A definition of strategic leadership can be summed up as the “ability to anticipate, prepare, and get positioned for the future.”

In past experience, company has been able to pinpoint specific examples of colleagues who have exemplified strategic leadership in their professions. Here are some examples of how strategic leadership is essential to a work environment.

A small company had been acquired by a larger firm. With this, the current leader had been let go and a new leader was appointed to take charge.

Anticipate and Prepare-Being acquired by a larger firm may bring more awareness to a company or provide better benefits, but several cons may get in the way at first. During a transition period, many employees are sometimes left without a job, or have decided to move on to other things in the wake of unsatisfied changes. It was no different when a well-liked president of the company was phased out due to financial setbacks. The firm took a lengthy process to make a move until finally appointing an internal employee to serve as the interim president. Left with a lot of the dirty work, the new leader immediately went to work and restored and initiated productivity with his employees. His biggest attribute was that he was prepared for this new role before he was even appointed as the new president. His natural work ethic had already groomed him for charismatic leadership and when the opportunity for advancement came, he wasted no time in taking charge and continuing the work. Likewise, a strategic leader will be able to pick up the pieces and restore work productivity regardless of a drastic change.

Being the cheerleader and still an enforcer, Teams leaders are versatile figures held accountable for their employee’s work performance.

Get positioned for the future- A team leader’s major objective is to keep worker performance at a high and encourage improving results that would ultimately lead to a brighter outlook and future. Preparing employees now enables them to do such. Team Leaders have a weekly, monthly or even yearly report to give so their main motivation would be to constantly focus on the progress and performance of their individuals. In order to maintain and continue a future of positive results, an effective team leader will use strategic planning in his/her strategic management. Mentally, he/she will find ways to encourage employees to perform high to obtain team incentives, but will also encourage strategic planning at the individual level. Training employees to strategically plan in their prospective territories will alleviate the leader with multiple responsibilities and generate a more productive outcome in the work area. With a focus on the individual employee, a team leader will have the power to influence his/her employees to control their progress and look towards a better outcome.

One department is flourishing with work productivity, while one department is far behind.

Focus on the right energies- In a business world where deadlines are demanding and profits are important, companies and their leaders will hold work productivity as a high priority. A strategic leader will observe less than optimum circumstance and move quickly to create beneficial change. Saving time by focusing only on the right energies will help a company profit. For example, an employee serves in two departments, splitting duties between each. It is evident that his/her skills are stronger in research and development rather than in the sales department. A strategic leader may see more value in changing this employee’s role to work in this stronger area of expertise. At the same time, a strategic leader will realize that this employee may be able to provide unique insight across both functions that others can not. Strategic leaders will observe these situations quickly and waste no time in shifting employees to areas where both the individual and organizations can benefit the most.

These glimpses give you some helpful scenarios of how strategic leadership can be applied in your work environment. Should you have any future problems with work productivity, profits or even issues with your employees, address those concerns with some professional guidance and you’ll discover how an investment in your team will result is bottom line results.

How Leadership Can Affect Change In An Organization:

How Leadership Can Affect Change in an Organization

The leadership of an organization provides the direction and guidance for the future and can create an environment for growth or destruction dependent on the leadership style and technique that is utilized.   It is inevitable that there will be changes in an organization, whether it is related to downsizing, economic issues or location changes; these are just a few of the current changes that are being dealt with nation-wide.   The leadership of an organization sets the tone and process for others to follow during change.   Decisions that are made and the actions of the leadership mandate what the future holds for an organization’s employees.

Leaders have different traits that are inherent in their management techniques, those traits can be magnified during change and can help or hinder their leadership opportunities.   During organizational change, goals are set and a leader must possess the aptitude to help employees reach those goals.   A study by R.M. Stogdill discovered that the conception of a leader was someone who acquired status by showing the ability helps a group attain its goals (Yukl, 10.2.1, 2010).   Related to that study, it was noted that “relevant traits included intelligence, alertness to the needs of others, understanding of the task, initiative and persistence in dealing with problems, self-confidence, and desire to accept responsibility and occupy a position of dominance and control” in leaders (Yukl, 10.2.1, 2010).   Not all traits are universal, as noted by the study by Stogdill (Yukl, 2010), but the relevant traits appear to be found in many leaders.   Self-confidence is a powerful trait for a leader to possess, but “excessive self-confidence can make a leader overly optimistic about the likely success of a risky venture, and it may result in rash decisions and denial of evidence that a plan is flawed”.

CONCLUSION 

In conclusion, The process of accessing a person’s leadership ability is a complex and often a difficult task; different leaders has different leadership style, there are many factors influence them on their leadership, such as the personal characteristics, the situation they have involved, and also the people need to manage, etc. Jorma have a very people-oriented style of leadership, he concern about his subordinate; conversely, Reymin is a more product-oriented leader, he paid big attention on the employees’ task more them employee themselves. There many leadership models can be adopted to analyze those two leader, but there are three most suitable models have been adopted, whatever the models have been used, it is all exactly reflect Jorma and Reymin’s personal leadership style.


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