strategic management


Assess the links between team performance and strategic Objectives.

The fundamental aim of the strategic management is to generate strategic capability by ensuring that the organisation has the skilled, committed and well motivated employees which it needs to achieve sustained competitive advantages. It’s objective is to provide a sense of direction in an turbulent’s environment, so that the business needs of the organization, and the individual and collective needs of its employees, can be met by the development and implementation of coherent and practical Human Resource policies and programme.

Team performance working involves the development of a number of interrelated processes that together make an impact on the performance of the firm through its people in such areas as productivity, quality, levels of customer service, growth, profits, and ultimately the delivery of increased shareholder value. This is achieved by enhancing the skills and engaging the enthusiasm of employees . The starting point is leadership, vision and benchmarking to create a sense of momentum and direction.

Progress must be measured constantly and the main drivers, support systems and culture are:

Development of people capacities through learning at all levels, with particular emphasis on self-management and team capabilities – to enable and support performance improvement and organizational potential

Performance, operational and people management processes aligned to organizational objectives – to build trust, enthusiasm and commitment to the direction taken by the organization

Fair treatment for those who leave the organization as it changes, and engagement with the needs of the community outside the organization.

Team-performance management practices include rigorous recruitment and selection procedures, extensive and relevant training and management development activities, incentive pay systems and performance management processes.

The fundamental business need the strategy should meet is to develop and maintain a high performance culture. The characteristics of such a culture are:

A clear line of sight exists between the strategic aims of the authority and those of its departments and its staff at all levels

Management defines what it requires in the shape of performance improvements, sets goals for success and monitors performance to ensure that the goals are achieved

Leadership from the top which engenders a shared belief in the importance of continuing improvement

Performance management processes aligned to the authority’s objectives to ensure that people are engaged in achieving agreed goals and standards

Capacities of people developed through learning at all levels to support performance improvement.

People valued and rewarded according to their contribution.

Evaluate tools and techniques available to set team performance targets

Tools and techniques to help companies transform quickly. Way back when (pick your date), team members in large companies had a simple goal for themselves and their organizations: stability. Shareholders wanted little more than predictable earnings growth. Because so many markets were either closed or undeveloped, leaders could deliver on those expectations through annual exercises that offered only modest modifications to the strategic plan.

Long-term structural transformation has four characteristics: scale (the change affects all or most of the organization), magnitude (it involves significant alterations of the status quo), duration (it lasts for months, if not years), and strategic importance. Yet companies will reap the rewards only when change occurs at the level of the individual employee.

1.2.1. Performance Evaluations:

As a supervisor, your role is to set expectations, gather data, and provide on going feedback to your employees to assist them in utilizing their skills, expertise and ideas to produce results. To provide this direction.

The Annual Performance Evaluation should provide a comparison of actual on-the job performance to established performance measurement standards. The Annual Performance Evaluation encourages periodic and structured communication between supervisors and employees about the job, and should take place continuously.

1.2.2 . Feedback:

Feedback is a process by which effective performance is reinforced and less-than-desirable performance is corrected. Feedback should be information that highlights the relationship between what is expected and what has been accomplished after the work is performed or the action is taken.

1.2.3. Development Planning:

Development planning is the process of creating experiences for your employees that promote skills and knowledge related to the position, as well as to professional growth.

Development plans draw from the Performance Evaluation:

Performance goals or needs (deficiencies) to be addressed

The employee, with supervisor assistance, identifies ways to achieve those goals and/or address performance deficiencies in systematic ways.

