The Automated Teller Machines

Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have gained prominence as a delivery channel for banking transactions in India. Banks have been deploying ATMs to increase their reach. As at the end of December 2007 as per the RBI circular, the number of ATMs deployed in India was 32,342. More people are now moving towards using the automated teller machines (ATM) for their banking needs. According to a survey by Banknet India, 95% people now prefer this modern channel to traditional mode of banking. Almost 60% people use an ATM at least once a week. Increased ATM usage is also helped by the fact that customers have now the flexibility of using ATMs of other banks, as most of the banks are part of major interbank networks like National Financial Switch (NFS), Mitr, BANCS, Cashtree and Cashnet. The interbank networks have brought together ATMs of several banks so that consumers would gain access to any of the participating banks’ ATMs. Banks find it cheaper to pay membership fees to these networks as against setting up additional units in expensive-to-deploy areas. ATMs are now seen to be more than mere cash dispensing machines. Customers use ATMs to recharge their mobile phone pre-paid connections, pay their utility bills, even mutual fund transactions – making them at par with flexibility given in internet banking – only more secure. Of the value-added services provided at ATMs, bill-payment is the most used service, followed by prepaid mobile talk-time recharges. However, still about one third of the respondents do not use any value added services at ATMs.

The ATM market in India is not yet saturated. Though the concentration of ATMs is greater in metros, the demand is increasing for other cities and even rural areas. ATM’s per million people approximately is 33 units is very low. Experts forecast that the growth rate (CAGR) is expected to grow 18 percent up by 2013. Banks going into a self service model can have huge saving potential for banks and may also increase the convenience for the customers.

Following is a representative trend taking into account the growth in the number of ATMs in three of the largest Indian banks:

ATM Supply Chain Network & Activities

Following are the major activities carried out as part of the ATM supply chain or in supporting the ATM services of a bank

Maintenance Activities

Site

Telecommunication Link

Cash Refilling

ATM Monitoring

Handling Customer Complaints

Reconciliation of Cash And Interbank Transactions

Following is a sample ATM Supply chain network:

Bank Head Office

ATM Vendors

Outsourced Agent

Bank Branch 1

Bank Branch 2

ATM

As can be seen from the network above, the major participants in the ATM supply chain network are:

ATM Vendors

If the bank ATM and the related IT infrastructure is outsourced then; the ATM infrastructure is operated and maintained by the ATM vendors for a fees. It provides the advantages of cost efficiency and scalability for the banks

Outsourced Delivery agents

They are the ones who supply cash to the ATMs. They either have a Vault Cash account where the vendors themselves maintain some cash balance or they have an Overdraft Account with the Bank itself, which gets debited after each withdrawal and credited after the deposit at the ATM.

Bank Branches

These are the Bank branches in-charge of the various ATMs in a particular area

Bank Head Office

This is the main office branch of a bank in a particular city or district

ATM supply chain IT infrastructure

ATM Infrastructure Information flow

Delivery Channel Coordinator

Switch Network

Outsourced Delivery Agents

Card Issuer’s Server

ATM

Information flow for cash withdrawal and for Credit Cards

Information flow for cash replenishment

MIS Info

ATM

It interfaces with the switch network to exchange cash withdrawal, cash replenishment and credit card information

Outsourced Delivery Agents

They receive information from the delivery channel coordinators to replenish the ATM cash

Delivery channel coordinator

They receive cash replenishment and MIS information from the switching network. There is always more than one ATM under each Delivery channel coordinator to take advantage of the economies of scale. Also, the channel ordination can be either manually managed or automated.

Switch Network

The switch server authenticates the user, as well as exchanges cash replenishment related information with the individual ATMs

Card Issuer’s Server

The bank’s host server interacts with the switch network to obtain card withdrawal and credit card information while at the same authenticating the credit card transaction from the Card Issuer’s Server

Delivery Channels

Delivery channels are medium for information transmission or cash transmission in a banking context. They are also known as touch-points, which deliver service to the end-user in his convenience. The primary medium of touch-point was the brick-mortal form of banking. However as time passed, and information technology proliferated banks were able to extend the touch-points to various other forms such as:

Automated Teller Machines (ATM)

Point of Sale (POS)

Mobile Banking

Internet Banking

The delivery channel innovation was started by private banks & foreign banks after the 1991 reforms when many banks were allowed to carry out operations in India.

