System Analysis And Design Learning Outcome

Before getting into detail, it is important to understand the concept of System Analysis and Design. It is a study of interactive entities, including computer system analysis and designing the process of defining components, modules and etc.

In this assignment I will work on the following three different phases. Each phase will cover the related content in detail. In the first part we will understand the different system life cycles models. In this part, I will discuss different life cycles and will discuss the importance of a following a procedural/staged life cycle in a system investigation.

In learning outcome 2, I am going to explain the feasibility report, feasibility study and impact of different feasibility criteria on a system investigation for a particular garment shop.

The purpose of feasibility study is to find the solutions or to investigate the tasks requirements, referencing this I will discuss the contents of feasibility report and when to use the feasibility study

Third learning outcome is to be able to perform a system investigation in this we will undertake a system investigation to meet a business need. Use appropriate system analysis tools and techniques to carry out a system investigation. Then I will create documentation to support a system investigation and at last I will evaluate how user and system requirements have been addressed.

In this assignment, each issue & process would be discussed in detail to understand the basic concept.


(a): Waterfall Model:

It is a very useful model which is widely used and it’s easy to understand as well, it’s a sequential design process which is flowing steadily downwards like water. It is a step by step process, if we will find any error so we would check from backward instead of directly going to that point of error. The following diagram shows the steps.


Analysis and Gathering Requirement:

In this first step of waterfall model, the developer has to conduct a meeting with the costumer to know about his requirement for the software. He discusses the things in details and analyzes the whole project system and then collects requirements based on software development.

System Design:

In this stage based on the requirements he has collected, he will make a rough model so that the software process becomes easy for implementation. After this stage they would have documentation so that it would be easy for the user to understand.

Detailed Design and Coding:

In this step the developer will make an actual model of software. The developer sees the problems in details. And if there is any error they would check and correct that which is also called coding.


After implementation the developer sees the software weather it is working properly or not then he will do the testing.


This is the last phase, in which the developer correct all the errors and he will hand over the software to the client.

Merits of Water Fall Model:

This model is easy to understand for the user.

It is good for small projects where requirements are well understood.

Waterfall model is preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule or cost.

Demerits of Water Fall Model:

It is costly and time consuming.

If we want any change we have to go from below so it’s difficult.

Not suitable for difficult or moderate projects.

(b) Some of the models that don’t have specific structures are:

a) Code and fix:

It’s very easy and simple kind of model and consists of two steps.

a) Write coding to the program

b) Fixing the problem in that code

This model is very simple as it doesn’t need any proper team work, and each one would not be able to convince his point to the others so it saves time by fixing errors in the early ages.

Merits of Code and fix:

It is actually less time taking.

Easy to use.

Good for small projects as risk is reduction.

Demerits of Code and fix:

It’s difficult to detect the errors.

No time limits.

Difficult for the large projects.

b) Rapid prototyping:

In this model the costumers are not familiar with the software so they don’t know what kind of program they actually want. It is one among the easiest and user friendly model. It does not require any team work. It will be easy to understand for non-technical management.

a) The developer will do that phase or step first according to the customer’s wish.

b) The developer will do that step first which is easy and the phase which is difficult that part he will do at the end.

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Merits of Rapid Prototyping:

a) Less chances of risk of incorrect user requirement.

b) Its a user friendly.

c) The developer can save the changes and it is easy to change the changes.

Demerits of rapid prototyping:

The developer only can make the project for just one company.

Very expensive/costly.

c) Cots: (Commercial off-The Shelf Software)

This is the easiest and cheapest model. In this model the developer takes the model which already is exists and they make changes in that same model only according to the user requirement.

Merits of cots:

a) It is a well worked model.

b) It has to make changes minor.

Demerits of cots:

a) When we put it on internet, we face problems because the internet asks for the security code.

d) Agile (XP) Manifesto:

This model is used for companies only. In this model, the developer wants the team for the other skills to complete the project. Communication must be there with the client. It is easy for the developer to make changes in the software from start to the end itself. The developer gives all the updates to the client about the software.

Merits of Agile:

a) It is easy to make small projects.

b) Main aims to final the product.

c) The company can test for a good result in every week.

Demerits of Agile:

a) For this model it is difficult to make large projects.

b) We should need to have proper planning and documentations.

c) If the program will make in pairs then it will be much costly.