Address opportunities for professional growth

Agreement and/or commitment between employee and supervisor

Planned follow-up

Assess the value of team performance tools to measure future team performance

The first step in getting organized is to establish the performance measurement team. The team should be made up of:

1. People who actually do the work to be measured
2. People who are very familiar with the work to be measured.

3. It is important that each person understands the task before them and their role in its accomplishment.
Guidelines for Teams

When meeting as a team, consider these Guidelines for Team:

1. Focus on effectiveness of systems and the appropriate level of internal controls.
2. Maintain a balance between outcome (objective) and process (subjective) measures.
3. Develop measures that crosscut functional areas to better represent overall organizational performance.
4. Incorporate “Best Practices” and reflect management’s judgment as to the key elements for overall

successful operation, including cost/risk/benefit effectiveness—ascertain that measures add value a improve effectiveness in support of the organizational mission.

5. Consider value-added criteria, including evaluating the cost of measuring and administering the measure,

and the number of measures that can be effectively managed.

Keep the number of performance measures at each management level to a minimum. For any program,
there are a large number of potential performance measures.

Develop clear and understandable objectives and performance measures. Performance measures should clarify the objective and be understandable

Consider the cost of attaining the next level of improvement. Establishing a measure that encourages reaching for a new or higher level of improvement should take into account the cost of implementing such a measure against the value of the additional improvement.

Consider performing a risk evaluation. Organizations developing performance measurement systems
should consider performing a risk evaluation of the organization to determine which specific processes are most critical to organizational success or which processes pose the greatest risk to successful mission accomplishments.

Consider the weight of conflicting performance measures. Organizations frequently have several objectives that may not always be totally consistent with each other. For example, an objective of high productivity may conflict with an objective for a high quality product, or an objective of meeting specific deadlines may conflict with an objective of providing the highest quality reports to meet.

2.1 Analyse how to determine required performance targets within teams against current performance

High-performing individuals and teams should be the goal of any organisation. We are all now aware of the potential results of high performance in terms of organisational success and competitiveness. The perennial debate is around how to create that high performance and, more importantly, how to sustain it.

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Most companies find the organisational issues much easier to handle than the individual ones — so they get the attention. Unfortunately this is only part of what needs to be done to create a successful high-performance culture: addressing high performance among individuals is also essential.

2.1.1 Know what it looks like

It will be impossible to know when you’re achieving high performance if you don’t know what it looks like. From an organisational perspective, high performance means not only running a financially sound business, adhering to essential policies and ensuring regulatory demands are observed, but also understanding the capability of your workforce to deliver high performance.

All too often, concerns about what they might find and the time it may take prompt organisations to adopt the “three wise monkeys” strategy — don’t see, don’t hear, don’t speak — with the result that low performance goes unchecked for years until it is too late and competitors have overtaken you. Too often, individual high performance is defined as simply getting the job done in the short term rather than looking to the long term and focusing on behaviours.

2.1.2 Make a commitment

Strong and active commitment from leaders and managers, and the pursuit of continuous learning throughout the organisation, are crucial to building a well-defined high-performance culture. Commitment means not leaving it to fate, but truly understanding what high performance looks like, trusting different approaches and working with all stakeholders, including the human resource

2.1.3 Define your starting point

Knowing where your organisation currently stands will make it much easier to create a vision for the future and to secure buy-in. One of the most effective strategies is to define explicitly what creates high performance in your organisation. Ensure that these behaviours are distinct, while being comprehensive enough to cover different levels of the organisation. Include areas such as how people collect and make sense of information and how they influence and build confidence in stakeholders.

2.1.4 Put a stake in the ground

Once you have agreed what the behavioural high performance indicators look like, it is essential to observe and measure them. The best way to capture current performance is through objective observation, such as work shadowing, behavioural event interviews and subjective feedback via online and facilitated 360-degree analysis. This should clearly distinguish between behaviour that:

• impedes performance
• helps to do the task in hand
• makes a sustainable and long-term positive contribution
• promotes beneficial and long-term behavioural change in teams and divisions.

2.2 Discuss the need to encourage individual commitment to team performance in achievement of organisational goals

Individual understand how their work fits into corporate objectives and they agree that their team’s goals are achievable and aligned with corporate mission and values. Team ground rules are set with consideration for both company and individual values. When conflict arises, the team uses alignment with purpose, values, and goals as important criteria for acceptable solutions.

