Stroke Research: An Introduction

 

Introduction

Research studies the quality of data that produces an outcome to provide knowledge in which can explicate results of intangible and tangible benefits. Developing medical improvements, evaluation is done to suggests a beneficial effect for medical facilities or existing facilities and “for use by people to reduce uncertainties, improve effectiveness, and make decisions” (Patton, 2008, p. 39). Evaluation is an implementation of valuable data which can gather information and further analyzation from outcome. It employs accurate, visible analyzation to further develop future findings.

Several methodologies were employed including Economic Evaluation, Enterprise Systems, Study Selections, meta-evaluations and content analysis of national documents. Furthermore, creating guidelines for greater impact on the body of knowledge for the program specially in health sector. Evaluations helps to attain more accurate and feasible information to improve the effectiveness. Influencing the result of the perspective study for human resource, internal processes, on external opportunities and on management (Diana, 2015). This paper will analyze four evaluative research containing a wide range of data that are used to calculate the impact, outcome, process, economical and output to the society and how it can improve later research or currents studies that are done towards Cerebrovascular accident.

Background of the Study

Cerebrovascular accident as defined by Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Center (2013) is a form of transient ischemic attack that causes potential death, loss of movement or even more complication in the future if not have been treated correctly to the patients. There are several aspects that can cause cerebrovascular accident such as hypertension, diabetes and blockage of blood flow. In a study of the current status of acute stroke in Korea (2008) report that studies in a web-based database of consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from the span of 4 years (Rohan, 2014). The study shows that the rate of risk factor that more than 80% are caused by hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization were performed on 1,736 subjects and 34% were endovascular (MOH, 2016).

 This paper will analyze 5 stroke research as using data across the globe to evaluate the health evaluation towards stroke focusing on their significance, method and quality. Main purpose is to create a data base than can help future findings and to provide a stronger knowledge towards Cerebrovascular accident.

Evaluation Studies

Economic Evaluation in Stroke Research: An Introduction

This review is to assess the relevance of the economic evaluations towards the cost of stroke in different countries. The researcher considered several studies to calculate the future, current data and sensitivity analysis to find intangible and tangible results. Due to governments wanting to reduce expenditure while health care sector are going through interventions due to the increased demand through demographic changes (Sylvia, 2001).  The method that was used in this study is mixed method, cross-sectional audit was used to identify the costs-to-costs expenditure and retrospective audit to check the constant changes in the aging population  (Sylvia, 2001).

The significance of this study concluded that the need of transparent reporting and to carefully clarify these results when decision making. Moreover, this study can also contribute to find the data that can both exploit the cost and successful data that can be used to help make more tangible decisions towards the expenditure for stroke (Sylvia, 2001). 

Evaluation of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada Research Scholarship Program: research productivity and impact. 

This review is to assess the relevance comparison of both funded and unfunded group in Canada. The researcher considered the unsuccessful and successful funding in the years of 1980/81 to 1989/90 and the productivity and its impact on the individuals. Due to consistency in multiple indicators provides strong evidence that within the 10 years of studies, individuals that are funded has more greater productivity and impact in the body of knowledge in the area of heart and stroke (Armstrong, 1997).

The method used in this study is quantitative method, to qualify the understanding of which group is more productive and has a greater knowledge in the area of heart and stroke (Armstrong, 1997). The significance of this study is to determine the unequivocally relation between funding and research success it indicated suggests a beneficial effect. Lastly, this relevance of this study is to have greater knowledge if given with funds to do more research (Armstrong, 1997).

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Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry. 

This review is to assess the relevance of diagnostics and variation treatments studies in Korea. The researcher considered the data on the exploit of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in Korea for acute stroke care. Due to clinical research centers studies aim to describe the stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to apply its quality indicators (ByungJin, 2008). The methods used in this study is quantitative method, to qualify the understandings of quality of care  and to cover the pretreatment demographics. Due to the high numbers of ischemic stroke cases, the researcher explores the causes of acute stroke in this study (ByungJin, 2008).

The significance of this study is to determine the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries. Moreover, this study can also be used to understand the main causes of heart stroke and the procedures that are taken (ByungJin, 2008).

Adopting CVA To Evaluate Es Benefits’ Impact On Organisational Effectiveness In Australia

This review is to assess the relevance of Enterprise System and the benefits impact it provides in Australia. The researcher of this study needs to consider whether the research of this study has an impact in both internally and externally organizations. Due to the evaluation was based on human resource, internal processes, external opportunities and on management to ensure that competing value approach can have an impact on Enterprise System. This role include knowing the major contribution of competing value approach (Leon, 2012).

