Pakistan was founded in 1947 and Pakistan International Airline was formed in 1955.

Flag carrier airline of Pakistan is PIA and its all operations based in Karachi and also it’s the Sixteenth largest airline in Asia.

PIA operating schedule services to 73 destinations through the Middle East. Asia Europe and North America as well as domestic network towards 24 destinations. Main bases are in PIA Jinna International Airport Karachi and the Allama Iabal International Airport Lahore and the Islamabad Int’l Airport.

PIA also has secondary bases including Peshawar International Airport, Faisalabad Quetta International Airport and Multan International Airport which its connects the metropolitan cities with the main base, Far east and the Middle East.

PIA is owned by the Government of Pakistan through Ministry of Defence holds (81.01%) of the shares and thought BESOS(Benazir Employees Stock Option Scheme) transferred 12% of its share holding to employees. Individuals and other 7.83 % and other financial institutions 1.2% hold PIA has 17,944 employees (in 2009).

Company Snapshot

Company Name :Pakistan International Airline

Nature of Business :Airline Service

Ticker :PIAC

Net Premium :Year 2008 $1,049

Share Price :$ 0.04 while closing for 2009 was $0.03

Market Capitalization:$79,797

Total Loss/Profit :Year 2009 69,150

as at 31st of December 2009

Company Fleet

PIA currently has a number of 43 fleets and aims at increasing this numbers to 53 by the next few years.PIA is adoptive to changes and believe in innovation that’s create new ideas

and translating these ideas into action

The Pakistan International Airline fleet includes the following aircraft:

(Annual Report 2010):Page[27]

Pakistan International Airlines Fleet






Airbus A310-300







Boeing 737-300




Boeing 747-300



Boeing 777-200ER



Boeing 777-200LR



Boeing 777-300ER





Economy Plus only on domestic routes

ATR 42

Boeing 737-300

Airbus A310-300

Boeing 747-300

Boeing 777-200ER

Boeing 777-200LR

Boeing 777-300ER

Company in a Glance


PIA has a vision to be a world class airline, meeting customer expectations through dedicated employees excellent service, on time performance and customer safety.

Its driven by the highest standards of corporate governance and social responsibility.

In addition, as a public sector organization and a business leader, PIA believes in building strong relationships with customers, partners, employees, and the communities in which it operates.

Mission Statement Analysis

PIA mission statement is as follows:

Offering quality customer services and innovative products

Using state-of -the art technologies

Ensuring cost effective measures in procurement and operations

Developing safety culture


Mission statement analysis:

Customer expectations







Social reasonability

(sources: PIA Annual Report 2009)

Business industry

Pakistan International Airline has 36 major operational airports in Pakistan and Karachi is the main airport both operating domestic and international cargo also operations at Islamabad and Lahore.

Approximately 70% of domestic passengers and domestic freight traffic handing PIA as the public sector airline and through facing small percentage competition from a few private airlines.

As a transportation sector PIA accounts about 10.5% of the country GDP and GFCF (Gross Fixed Capital Formation )27.4% in last past years and providing over 6%of employment in the Pakistan’s work force.

” SKYTRAX introduced the World Airline Star Rating® programme in 2000 – the Quality Analysis system that ranks airline product and service standards, based on professional evaluation by airline audit specialists.

To achieve SKYTRAX Approved Airlineâ„¢ status, airlines are subjected to a very detailed Quality evaluation across all areas of their front-line Product and Service standards by Skytrax – covering all areas that passengers will “typically” experience during their trip.

SKYTRAX Approved Airline evaluation covers over 750 aspects of product and service quality measurement, and is split across both airport and onboard environments – airport services based around an airline’s home base airport. “


 =  Excellent

 =  Good

 = Fair

 =  Poor

 = Very poor




SWOT Analysis

Swot is often used as part of a strategic of Pakistan international airline business planning process useful in understanding situation and decision making for all sorts of situations:


Leading Air carrier – it’s the leading air line in Pakistan and more than 150,000 passengers and 800 daily flights around a month fling in PIA.

Domestic Market share advantage – Government of Pakistan through Ministry of Defence holds (81.01%) of the shares

Reliable service as well as low fares including

Convenient and frequent flights international destinations ex; London

Brand advantage – Pakistan national flagship airline ‘We stand for national values’

PIA pioneer in airline industry in Pakistan since in 1965

Border target market :Strong operations Part of South America and Asia.