To enhance team commitment leaders might consider inviting each work team to develop team mission, vision, and values statements that are in alignment with those of the corporation but reflect the individuality of each team. These statements should be visible and “walked” every day. Once a shared purpose is agreed upon, each team can develop goals and measures, focus on continuous improvement, and celebrate team success at important milestones. The time spent up front getting all team members on the same track will greatly reduce the number of derailments or emergency rerouting later.

Leaders can facilitate cooperation by highlighting the impact of individual members on team productivity and clarifying valued team member behaviors. The following F.A.C.T.S. model of effective team member behaviors (follow-through, accuracy, timeliness, creativity, and spirit) may serve as a guide for helping teams identify behaviors that support synergy within the work team.

2.3 Relate the application of delegation, mentoring and coaching to the achievement of the organisational objectives

Coaching can take many forms, life coaching, business coaching, performance coaching etc. As with mentoring and counselling it is about helping the individual to gain self awareness, but it is goal focused and action is required so that the individual can move forward. The goal setting process has two components: skill development and psychological development. The outcome sought is that the “coachee” will achieve the goals set, and will thereafter feel able and confident to set personal goals for themselves.

Developing a person’s skills and knowledge so that their job performance improves, hopefully leading to the achievement of organisational objectives. It targets high performance and improvement at work, although it may also have an impact on an individual’s private life.

Mentoring happens in all organisations whether it is fostered as a development strategy; allowed or encouraged as an informal process; or is an activity that occurs below the consciousness of individuals. People are learning from others, adopting modelled behaviours and attitudes and absorbing the culture and perceived values of the organisation through their personal interactions with co-workers.

Benefits to the Organisation

Increase in morale and motivation

Greater productivity

Discovery of talent

Development of leadership for future survival and prosperity

Communication of values, goals and plans

Demonstration of personal and professional standards

Achievement of excellent service

Implementation of equity initiatives

Fostering of shared values and team work

Enhancement of leadership and people management skills of managers

Increase in staff satisfaction

Building a learning organisation

Managed careers

Development of cross-organisational networks

2.4 Evaluate a team performance plan to meet organisational objectives

As a Team Leader you will be required to ensure that Performance Plans are created for your team and its members. You should also ensure that you are involved in developing your own Performance Plan in conjunction with your Manager. Your Performance Plan ensures that you are clear on the levels of leadership and management performance that are expected of you and helps you to develop new skills as required.

Performance planning should occur as:

An Initial Performance Plan

A Performance Improvement Plan

Initial performance plan

An Initial Performance Plan is a detailed plan for either an individual or a team and is used to:

Identify the desired performance levels

Identify how these performance levels will be achieved

Provide guidance and direction

Measure progress towards the desired performance levels

Although there are no strict rules as to the format of a Performance Plan they normally contain the following information:

Specific goals for development

Performance measures

Actions required to achieve goals

An indication of how long goals will take to achieve

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Individual and team Performance Plans should align with the organisation’s overall objectives. This can be achieved by aligning the:

Performance Plans with the Team Operational Plan

Team Operational Plan with the Team Purpose

Team Purpose with the organisation’s Strategic Plan

Performance Plans might include the following types of goals:

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Goals to improve competency levels

Team building goals

Whenever the performance levels of an individual or team are found to be below the levels indicated in the Performance Plan then a planning process to improve performance should be undertaken.

Performance improvement plan

When a performance deficiency is noted, it should be dealt with as quickly as possible. The following steps outline a process for handling poor performance.

Collate the information regarding poor performance

This information may be in the form of feedback, customer complaints, error rates, statistics and/or informal observation.

Meet with the relevant team member(s) and discuss the issues

During this meeting you will need to discuss the deficiency or inappropriate behaviour and identify the causes.

Inadequate performance does not always indicate a problem on the part of the individual. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) may be unrealistic or the resources required to achieve the performance standard may not be available.