Advantages of Delivery Channels

Deliver channels provide the following benefits to users

Easy access

24×7 availability

Security,

Reduced transaction costs

Options of access per convenience

Acceptance & Implementation

Old generation banks with little or marginal systems have acceptance issues with the disruptive technologies of internet. The acceptance issue also comes with many of the old generation customers who believe in losing the personal touch of banking.

Implementation issues center around the following:

Centralization of Data

Multiple technologies for different systems

Security issues (Customer end/Banking end)

Multiple interface for different channels

Synchronization of information across channels

Currency Distribution

Banks need to maintain a certain level of cash in order to service its daily withdrawals. There is an entire supply-chain in place which helps in ensuring the same. Below is a diagram of how money travels from the press to the various banks

ATM

Presses/Mints

Public

Press-linked offices

Currency Chest offices (Banks)

An overview of the supply-chain of Banks

The presses and mints where notes and coins are printed are under the RBI. The money from the mints and presses is moved daily to the 19 press-linked offices. These are sent to the nearby zonal currency-chest banks, essentially Banks which store current called as Chest offices. There are in all 4279 chests and 4040 coin depots.

Functions of the Chest office

Fulfills the requirement of people’s funds

Withdrawal and acceptance of unfit notes

Payments to Governments

Operates with minimum balance at all times

Each day the records are maintained for the issue/acceptance of currency. It also has to maintain the asset-liability position in cash management.

Currency in Circulation

Just as a manufacturing supply chain deals with product varieties also known as SKUs, the currency supply chain also has its SKUs through various denominations. The shift towards higher denominations was observed since the wide-usage of ATMs.

Various steps were also taken to phase out Rs .5/- notes and replacing with coins for many such low denominations

Source:RBI Docs, Currency Management, Section VIII, Dt. 27/08/2009

Clean-Note Policy

To ensure the life of currency notes, RBI issued a directive to all bank offices to cease the stapling of notes and instead band them and the soiled notes be returned to RBI. But devalued stapled notes were still lying with banks.

IT systems were used to create a Currency Verification & Processing (CVP) system. This categorized notes into ‘Fit’, ‘Unfit’, ‘Reject’ and ‘Suspect’ categories. A Citizen’s charter was also issued providing guidelines on how to identify soiled notes and steps to be taken to return to RBI. However due to implementation issues kept the proportion of soiled notes in circulation from 15.9 million pieces (2002-03) to 10.9 million (2008-09).

Logistics & Distribution Challenges

Each bank generally arranges for personal logistics service with police protection. Security vans are used for short-distances and train for longer distances. The extent and size of the country poses a significant problem in meeting need for currency at various pockets in India. Following are some of the issues faced in distribution

Security & availability of railway wagons

Political boundaries that inefficiently defining jurisdiction of Issue offices which lead to suboptimal logistic services

Moving currency across touch-points – an exercise that is avoidable is generally carried out

Private security is not desirable and police can’t be dedicated for this exercise

Various existing distribution systems of milk-cooperatives, post-offices, coin-dispenser mechanisms and a directive to issue bulk users with a certain proportion of coins was made.

Supply Challenges

With 4 printing presses, supply after 1999 was not a problem, but the pace of notes replacement made quality of notes deteriorate. Since the notes that were returned came unsorted there were inefficiencies in understanding the outflow of currency from system. In order to develop capacities to free-up vault space in banks various measures like shredding systems in all offices were setup.