Debt amount and loss in similar basis

comprehensive aviation policy and inefficient administrative issues

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Staff crew unprofessional and not trained.

Inefficient use of resources (Human and Technological)

Free travelling facilities offering to government officers

Overstaff 17,944 employees (in 2009).

Non Pakistani travelers has made very poor order and law situation an unfavorable destinations: PIA Network Domestic 24 destinations : International 36+2 Destinations – Annual Report 2009 :Page 27

High fares when compared with competitors and these situvation have adversely affected the international business.


Lowered oil prices fuel price volatility,

Have maximum route and destinations compared with its competitors.PIA Network Domestic 24 destinations: International 36+2 Destinations – Annual Report 2009 :Page 27

Demand for low air travel cost fares and customer confidence

When passengers selecting a flight that price of tickets is number one criterion available of nonstop services :Report International Aviation Authority

Industry recovery for airlines market analysts reports says Next few years other

globle airlines industry making experience with upturn facilities.

Human Resources policy positive level :Cooperation allowed salary increases to all employees


High interest rate and Pakistan inflation rate become a another short term raise

5 major accidents had been involving PIA’s planes

strong competition by Air Buses

Accidents can adversely affect customer confidence in PIA and result in declined revenues intensifying competition.

e. The ratio of issuing visas for Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly

f. Government may capitalize this sector; in this case their biggest advantage of holding monopoly would end.

PESTEL Analysis

PESTLE analysis examines each factor to assess what their impact or potential impact on PIA can prepare strategically for any changes:

Political Analysis

a. Pakistan has achieved some political stability in recent years. If the management of PIA believes that the present government will perform well then there will be more investment in the form of purchase of new airplanes and latest technology’s. Change in government for Pakistan indicated change of business owners and its effect on PIAC.

b. Political factors : Afghanistan has an adverse effect for the international airline industry.

c. Also, poor law and order situation has made Pakistan an unfavourable destination for non-Pakistani traveller and it s effects to government’s policy to continue support in has increased insecurity level in Pakistan which means fewer visitors come pakistan and hence its less revenue for PIAC, as its main reliance is on customer revenue.

D . Pakistan defence ministry announced PIA allowing small route planes to travel within cities, this can decrease the customer reach for PIAC. In 2009, passenger and cargo yields plummeted by 12% and 16% respectively. During 2009, passenger traffic shrunk by 3. 4% globally. Industry Revenue Passenger Kilometers (RPKs) and Revenue Freight Tonne Kilometers (RFTKs) growths have been negative at -3. 5% and -10. 1% respectively.

Economic analysis

a. Economic factors has struck indicated on two countries : UK and America, as most of the economy of countries and Spain and Switzerland are highly dependent on UK and America’s economy and indirect they are also badly affected. Moreover, the ratio of issuing visas for Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly due to security concernsNow considering the fact that 58% of flights by PIAC are for America, UK and Europe. Means sudden loss in customer base. Hence decreasing revenues.

b. Pakistan’s capital income has decreased and is expected to decrease the overall loss increased due to inflationary pressures, exchange losses and persistent financial charges.even more in coming years can be decreasing consumer’s buying power.

c. Bank Interest rate in Pakistan is very high and its hard for investors to invest in PIAC.

d. Declining trend can be primarily attributed to a sharp rise in the current liabilities of the company over the yearshence decreasing the involvement of capital from stocks.

e. Inflation rate decreased from record high 25.3% average in 2008 to 8.87% 2009 and expected inflation for year 2010 is 11% as revised .Overall, the number of passengers increased to 2. 85 million as compared to 2. 63 million. However charter revenue could not keep pace, as there has been a decline in the UN troop movement. Despite improvement in fundamental numbers, like seat factor (76. 18%),

As a results of this Pakistan airline have both good and bad effects, firstly bad part is local travelers would decrease and may go to cheaper travelling with Air Blue and secondly good part is this will increase the customer travelling to international destinations.

f. Last quarter of 2009 showed a consistent signs of improvement in the air freight business. Volumes and yields are now moving in the right direction – upwards – although there is still a long way to go before early 2008 levels are regained. Several years of growth have been lost in this extra ordinary downturn. Moreover, revival in the economic growth is very uneven – with a strong rebound in Asia and parts of South America but weak growth in developed markets – and is expected to remain that way for some time. that is very low as compared to other countries, hence decreasing good financers coming to Pakistan.