Develop a Performance Improvement Plan

A Performance Improvement Plan provides an outline of what is required by both the individual and their Manager.

You may find that your company or organisation has an existing process for implementing Performance Improvement Plans. You should consult with your Human Resources department or your Manager to determine if this is the case.

Follow up

Ensure that you monitor, follow up and evaluate the performance improvement as set out in the plan.

A Performance Improvement Plan should clearly convey:

The area of performance that requires improvement or development

The action(s) to be taken

Any parties required to assist in the achievement of the set actions

The timeframe for achieving each action

3.1 Assess the process for monitoring team performance and initiate changes where necessary

How do we initiate change

Often it is easier to carry out a job if there is a specific plan to follow. When major changes are to be installed, careful planning and preparation are necessary. Strengthening the forces promoting the change and weakening resistance to it are the main tasks.

Create a climate for change

How people react to proposed changes is greatly influenced by the kind of climate for change that the manager/supervisor has created in the department.

How is the right kind of climate created?

Supervisors and managers who have enthusiasm for progress and change build a healthy climate.
Creating the right climate is more than just passing on changes. It involves:
Encouraging employees to seek ways of improving their jobs.

Seeking suggestions and ideas from employees.

This requires the manager/supervisor to listen and seriously consider suggestions. It is easy to see that there is a great deal of ego involvement in coming forth with an idea for improvement. Change can become an exciting and dynamic way of life.

Get ready to sell

Much of the difficulty in getting co-operation stems from the employees lack of understanding of how the change will affect them. With a little effort, managers/supervisors can find most of the answers to employees’ questions before they are even asked. Answers to these questions would be useful.
What is the reason for the change? Whom will it benefit and how? Will it inconvenience anyone, if so, for how long? Armed with the answers to these questions a manager/supervisor can head off many objections and can develop a plan to present the change.

3.2 Evaluate team performance against agreed objectives

Implement the action plans and take corrective action when required to ensure the attainment of objectives Periodically review performance against established goals and objectives

Appraise overall performance, reinforce behavior, and strengthen motivation. Begin the cycle again
supervisors need to ensure that appraisal processes are congruent with objectives and goals. An MBO rating form needs to provide space to list staff member objectives in order of importance, as well as space for the evaluator to describe staff member performance using a mutually agreed upon scale. Categories of performance can include: distinguished performance, competent performance, provisional performance, and inadequate performance.

Accountabilities and Measures approaches involve the supervisor and staff member agreeing on accountability and performance factors and including them in the job description. Performance is then forecast for each factor to enable quantifiable measures for each factor. An Accountabilities and Measures form can be created, with performance factor categories.

3.3 Evaluate the impact of the team performance in contributing to meeting strategic objectives

Clear Expectations: Expectations for the team’s performance and expected outcomes are clearly known and understand why the team was created. The organization demonstrating constancy of purpose in supporting the team with resources of people, time and money. It work of the team receive sufficient emphasis as a priority in terms of the time, discussion, attention and interest directed its way by executive leaders.

Commitment: Team members feel the team mission is important. Members committed to accomplishing the team mission and expected the outcomes. The team members perceive their service as valuable to the organization and to their own careers. The team members anticipate recognition for their contributions and the team members expect their skills to grow and develop on the team. The team members excited and challenged by the team opportunity.

Competence: The team feel that its members have the knowledge, skill and capability to address the issues for which the team was formed. The team feel it has the resources, strategies and support needed to accomplish its mission?

Charter: The team taken its assigned area of responsibility and designed its own mission, vision and strategies to accomplish the mission. The team defined and communicated its goals; its anticipated outcomes and contributions; its timelines; and how it will measure both the outcomes of its work and the process the team followed to accomplish their task.

Control: Team have enough freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its charter and at the same time, the team members clearly understand their boundaries. The limitations (i.e. monetary and time resources) defined at the beginning of the project before the team experiences barriers and rework?