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Demand-forecasting among banks

Banks carry out demand-forecasting using statistical analysis using long-term historical demands to calculate forecasts. These aim to serve the following needs:

Incremental needs – As and when money is needed by RBI, the presses supply

Replacement needs – Money is needed to replace specific notes, which are soiled or disfigured

Reserve needs – Emergency requirements to fulfil reserve requirements by banks

Technology in Currency Operations

With such a vast network of banks, the Reserve Bank established Integrated Computerized Currency Operations and Management Systems (ICCOMS) which helped in error-free reporting and accounting of chest-level transactions.

Security in distribution and ATM

Security is increasingly becoming more significant in network environment with the emergence of the internetworking technology. The internetworking technology can act as or provide the communication channels across networks so that machines in different networks can talk to each other. But such kind of technologies like ATM is exposed to all kinds of attacks in such an accessible environment. Most of the network technologies, without integrating with security mechanism originally, are being redesigned to provide some security services.

ATMs attempts to be secure by keeping the customer’s personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard)

Threats to ATM networks

Like other such networks, ATM networks suffer a lot of threats like eavesdropping, spoofing, service denial, VC stealing and traffic analysis etc. And VC stealing and traffic analysis happen only in ATM networks.

Eavesdropping

Eavesdropping refers to the threat that the attacker connects or taps into the transmission media and gain an unauthorized access to the data. It is one of the most common attacks to the network.

Service Denial

ATM technology is a connection-oriented technique managed by a set of signals. By sending some anti-signals frequently, the attacker can disturb the communication between user A and user B to a great extent which can disable the Quality of Service(QoS) in ATM. Combining this technique with other tricks like eavesdropping, the attacker can even completely block one user from another.

Stealing of VCs

If two switches in an ATM network compromise, the attacker can even steal a VC from another user. Some argue that possibility of compromising of the switches is quite low but that is true only if the ATM network is owned by one organization. But this is not the case today since in ATM internetworking, in which case cells travel through different ATM networks, it becomes very easy for two switches to compromise.

Traffic Analysis

Its a kind of threat in which a hacker can get information by collecting and analyzing the information (not the actual content of communication) like the timing, volume and about the parties communicating through a Virtual Circuit. Encryption effects only the content and not the timing and volume of the communication. So gaining access to even these can reveal a great deal of information to an attacker. Generally this attack doesn’t happen but can happen when ATM is used in a highly stringent and securitised environment.

Major requirements/functions of an ATM security system

User Identity Verification: The system should have the facility to establish and verify the identity of all the users and players in an ATM network.

Controlled Access and Authorization: The system should ensure that any player without authority to gain access to some information or resources should not be able to access it.

Protection of Confidentiality: Every data that is stored or used in communication should be kept classified.

Protection of Data Integrity: Guarantee regarding the integrity of the stored & communicated data should be given by the Security system.

Strong Accountability: The system should ensure that No entity is able to deny the responsibility of its any of the actions or efforts carried out by her.

Activities Logging: The security system should support the capability to retrieve information about security activities in the Network Elements with the possibility of tracing this information to individuals or entities.

Alarm reporting: Provision of generation of alarm notifications regarding certain selective events related to security.

Audit: Provision of analysing of data logged into the system in case of any security violation so that required measures can be used and checks can be installed.

Security Recovery: Provisions of recovery from successful or attempted security violations.

Security Management: Proper management of the security services required as a part of above requirements.

Suppliers of cash – main source: Central bank

The most important requirement of an ATM is one major motive behind the technology i.e. making money easily available to the customers. Traditionally there have been a number of suppliers of cash starting from unorganised money lenders in the past to the modern banks today.

A bank is a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and gives loans to customers using those deposits. Can be commercial or retail banking or the money can be lend either directly to the customer or also through the use of markets.

Banking channels

Apart from their branches, bank offers many different channels to access their banking and other services. Among these, few channels help the customers in carrying out transactions without the involvement of real cash. These are E- Mail, Telephone, Call banking, Mobile and Video banking etc. In addition to all these channels, banks provide a source of real cash called ATM through a machine that dispenses cash and sometimes takes deposits without the need for a human representative from bank side.