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g. World trade is now picking up adding to the impetus given to air freight by the inventory cycle and mode switching. Yields are starting to turn up, as load factors recover, but low aircraft utilization and scheduled delivers imply that capacity remains a threat to restoring profitability.

Social analysis

a. Customers are more aware of market conditions and available options and want to get best value for their money. Service satisfaction of customers is core competitive advantage.

b. Pakistan people are immigrating to develop countries PIAC being among three arriers and being monopoly in international destination its benefit from this

c. The social environment of Pakistan is turning liberal with the new regime. The itiative to automate check-in and ticket booking process might not be very popular with the general public (even educated population) is still technology averse.

f. The level of checking for PIAC customers on international airports, it is fairly visible that travelling on PIAC means an hour wasted in extensive verifications and people are ore and more connected as compared to yesterday hence this type of news for educated people means bad for the business.

Technological analysis

a. Pakistan is considering reviving Railways, introducing more modern tracks for Pakistan destination and as a results of this profit taker of PIAC the cargo service will face a threat.

b. Air blue Line is introduced 6 new air busses for new international destinations this will become a serious competition to PIAC.

c . PIAC currently has planes from Boeing, which is considered as a fuel guzzler when compared with air bus used by air blue.

e. Internet plays a key role in e-ticketing as consumer can easily reserve tickets and check the status of the flight.

f.Introduction of new satellite and cheapest global communication calling may lead to lower number of people returning to homeland to meet their relatives.

Environmental Analysis

a. Volcano in Iceland has PIA customers has made PIA flights to be delayed, some new technological engine is required to make it able to go through that type of environments

b. UK is the more income market of PIAC, and environment in UK for last few years bad effected to aitr line industries also last winter UK forecast their lowest degree in 25 years. In addition, other Europe union countries which observed less temperature recorded in last few years

Porter’s five forces analysis

Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Due to following reasons bargaining power of suppliers is high in PIA:

In Pakistan, there are some competitor in air line industry : ex :Public air travel, Boeing and Airbus.

Oil companies giving fuel on credit basis to PIA

Ministry of defence handling ground rules and operation procedure dependent on Airport and Aviation rules and regulations.

Bargaining Power of customers

Due to following reasons bargaining power of suppliers is low in PIA:

Air line monopoly

Low competition ex :Air Bus

Pakistanis by the first world had also decreased alarmingly due to security concerns

Threat of Substitute Products

The threat of substitute products is compare with other traveling facilities because passengers are not used to travel by sea and other substitute

Threat of New Entrants

Threat of new entrant is low: Reasons as follows:

All international destinations covered by PIA :Monopoly

Pakistan bargaining market is very limited

Technology Development

Technology and development is a major driver of airline industry and specially innovation and the reservation in the booking system. Internet reservation key system role in e- ticketing as customer can easily reserve tickets and check the status of the flight.PIA was the first airline in the Pakistan to introduce and installed e ticketing followed by the market leader.

Human Resource Management

This organization is divided into following departments: Human Resource and Administration, Marketing, Corporate Planning, Information Services, Finance, Flight Services, Flight Operation, Engineering, Procurement and Logistics, Customer Services, Training and Development, Quality Assurance. The organ gram of the organization follows, with the Chairman at the top and directors of departments reporting to him.

The structure is centralized with the top-level management making the decisions.

Financial Analysis

PIA : Financial statement analysis is as a judgmental process and one of the primary objectives is identification of major changes in trends, and relationships and the investigation of the reasons underlying changes.

Consolidated Balance Sheet

31 Dec 2008

31 Dec 2009



Total Current Assets



Creditors: Amounts falling due within one year



PIA is our business of choice and the information work out its current ratio as follows:

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Consolidated Balance Sheet

31 Dec 2008

31 Dec 2009



Total Current Assets



creditors: Amounts falling due within one year



In the brief review of accounts section with PIAs financial statements,

The table to fill in:

Current Ratio

31 DEC 2008

Current Assets: Current Liabilities



31 DEC 2009

Current Assets: Current Liabilities



The same with the year before:

current assets





current liabilities


Acid Test or Quick Ratio

A measurement of the liquidity position of the PIA ratio compares the cash plus cash equivalents and accounts receivable to the current liabilities. The primary difference between the current ratio and the quick ratio is the quick ratio does not include inventory and prepaid expenses in the calculation.