The team’s reporting relationship and accountability understood by all members of the organization. There is a defined review process so both the team and the organization are consistently aligned in direction and purpose. The team members hold each other accountable for project timelines, commitments and results. The organization have a plan to increase opportunities for self-management among organization members.

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Communication: The team members clear about the priority of their tasks and an established method for the teams to give feedback and receive honest performance feedback. The organization provide important business information regularly and the teams understand the complete context for their existence. The team members communicate clearly and honestly with each other and the team members bring diverse opinions to the table and all the necessary conflicts raised and addressed.

Creative Innovation: It reward people who take reasonable risks to make improvements or does it reward the people who fit in and maintain the status quo. It provide the training, education, access to books and films, and field trips necessary to stimulate new thinking. The team members feel responsible and accountable for team achievements and are rewards and recognition supplied when teams are successful. The reasonable risk respected and encouraged in the organization. Team members fear reprisal. The team members spend their time finger pointing rather than resolving problems and the organization designing reward systems that recognize both team and individual performance. The organization planning to share gains and increased profitability with team and individual contributors.

Coordination: The teams coordinated by a central leadership team that assists the groups to obtain what they need for success. Have priorities and resource allocation been planned across departments. The teams understand the concept of the internal customer—the next process, anyone to whom they provide a product or a service. The cross-functional and multi-department teams common and working together effectively. The organization developing a customer-focused process-focused orientation and moving away from traditional departmental thinking.

Cultural Change: The organization recognize that the team-based, collaborative, empowering, enabling organizational culture of the future is different than the traditional, hierarchical organization it may currently be and the organization planning to or in the process of changing how it rewards, recognizes, appraises, hires, develops, plans with, motivates and manages the people it employs.

4.1 Determine influencing and persuading methodologies to gain the commitment of individuals to a course of action

This is a unique approach to team leadership that is aimed at action orientated environments where effective functional leadership is required to achieve critical or reactive tasks by small teams deployed into the field. In other words leadership of small groups often created to respond to a situation or critical incident.

The individuals should have the knowledge, skills and values required for today’s and tomorrow’s jobs. One company clarified the usual definition of competence and framed it as “right skills, right place, right job.”

Competence clearly matters because incompetence leads to poor decision-making. But without commitment, competence doesn’t count for much. Highly competent employees who are not committed are smart, but don’t work very hard.

Committed or engaged employees work hard, put in their time and do what they are asked to do. In the past decade, commitment and competence have been the bailiwicks for talent. But my colleagues and I have found that next-generation leaders for an organization may be competent (able to do the work) and committed (willing to do the work), but unless they are making a real contribution through the work (finding meaning and purpose in their work), then their interest in what they are doing diminishes and their willingness to harness their talent in the organization wanes. Contribution occurs when employees feel that their personal needs are being met through their participation in their organization.

4.2 Discuss the impact of individual dynamics, interests and organisational politics on securing the commitment of individuals to a course of action

Organizational behavior scientists study four primary areas of behavioral science: individual behavior, group behavior, organizational structure, and organizational processes. They investigate many facets of these areas like personality and perception, attitudes and job satisfaction, group dynamics, politics and the role of leadership in the organization, job design, the impact of stress on work, decision-making processes, the communications chain, and company cultures and climates. They use a variety of techniques and approaches to evaluate each of these elements and its impact on individuals, groups, and organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

Groups of individuals gathered together to achieve a goal or objective, either as a committee or some other grouping, go through several predicatable stages before useful work can be done. These stages are a function of a number of variables, not the least of which is the self-identification of the role each member will tend to play, and the emergence of natural leaders and individuals who will serve as sources of information. Any individual in a leadership position whose responsibilities involve getting groups of individuals to work together should both be conversant with the phases of the group process and possess the skills necessary to capitalize on these stages to accomplish the objective of forming a productive, cohesive team.


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