Major source of money: Central Bank

A central bank is a banking institution with an exclusive privilege to lend to its government. It behaves both as a normal commercial bank wherein it charges interest on the loans made to borrowers, majorly the government of the country the bank exists for and also as a ‘lender of last resort’ wherein it lends to the banks when situation is not too good or as a part of the statutory requirements. But Central bank has a monopoly on creating the currency of that nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too.

Security in Distribution on and ATM

Security is increasingly becoming more significant in network environment with the emergence of the internetworking technology. The internetworking technology can act as or provide the communication channels across networks so that machines in different networks can talk to each other. But such kind of technologies like ATM is exposed to all kinds of attacks in such an accessible environment. Most of the network technologies, without integrating with security mechanism originally, are being redesigned to provide some security services.

ATMs attempts to be secure by keeping the customer’s personal identification number (PIN) and other information safe by using encryption software such as Triple DES (Data Encryption Standard)

Major requirements/functions of an ATM security system

User Identity Verification: The system should have the facility to establish and verify the identity of all the users and players in an ATM network.

Controlled Access and Authorization: The system should ensure that any player without authority to gain access to some information or resources should not be able to access it.

Protection of Confidentiality: Every data that is stored or used in communication should be kept classified.

Protection of Data Integrity: Guarantee regarding the integrity of the stored & communicated data should be given by the Security system.

Strong Accountability: The system should ensure that No entity is able to deny the responsibility of its any of the actions or efforts carried out by her.

Activities Logging: The security system should support the capability to retrieve information about security activities in the Network Elements with the possibility of tracing this information to individuals or entities.

Alarm reporting: Provision of generation of alarm notifications regarding certain selective events related to security.

Audit: Provision of analysing of data logged into the system in case of any security violation so that required measures can be used and checks can be installed.

Security Recovery: Provisions of recovery from successful or attempted security violations.

Security Management: Proper management of the security services required as a part of above requirements.

Suppliers of cash – main source: Central bank

The most important requirement of an ATM is one major motive behind the technology i.e. making money easily available to the customers. Traditionally there have been a number of suppliers of cash starting from unorganised money lenders in the past to the modern banks today.

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A bank is a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and gives loans to customers using those deposits. Can be commercial or retail banking or the money can be lend either directly to the customer or also through the use of markets.

Banking channels

Apart from their branches, bank offers many different channels to access their banking and other services. Among these, few channels help the customers in carrying out transactions without the involvement of real cash. These are E- Mail, Telephone, Call banking, Mobile and Video banking etc. In addition to all these channels, banks provide a source of real cash called ATM through a machine that dispenses cash and sometimes takes deposits without the need for a human representative from bank side.

Major source of money: Central Bank

A central bank is a banking institution with an exclusive privilege to lend to its government. It behaves both as a normal commercial bank wherein it charges interest on the loans made to borrowers, majorly the government of the country the bank exists for and also as a ‘lender of last resort’ wherein it lends to the banks when situation is not too good or as a part of the statutory requirements. But Central bank has a monopoly on creating the currency of that nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too.

nation and it is the kind of bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need. It is the major source of money in a market and acts as the regulator of money supply too.

Demand Projections for ATMs

Most ATMs are connected to international bank networks, enabling people to withdraw and deposit money from machines not belonging to the bank or country where they have their account. Serving the ATMs network is a costly task: it takes employees’ time to supervise the network and make decisions about cash management and it involves high operating costs (financial, transport, handling, insurance etc.). As interest rate rises and greater operating efficiencies become paramount. Some banks typically maintain as much as 40% more cash at their ATMs than what’s needed, even though many experts consider cash excess of 15% to 20% to be sufficient. Cash related costs represent about 35-60 % of the overall costs of running an ATM. Through currency management optimization, banks can avoid falling into the trap of maintaining too much cash and begin to profit by mobilizing idle cash. Effective currency management and control starts with an automated solution that uses advanced algorithms to accurately predict currency supply and demand, allowing banks to forecast demand and pro-actively manage currency throughout their network. Transportation and servicing cost increase can be substantial for banks. To achieve the lowest cost of distribution – based on accurate supply and demand forecasting and optimization procedures – is critical for a bank to lower its operational expenses and improve the return on its cash assets.