The methods used in this study is quantitative method, to quantify the benefits of competing value approach towards Enterprise System the researcher explores internally and externally addressing intangible and tangible benefits (Leon, 2012). The relevance of this study is to equally evaluate the benefits of tangible and intangible from both internal and external organization. But this study can also contribute to understand impact on competing value approach towards organization via case studies (Leon, 2012).

An evaluation of stroke rehabilitation within Greater Manchester  

This review is to assess the relevance of the quality of stroke rehabilitation services towards patients and to evaluate the stakeholders’ opinions in greater Manchester. The researcher of this study considered several methodologies including literature review, case note audit and questionnaires for patients, staff and commissioners. Due to the evaluation studies was to aim to understand the rehabilitation of patients and the difference in priorities and accountability from localities (Alison, 2013).

The methods used in this study is qualitative method, to determine the feelings of patients that are being treated with stroke and the rehabilitation process (Alison, 2013). This research is responsible in giving information of how patients feel towards stoke rehabilitation and improvements can be done.  Moreover, this study can also contribute to create and understand a better life style for patients who is suffering from a stroke but to also improve its process in the future studies (Alison, 2013).

Evaluative reasoning in public-sector evaluation in Aotearoa New Zealand: How are we doing?

This review is to assess the relevance of meta-evaluation towards the public-sector in Aotearoa New Zealand. The researcher of this study needs to consider the snapshot of evaluation practice and to insight further investigation. Due to the lack of argument and evidence further research is needed to qualify if the results of the study is confirmed. These factor includes context, funding, time constraints and commissioner requirements (Heather, Robin, and Karen, 2015). The method used in this study is qualitative method, to understand if meta-evaluation or evaluative reasoning practices can be an accredited profession in Aotearoa New Zealand. Due to the importance of evaluative reasoning the researcher explores the relevance reports lack an argument and text that are ambiguous (Heather, Robin, and Karen, 2015). The significance of this study allows researchers find where we are at towards evaluative reasoning and it can also contribute to a more warranted conclusion (Heather, Robin, and Karen, 2015).

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Audit and Evaluation Processes

Economic Evaluation in Stroke Research: An Introduction 

The researcher make use of economical evaluation to determine the expenses of stroke in different countries. Tracking of the record of the costs and consequences to analytically evaluate an outcome. The care cost for cerebrovascular diseases had an increased and governments are  looking at wanting to cut cost, but the health care sector are demanding an increase due to demographic changes (Sylvia, 2001).

As the main purpose of economical evaluation is to increase an impact on clinical practice, terms of pricing, coverage and imbursement.  The study showed an outcome that can maximize the effectiveness for the individual patient and to reduce cost. Why I think the researcher use this type of evaluation is to help make transparent reporting for both cost and effectiveness of decision making (Sylvia, 2001).

Adopting CVA To Evaluate Es Benefits’ Impact On Organizational Effectiveness In Australia

The researcher make use of impact and outcome evaluation to determine the effectiveness of competing value approach (CVA) on enterprise system and to establish an outcome  on human resource, internal processes, on external opportunities and management (Leon, 2012). The study is about the impact of Competing Value Approach(CVA) in the last ten years towards the Enterprise System on the whole organizations (Leon, 2012).

The main purpose of the impact evaluation is to equally evaluate Enterprise System (ES) impact and Competing Value Approach  (Leon, 2012). The outcome of this study is to create tangible and intangible benefits on both internal and external organization (Leon, 2012).  Why I think the researcher use this type of evaluation is to help address the impact of Enterprise system on the whole organization and to also provide a more understanding of Competing Value Approach on Enterprise Systems (Leon, 2012).

Evaluation of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada Research Scholarship Program: research productivity and impact.

The researcher make use of impact and outcome evaluation to determine whether funded or unfunded individuals can be more productive and have greater body knowledge in heart and stroke area. The study consist of the funding years 1980/81 to 1989/90 inclusive,  number of peer reviewed publications and  data were collected on 192 individuals to determine a result (Armstrong, 1997).

The main purpose of this study is evaluate both funded and unfunded individuals to see which individuals has more impact on the knowledge and productivity  (Armstrong, 1997). The outcome of this study shows that funded individuals has more impact on the knowledge and are more productive than individuals that are not funded. Why I think the researcher use this type of evaluation is to determine the unequivocally relation between funding and research success, it indicate a suggestive beneficial effect (Armstrong, 1997).

Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

The researcher make use of input and outcome evaluation to determine the care of stroke patients in Korea at national level. The study had Clinical Research Center for Stroke in April 2008 and to look into covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyper-acute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators and long-term functional outcomes (ByungJin, 2008).