1.2) (a) SDLC (System development life cycle):


The System Development is consists of the following stages:

a). Preliminary Investigation:

The developer has to spend for some days to understand the problem; he can install the proper system. In this stage, the developer collects all the information available for the system which they need and he is also gathering the whole workers with him to collect the requirements for the system.

b). Analysis of the Requirement:

The developer understands the information and functions of the software which all he requires for the system. He briefly goes through the requirements and to develop the performance of the system. He also wants to get more information and resources to build the suitable system.

c). System Design:

The developer makes rough designs on paper or on the computer, to check whether the rough image of system includes all the requirements or not. Once this stage done, then he will choose and finalizes the suitable designs for the development of the system.

d). System Coding:

The developer translates the code or the program in machine language so that it can be readable easily. The coding step is time spending and it has many errors.

e). System Testing:

Once the programming stage done, then he tests the systems whether it is working according to the client’s needs or not. And he corrects the error if there are any.

f). System Implementation:

This is the most important phase. In this stage the developer finally gives the system to the client and expecting for a positive response.

g). System Maintenance:

In this last stage, the developer wants to maintain the system and checks whether it’s working in the way he made it or not. Then he again maintains the system by removing the defects of flaws if happened.

1.2) (b) Rapid Prototyping:

I would prefer rapid prototyping life cycle model to develop software for university works because it is one among the easiest and user friendly model. It does not require any team work and even for the non technical management it will be easy to understand. At each stage of development the progress details has to submit to the management. Here instead of presenting report we submit rough model. It will be more convenient as the management could see the development physically rather than theoretical documents.

In universities any time there could be change in system or introduction of new courses. So if the management demands change in the software developing in the middle also it can be done easily. It indicates advantage over other models because complex models like water fall or spiral, if user demands changes it will be great loss because they have to follow step by step procedure and then make changes. It will consume more time and cost high. As this model is completely customer oriented they’ll proceed only after the management finds satisfaction.

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2.1 a) Feasibility Report:

It is the end stage of a feasibility study. It verifies the effect of the changes suggested in feasibility study. This report used by management is brief and nontechnical to be understandable.

In other words, feasibility report basically the report which gave the advice weather the project is feasible or not.

Basically the report contains the summary of findings and recommendations, followed by documentations.

The components of the feasibility report are the following:

a) Cover letter: presents the report formally and indicates the findings and changes to be made briefly to the management

b) Table of contents: an index to understand the location of each and every part of the report.

c) Overview: it explains the reason for undertaking a feasibility study and includes the people affected by it and the names of the persons who conducted the study.

a) Detailed findings: provides the details regarding the present system and its defects.

b) Economic Justification: Here detailed cost comparison and cost estimations are presented.

c) Recommendations and conclusions: Here the proposed changes and its effects on present system all are mentioned and as per the study a conclusion is provided for the report.

d) Appendixes document to provide all the necessary documentation within the report for reference.

b) Feasibility Study:

The purpose of feasibility study is to find solutions or to investigate the tasks requirements and to determine whether it’s worthwhile/feasible to develop the system, collecting data or analyzing that how the project will be operate, relating it consulting the recommended business requirements. In other words, a feasibility study can help us to confirm the outcome of solution we are unaware off.

A feasibility study becomes necessary when sometimes the customer is not an ideal customer. Thus it becomes necessary to confirm the assumption of project based on the client ideas. In expense terms it’s better to have feasibility than making poor decision from improper analysis.

We should have basic information about business ideas to make the study best. We should know one or more business models or scenarios that might be used. Sufficient investigation about these models should be conducted to determine viability. A feasibility study cannot be just conducted by making few calls. For this early investigation is done before the study.

For this we can seek committee member of business itself or consultant. It starts with the marketing feasibility to confirm if the present idea influences it by checking their current marketing. It’s then proceeded by technical and financial feasibility by checking resources, location, current availability, budget of the project etc. since it’s essential to analyze before starting a project. If the idea goes with market availability, we can proceed with feasibility analysis and use it for feasibility study.

2.2) Impact of Feasibility Criteria on a System Investigation for a Garment Shop:

Before starting up a garment shop a feasibility study can help us in increasing chance of our success by analyzing our ideas, shop localities, types of clothes, management staffs etc before starting. Let us discuss about the feasibility criteria on garment shop on social, economic and time scales.