What is expected of a forecast model of the ATM network is that it simulates historical demand by using data from actual cash-in transactions and cash-out transactions. The historical demand model is overlaid with additional factors, such as paydays, holidays, and seasonal demand in a specific area. Analytical models are aligned with the experience of resources that have intimate knowledge of the bank’s daily operations and are used to determine the optimum cash amount for each ATM by calculating the transport and money upload costs against interest rates. Cash drawings are subject to trends and generally follow weekly, monthly and annual cycles. An appropriate model for a bank and its branches or ATMs should estimate optimal amount of stocked money plus efficiently manage and control day-to-day cash handling, transportation with reducing of currency transportation and servicing costs. The system should be flexible enough to allow the bank to reforecast future demand, perform WHAT – IF analyses, and optimize the network as the cash distribution environment evolves.

Cash demand forecast for every ATM is based on linear regression models with seasonality coefficients. The development of such models is relatively complicated and differs for various ATM. Therefore preparation of forecasting models for whole ATM network is difficult task for owners of machines. The parameters of forecasting models are determined in the system implementation stage and are held constant during the operation phase. However, business environment changes continually in real world and, therefore, the model parameters must be also adapted to the changing environment.

A recent paper on the optimization techniques proposes the use of artificial neural networks combined with existing what-if analysis tools and simulation modelling procedures. This advanced method will handle the drawbacks of simple regression models but will be more accurate in projecting the demand. Off-late a few advanced software packages developed by traditional financial network giants like Visa are also available that provide powerful cash management facility. Publicly available data regarding these software packages suggest that they also use multi-regression models for prediction purposes.

Network optimization models for cash distribution to various ATMs are also important to reduce the costs across the supply chain. In the first instance, it can be very valuable to coordinate cash uploading and service procedures while visiting the ATM network. Coordinated route planning for maintenance of various ATMs could also reduce the ATM network’s management costs significantly.

Issues in Currency Identification

Counterfeit currency notes is one of the biggest problems that are currently plaguing the cash distribution network. A lot of people suffer from this while withdrawing cash from an ATM when they inadvertently receive a fake note in a bundle of proper bills. It is difficult to prove accountability in case of such an incident and fix blame. Of the 48,963 million pieces of currency in circulation in 2009 398,111 pieces were found to be counterfeit. RBI has come with a set of recommendations to be implemented across the distribution network that forms the supply chain of cash distribution to check counterfeit, maintain quality of notes in circulation, strengthening of security systems and procedures and fixing accountability in case of human error. These recommendations are as given below: –

(A) Measures for facilitating detection of counterfeit notes and maintaining quality of notes in circulation

(i) Note Sorting Machines (NSMs) / Desktop Sorters may be installed in all bank branches in a phased manner for early detection of counterfeit notes.

(ii) Banks may ensure the quality of the notes fed in ATMs. They may conduct periodic audit of the agents used for outsourcing this activity viz. the CIT companies. Banks may switch over to the ‘cassette swap’ system for feeding the ATMs. New ATMs installed may be provided with in built note detectors. Over a period existing ATMs may also be required to have in built note detectors.

(iii) Performance parameters of NSMs may be standardized by RBI to ensure that all NSMs installed adhere to the laid down standards for detection of counterfeit notes.

(iv) RBI may ensure that the plan for withdrawal of notes of old series is implemented strictly as formulated and that the new series of banknotes with more robust security features be introduced as early as possible. RBI may also facilitate R and D efforts for development of new security features.

(v) Where any person inadvertently in possession of counterfeit notes upto five (5) pieces tenders the same at a bank counter, the requirement of filing FIR may be done away with. A simple report may be filed with the branch which in turn may include this in the Counterfeit Currency Report (CCR) to FIU-IND / RBI.

