Scientific management and behavioural management
Scientific management was a theory of amalgamated workflows with objective of labour productivity and efficiency. The core idea of scientific management was developed by F.W.Taylor. Scientific management and Taylorism are equivalent. Taylor often saw that the smart workers were unmotivated and some were smarter than the others. He wanted the workers to cooperate with the management. Taylor is well known for establishing the term “scientific management”. 4 Principles of Scientist Management are: – Scientific not rule of thumb Harmony, not discord, Cooperation, Not Individualism, Development of Each and Every Person to His or Her Greatest efficiency and Prosperity
Firstly, Functional foremanship, Secondly Standardisation and simplification of work: – Setting standards for every organisation is known as standardisation. E.g. standardisation of time, product, etc… Simplification means eliminating unnecessary diversity of products. E.g. Large companies like Nokia, Microsoft, etc… have implemented simplification and standardisation. Thirdly, Method study: – finding out the best way to do the job. This minimises the cost of production and maximises the satisfaction and quality of the customer. Fourthly Motion study: – Study of activities like lifting, sitting and altering positions, etc…Fifthly, Time study: – time taken to perform a precise job. This is done to determine how many workers can be engaged, frame appropriate incentive schemes and decide labour cost. Sixthly Fatigue study: – to establish the quantity and occurrence of rest intervals in completing a duty. A person feels physically and mentally tired if he/ she are continuously doing the task.
Taylor wanted to increase the earnings of the labour. He introduced a concept where each job to be performed was to be timed and shorter and fewer motions were to be developed. Scientific management’s application was dependent on a high level of professional control over employee work practices. Scientific management is a difference on the theme of economic competence.
An excellent example for this type of management is any fast food chain restaurant. Movement of the employees is restricted to minimum steps which do not allow formation of informal groups amongst the employees. They have less communication between them. They only concentrate on their work.
Behavioural school is a group of management scholars. The behavioral management theory is also known as human relations as it involves dealing with human behaviour in employees.
The classical school of management has sought to define the core of management in the form of widespread primary functions. Body of the classical school’s management thought was based on the belief that workforce has only cost-effective and substantial requirements and that communal needs and need for job-satisfaction either don’t subsist or are insignificant. Accordingly, this school advocates high interest of employment, federal decision making, and revenue maximization. (classic school)
Bureaucracy: -an attempt to build up a practical and permissible basis for the authority and an agreement for the purpose of selecting people and undertaking various sorts of actions.
Bureaucratic type of organizational structure defined by Weber is being of the following characteristics:
Works of specialization. It is disintegrating works into different kinds of easy, daily, and complete tasks. Hierarchy of authority. Tasks and positions were structured by hierarchy. Each low-grade position was monitored and forced by the high-grade position. Formal selection. All directorial members were selected on the basis of prerequisite of system, which approved by guidance, learning, formal examinations. Impersonality. When applying policy and system, it was required to avoid contribution of character and special inclination. Orientation of occupation. Managers were skilled leaders. They worked for fixed salary and developed their careers within the business.
14 principles by Henry Fayol: –
Division of Work. In this, the work is divided to different departments and workers depending on their skills and abilities.
Authority. Authority is basically the right to command to ones employees to perform a particular task in a given point of time, in a certain way.
Discipline. This exists in any organisation. But this should include the cooperation of both- the workers as well as the management.
Unity of Command. Each worker should receive orders from one leader/manager only. Otherwise this would result in lack of understanding between the employees.
Unity of Direction: Under this, the workers performing a single task should have a single goal which would improve the productivity levels of the workers.
Subordination of individual interest (to the general interest). There are generally two goals which an organisation has- Individual goals and Organisational Goals. The management should ensure that always the organisational goals are always dominant as they contribute to the interest of a whole lot together, not individuals.
Remuneration. Workers should be given necessary reward/remuneration for their increased and better performance/productivity. This would definitely improve their morale levels.
Centralization (or Decentralization). Under this, the management decides whether the decision making power lies at the top level or is distributed to lower levels of management.
Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A specific hierarchy of authority is maintained. For example, if a production worker has some issues, he definitely won’t go to the CEO regarding his issue. He would either go to his department head, or maximum the production manager.
Order. Whatever work performed, should be done in a specific order. In an production department, just before beginning the process, the workers should have necessary raw materials inorder to perform the work in an orderly manner.
Equity. The workers should be treated equally regardless of any discrimination on gender, religion, caste or creed.
Stability of Tenure of Personnel: The workers need to be given time to prove their skills or abilities to their employer. The employers need to understand this principal very well.
Initiative: Under this, the employees should be given the right to reflect their views regarding a particular decision. This improves their motivation levels.
Esprit de Corps. This basically means “Union is Strength.” All the employees need to work together as a team and should understand the need of teamwork. The managers need to promote good relations with and between the employees. This would definitely increase the productivity. (principles)
The Behaviourist school of thoughts is also known as learning aspect. Elton Mayo’s contributions came as part of the Hawthorne studies, a series of experiments that deliberately applied classical management theory only to affirm its imperfection. The Hawthorne experiments consisted of two studies conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago from 1924 to 1932. The first study was carried out by a group of engineers searching to actuate the relationship of lighting levels to worker productiveness. A few years later, a second group of experiments started. Harvard researchers Mayo and F. J. Roethlisberger superintended a group of five women in a bank wiring room. They gave the women special allowance. Behavioural sophists believed that a better understanding of human behaviour at work place, such as motivation, warfare, anticipation, and group changing improved productivity.
Comparison and Contrast
Both the schools are varied in their approaches and principles. The main ones are discussed below: –
Attention: – increasing output was the main focus of scientific management while improving people relationships was the main aim of behaviourist.
Leadership: – a leader’s function in scientific management was to delegate work to the workers while in behaviourism employees coordinate and cooperate for their personnel development and growth.
Encouragement: – in scientific management monetary compensation was the only mobilising factor. While in behaviourism self actualisation played a leading role which would motivate the employee.
Unconventional Groups: – behaviourism more focuses on unconventional groups because it leads to harmony and coordination among the workers in the organisation. While scientific management discourages unconventional groups the reason being because in scientific management, the worker worked only for monetary rewards.
Technique: – Only 1 technique was used by scientific management i.e. performing a task which would lead to specialisation only in 1 task whereas in behaviourism different ways are adopted for performing one task so that the workers are efficient.
Rigidity: – scientific management was very rigid and the principles of behavioural were flexible.
Creativity: – creativity is more in behavioural than scientific principles.
Decision making: – under scientific management decision making authority was not delegated whereas in human relations decision making authority was delegated.
Even though both the schools were different in their ideologies, their principles, ideas and aim was to increase productivity at the least cost possible and with the maximum utilisation of resources.
In today’s modernised world, firms have to always consolidate a competitive edge over their competition. Along with organisational goals, individual growth is also important. For e.g. there are 2 companies company X and company Y. If company X is going for scientific management den its efficiency will increase and at the same time effectiveness will decrease and if it goes for behaviourism then efficiency and effectiveness both will increase. So if the company X is going for both i.e. scientific management as well as human relations then the company would increase the productivity at the lowest cost. It will increase efficiency and at the same time increase effectiveness.