Social Factor:

The garment shop is a socially responsible business; it has the responsibility to form a good impact on the environment as well. Earning profit is not only the aim of the project but also to provide a healthy environment with proper clothing. Considering in social basis it is necessary that the garment should variety clothes belonging to different cultures, such as western and eastern out fits.

While checking viability of the project, it is necessary to include aspects like how it will work in the market, how it will differ from other organizations and how long our idea will be effective. Well profitability cannot be judged during initial months as competitions are there in all fields and shops like garment shop can provide high cash returns if it attracts customers for quite long.

Economical Factor:

On economic basis it is a preliminary analysis in order to determine our idea is effective. Before doing analysis there are certain criteria to keep in mind such as:

a) To evaluate whether we and our management staffs posses the idea and methodologies in common that lead the company to success.

b) We need assess the market for the idea we have come up with.

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c) To estimate basic financial feasibility our project is necessary as it is initial requirement including revenue sales, fixed prices, stock availability, financial access etc.

d) To identify drawback of the garment shop as it a business it have strong competitors and analyze how to defend them.

e) Finally make a right choice that whether ideas can be still effective and practical.

Time Scales: The basic idea implanted of timescale in here is that, the time to market the product, which means the changes which we apply on the present system and as per the cost estimation when the shop would be ready to hit the market?

The time as a constraint has always been considered by system analyst and programmers, but here in garment shop the estimated time might differ as per the budget, resources, design, etc. needed for the change.

These three phases of feasibility study are observed in a system investigation for a garment shop to improve the accuracy and to make the shop much more efficient. All these stages are covered so that in future the shop would face no consequence in matter of Legal, Economical and Social.

Learning Outcome # 03

Opening a new Garment Shop:-

a). Introduction:

I am going to explain that how a system investigation is held for opening a new garment shop and that what are the actual and basic techniques, needs and requirements at business scale. Regarding this I would make documentation on system investigation and would discuss that how user and systems requirements have been addressed.

b). Descriptions of the Business:

It is a clothing retail shop (a garment shop).

c). Market Consideration:

Clothing items and stuff would be targeted especially for teenagers and young adults; this would the starting point so it would b little bit challenging of course, especially keeping up with each of the seasonal trends. They always expect to have material to be available of their choice in color and size. Dissatisfaction of the customer in purchasing can bring lose in my sales. To store clothing in a temperature controlled ware house, cost varies. It can be reduced by proper inventory management.

d). Management Team:

Since it is a small-business, hiring staff increases costs dramatically, both in salary and taxes. To hire someone, looking for part-time help well in advance of the opening day would be suitable. I would provide them with adequate training on how to run the cash register, store policies and regulations, and information on the merchandise.

e). Technical Specifications and Production Plan:

I recommend purchasing retail fittings for the shop. These may include special needs such as display cases, racks, counters, cashier, landlines, credit cards, changing rooms for men and women and shopping bags and gift wrapping. As trend in the fashion industry is ever changing, a successful store always focuses on the latest trends and identifies which trends are on the least. A single mistake can bring great lose ending up in excessive goods, undetermined costs and collaborated brands names in the shop. And eventually causes destruction of the business.

f). Marketing Plans:

By adopting proper marketing strategies, I would create a buzz in the market about my clothing retail store business. Marketing would be done in such a manner that it grabs the attention of my targeted customers. For example, the design of the store and the store’s website are made with the target customers in full consideration. Advertising would be done later since it needs to be well made in order to be successful and successful advertising can be costly.

g). Financial and Economic Plans:

A good location can do wonders to the success of any retail business. Realtors would give estimates on traffic patterns near the store location. Convenience factors, such as handicap access and parking are important for the success of the garment shop. If the store was already a clothing store, careful inquiries about the previous tenants are necessary.

h). Evaluation and Conclusion:

This system investigation provides a good outline and vision over the starting of the clothing retail store, committing to this plan would give a smooth start over the starting of a small business as such. However later on, modifications are necessary to keep up with new challenges introduced by this ever changing market. I would analyze about the other companies achievements and draw backs that I need to work on and get better. Then I would have extra working hours comparing to other shops and have staffs for working shifts.

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