= (190613-47236)/919246





Finally ,the cash ratio is the most conservative liquidity ratio and its excluded all assets except the most liquid cash and cash equivalents.

Cash ratio : 2008 2009

200,484 8,824

190,613 10,007

=1.051 =0.881

Profitability Ratio

Return on Capital Employed Ratio

The Return on Capital Employed ratio (ROCE) tells us how much profit PIA earn from the investments the shareholders have made in their company.

Calculations :The ROCE for the PIA the figures we need:


31 DEC 2008

31 DEC 2009



Profit for the financial period



Equity shareholders’ funds



Return of Equality : 2008 :76.83% 2009:11.87%

The gross profit margin ratio Indicate profit of PIA makes on its cost of sales or service.

Gross profit is the profit earn before in PIA take off any administration costs, selling costs and much higher gross profit margin than net profit margin.

PIA Gross profit ratios as follows:

Gross profit :2008 :$ 45468

2009 :$ 189244

Gross Profit Margin : 2008 : 4.08% 2009:16.85%

2009 158061/1123085 =0.1407

2008 506816/1126277=0.4499

2009 69150/1900396=0.0362008 2008


Net profit margins from the PIA

Year 2008 :-40.22

Year 2009 :-6.16

Efficiency ratio

In principle, the lower the investment in stocks apart from PIA stocks businesses sometimes need in case of shortages of supply and strategic stocks in case of war, sudden changes in demand and so on, modern stock control theory minimise its investment in stocks.

PIA behaves in this respect.


Consolidated Profit and Loss Account

31 Dec 2008

31 Dec 2009 DMarch 2000



Cost of sales






Stock Turnover Ratio for the Company A

31 Dec 2008


830,126 / 365

23.02 days

31 Dec 2009


505,738 / 365

21.57 days

Fixed Asset Turnover




Change 2008 – 2009





Total Fixed Assets





31 DEC2008

31 DC2009






Debtors due within one year



Debtors to total year 2008 :304.79 days Ratio 1:23

Debtors to total year 2009 :322.67 days Ratio 1:13


31 DEC2008

31 DC2009






Shareholder funds



Debt to Equality ratio :2008 -0.351

Debt to Equality ratio :2009 -0.368

PIA – Pattern of shareholders as at 2009:

A Class share of Rs: 10/= each: 2,327,285,584

B Class share of Rs: 05/= each: 1,499,999


As far as the profitability of the PIA is concerned, PIA has been facing a serious crisis, reporting financial losses for the past 2008 and 2009 :Total loss 2009 $ 69,150 and 2008 $ 458,031: the total revenue is 2009 $ 1,123.085 and 2008 $1,126,277 representing a 6% increase and cost of services amounted to 2009 $ 933,841 and 2008 $ 1,080,809 a decrease of 8%. Gross profit grew by 338%(2008 $ 45468 – 2009 $189,244)’

PIA Total Revenue :2008/2009

The gross profit Margin has increased from 2008 4.08% to 2009 16.85% in the current year due to growth of 338% in the Gross Profit. The total return on assets have grown from negative 2.58% in the 2009 3.6% showing an increase 86%

2009 69,150/1,900,396=0.036

2008 458,031/1,770,215=0.258

As for the liquidity of PIA , the corporation has faced a declining trend past years and the current year 2009 it has indicated little growth. The declining trend can be rise in the current liabilities of the company over the years. Basically, current liabilities have increased in the form of greater short term and long term borrowings(Ratio 2008 0.21 – 2009 0.25)Three number of Boeing 777 and three ATR aircrafts facilitated to purchased of long term basis.

The total turn over of the company has been rising over the years, 2008 an 2009 if we measure PIA performance by the abnormal impact of fuel price increases. Liability against assets basically to finance lease to purchase of three aircrafts and three ATR aircrafts Year 2009 the debt to assets ratio has decreased to 1.13 from 1.23 in 2008.

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