The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the stroke statistic, quality of care in Korea and to apply its quality indicators. The study showed that it can be used to understand the main causes of heart stroke and the procedure that are taken and how it can improve the quality of stroke care across South Korea (ByungJin, 2008). Why I think the researcher use this type of evaluation is to compare the quality of stroke care towards other countries and how it can improve its quality. Moreover, is to also help future studies to have a better understanding of what improvement and procedure can be taken (ByungJin, 2008).

An evaluation of stroke rehabilitation within Greater Manchester 

The researcher make use of impact and outcome evaluation to determine the rehabilitation services and evaluate the stakeholders opinion. The study analysis 214 separate recommendations from 15 documents. Of these are 21 were relevant to every patient receiving stroke rehabilitation, 13 to overall service provision and 8 related to specific aspects of patient care. These were converted to standards and used to audit the 10 stroke rehabilitation services in Greater Manchester. Patients, staffs and commissioners completed questionnaires to determine the national recommendations of services (Alison, 2013).

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The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the feeling of stroke rehabilitation for patients and what improvement can be taken (Alison, 2013).  Study shows information that will describe the feelings of patients towards rehabilitation, improvements can be done in future studies and reason why I think the researcher use this evaluation is to create future studies and to improve more towards rehabilitation experience, giving satisfaction to patients (Alison, 2013).

Evaluation Model

PRECEDE-PROCEED Evaluation Model

The Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation and Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development (Precede-Proceed) evaluation model is designed for cost-benefit evaluation framework. To help health program planner, policy makers and other evaluators to analyze and design health programs systematic. It gives a comprehensive structure to asses health and quality of life and to design, apply and evaluate health promotions and public health programs. The systematic use of the evaluative model uses a series of clinical and field trials to confirm the advantage and predictive of the model. The main purpose of this evaluation model is to directly put attention to outcomes rather than inputs. It allows planners to start with the desired outcome then work backwards to identify strategies to achieve those objectives (Andrea, Gielen, Tiffany, and Gary, 2017).

Source: Surveillance, Planning and Evaluating for Policy and Action : Precede-Proceed Model (2006)

The essential components of the evaluation model- is to apply theories of health problems and to design programs to address public health problems underlying important risk and protective factors. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model has been a utility program for practice settings and researchers conducting health changes (Lawrence, and Judith, 2006).

The context evaluation main purpose is to evaluate the growing recognition of the health education to enclose policy, regulatory and related ecological/environmental factors, determining health and health behaviors, to improve and to increase scholarly productivity among health education faculty. Furthermore, the evaluative model is not to predict or explain the relationship among factors thought to be associated with an outcome of interest. Rather, the main purpose of it is to provide a structure for applying theories and concepts systematically for planning and evaluating health behavior change programs (Lawrence, and Judith, 2006).

 This evaluation model may contribute for CVA all around the world, especially for Ministry of Health of New Zealand. It can improve its study target starting from a diverse array of assessment such as social, behavioral, educational and existing policies. Furthermore, auditing the CVA cases can be implemented through predisposing, reinforcing and enabling the studies. Eventually, cases will be evaluated to enhance the quality of life (Lawrence, and Judith, 2006).

Conclusion

Evaluation research is needed in all aspects of healthcare implementing programs or project to improve an overall effectiveness. It is very important to use the right tools, followed by numbers of reviews and research towards the improvement or success of the organization. This involves education, managers and staffs feedback can develop a thorough guidelines to help improve their systems and policies. Overall, the evaluation research can improve the common good and development of the organization and community can benefit from the outcome and achieving objectives in most efficient ways.

References

Alison, M. (2015) An evaluation of stroke rehabilitation within Greater Manchester. Retrieved

from :

Armstrong, P. (1997) Evaluation of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada Research

Scholarship Program: research productivity and impact. Retrieved from :

Andrea C., Gielen E. M., Tiffany L., Gary L. R., (2017), Ecological Models of Health Behavior.

Retrieved from : /community-health/health-promotion/2/program-models/community-organization

ByungJin, K. (2008) Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a

multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry. Retrieved from :

Diana H (2015). Research Evaluation Scope Statement. Retrieved from :

http://www.oxfordjournals.org/our_journals/rev/about.html

Heather N., Robin P., and Karen W., (2015) Evaluative reasoning in public-

sector evaluation in Aotearoa New Zealand: How are we doing? Retrieved from :

Leon, T. (2012) . Retrieved from :

Lawrence W. G., Judith M. P., (2006). A Framework for planning and evaluation: Precede-proceed evolution and application of the Model. Retrieved from : http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0803/id2188.pdf

 

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