(vi) RBI may review the system of incentives and disincentives for detection and disclosure of counterfeit notes while assisting the enforcement agencies in dealing appropriately with those involved in making and distribution of counterfeit notes.

(B) Measures relating to cash holding and distribution

(vii) RBI may stipulate suitable cash holding limits for all currency chests beyond which the cash should necessarily be moved to a chest with larger limits or to RBI.

(viii) Each RBI office may undertake a review of the requirement of currency chests in their jurisdiction based on the volume and nature of transactions, accessibility of the chest and other factors including security so as to rationalize the number of chests and upgrade the facilities thereat for better security and efficiency.

(ix) To tap advantages arising out of economies of scale, minimize overnight cash risks at bank branches and to benefit from sophisticated logistics techniques banks may be encouraged to establish Currency Processing Centres, which should be permitted to charge other banks for processing services.

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(x) As NSMs have to be installed at all branches for sorting notes before dispensation, banks will have to make necessary investments. The cost of such investments will need to be recovered from the bulk tenderers of cash. Banks may put in place a transparent policy for such charges of cash handling/processing with the approval of their respective boards as already advised by RBI vide its DBOD directive DIR.BC.86 / 13.10.00 dated September 7, 1999.

(xi) RBI may take initiatives in promoting use of cards and electronic means of payment.

(C) Measures for strengthening security systems and procedures

(xii) RBI may explore enlisting the services of a specialized and dedicated force / other approved agencies to provide security at chests and for movement of treasure.

(xiii) RBI may explore upgradation of the security systems in currency chests and RBI vaults incorporating electronic bio-metric access, electronic locking of bins, and surveillance through Closed Circuit Television (CCTVs). Networking of CCTVs at chests within the jurisdiction of a controlling office of the bank may be explored for better surveillance.

(xiv) Tamper-proof shrink wrapping of soiled notes with bar coding of details of the branch remitting them may be introduced.

(xv) A system of quarterly security audit of currency chest branches by controlling offices may be introduced. Comprehensive guideline / format may be prepared by RBI /IBA.

(xvi) A system of risk based inspection of currency chests may be introduced by banks / RBI taking into account various parameters for evaluating the extent of risk.

(xvii) Banks may draw up a contingency plan / disaster management plan in consultation with local police.

(xviii) RBI may explore the possibility of introducing a defacing system of self inking / marking of banknotes in transit or in chests, which would automatically trigger-in if there is an attack / attempted robbery/ theft etc.

(D) HR Measures

(xix) Banks may modify their transfer pricing policy or equivalent policy so as to pass on the benefit on account of having a currency chest to the branch where the chest is maintained.

(xx) Rotation of staff posted at currency chests may be ensured to prevent vested interest and entrenched non adherence of laid down systems and procedures.

(xxi) Where deviations and irregularities are found, controlling offices may take immediate punitive action after fixing accountability.

(xxii) Bank may accord recognition to currency handling operations as a sensitive and skilled activity and provide necessary incentives and training.

A. Distribution of currency i) The printing capacity at the four note presses was augmented with a view to close the demand-supply gap in currency.

ii) The role of currency chests in the currency distribution system was augmented so also the role of non-currency chest branches was increased through the Linkage Scheme.

iii) Incentives for opening of currency chests, installation of coin vending machines & distribution of coins have been introduced.

iv) Direct remittance of fresh notes from the press directly to currency chests to reduce transit risk.

Outsourcing of Activities

Outsourcing of the core and non-core activities by companies in order to reduce their cost structure and the amount of time involved is a common practice nowadays. The banks also outsource the activities involved in the ATM supply chain to companies that specialize in the cash and ATM management. One such company is CMS securitas Ltd.

CMS Securitas Ltd

Company Overview:

CMS infosystems entered into the ATM and cash management space in 1996 and established itself as the market leader in India. CMS Securitas Ltd. was formed in the year 1999 in order to serve the ATM and cash management space better. CMS Securitas has more than 100 offices in India and offers solutions for ATM Management, Cash Management, Door Step Banking, Secured Storage & Logistics, Facilities Management

Five main things that CMS securitas limited does are:

Cash replenishment

First level maintenance

Allied services

Security

Cash sorting

Cash Replenishment:

ATMs (Automatic Telling Machines) essentially replace the function of the teller in the banks and are automated providing a 24×7 service which might not be possible in the banks. The function of an ATM is very clear to any person even to a layman who might not even recognize its abbreviation. It is a machine that dispenses cash as and when required. So ATMs cannot afford to run out of cash and should be replenished as and when required.

CSL helps bank by taking care of the entire replenishment process that includes:

Cash replenishment pattern study and assessment of loadings

Withdrawal of cash from branch or CSL vault

Transportation of cash up to the ATM site

Loading

Reporting and reconciliation

EOD (End Of Day)

First level maintenance:

First Level maintenance in the ATM are those problems which can be handled without opening the mechanical and electronic parts of the ATM machine. These problems can be attended to very easily as they do not require accessing the core of the ATM.

But due to the huge activity pertaining to the ATMs the number of such calls received becomes huge. Banks cannot afford to attend to such calls as the amount of time required makes the process time consuming and costly. If left unattended these become critical as the ATM might go out of service. So generally banks outsource these activities and CSL has the necessary expertise in this area.

CSL staffs are trained to handle all the first level maintenance problems of any ATM machine and get the machine going immediately. Staff are available on a 24×7 basis to attend to the calls received as soon as possible. The calls are handled by the Call & Help Centers across the country. The centers are equipped with state of the art call center systems and communication systems. All the calls are routinely analyzed and this information is made available to the banks and ATM companies, which is great help in improvement of the services.

Allied Services:

Allied services are those which are used to maintain a good and clean atmosphere. Though these might seem trivial they contribute to the customer satisfaction and the service quality of the provider.

CSL House Keeping services include following sub services:

Cleaning and janitorial service

Communications maintenance

Electrical maintenance

AC maintenance

UPS, EPS and battery maintenance

Stationery supplies and loading

Security services

Valet parking service

Security:

CSL is an expert in the field of security management. Leveraging this expertise, CSL offers high quality in the security services with regard to ATM sites. CSL deals with the cash security from the stage of transportation itself. CSL has developed special units for ATMs. The guards in these units are trained to handle customers too as he is the only representative to them at odd hours when the ATM is used.

CSL provides Security cover which includes following:

24 X 7 Guarding of ATM sites with Armed or unarmed guards

Extra security cover during the cash loading operations

Cash escorts services

24 hours monitoring from remote Control Room

Cash Sorting:

Quality of currency is one of the factors which affects the functioning of the ATM. ATM machines generally are unable to function with bad quality currency. If used this might result in improper dispensing of cash, jamming of machines etc. Also according to the RBI, the number of improper notes issued by the ATMs also calls for the need for the proper sorting of the cash by the banks.

Cash is generally handled by the bankers in the same pool and often mixing of the ATM fit and unfit notes takes place. The sorting of these notes properly takes a large amount of time and resources if done internally and banks generally outsource this activity.

To assist banks in this task and with the aim of providing seamless service to Banks, CSL offers special cash sorting services. Inter alia the service covers following facets:

Cash Vaulting if covered in the agreement

Cash Receipt and accounting

Sorting cash into re-issuable and non-issuable notes

Further sorting of cash into ATM fit and unfit notes

Cash stitching and bundling and packaging as per bank instructions

Preparing the cassettes for specific ATM models or bundles for other models

Accounting and reporting to Bank

Within the CSL premises, special sterilized and secured areas are used for carrying out the above operations. Skilled and screened work force is used under close supervision for the task.

In addition to the manual method, CSL staff uses automated machines and systems for the entire cycle of operations.

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