The Deming Theory Of Management Information Technology Essay
Quality became an important business issue due to the increase in competitiveness in world markets. The total quality management approach introduced by W. Edwards Deming used by several organizations in the world to improve their operations and the processes used in all functional areas of their organizations. The basis of TQM is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process, increase customer satisfaction and improve product/service quality, productivity, and competitiveness by improving communications with stakeholders (customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders and society). The application of TQM can vary from business to business, even across the same industry.
William Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993) was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. He was widely credited with improving production in the United States during the Cold War, although he was well known for his work in Japan. Deming made a significant contribution to Japan’s later reputation for innovative high-quality products and its economic power. He was regarded for his impact on Japanese manufacturing and business. Despite he was being considered as a hero in Japan, he got a widespread recognition in the U.S. at the time of his death.
During Deming’s work in Japan in 1940s, his message to Japan’s chief executives was “improving quality will reduce expenses while increasing productivity and market share”. A number of Japanese manufacturers adopted his techniques widely and experienced an increased level of quality and productivity. After some time quality prize was introduced under Deming’s name, which is given to companies have experienced a major influence directly and indirectly on the development of quality control and quality management in Japan.
Dr. W. Edwards Deming taught that by adopting appropriate principles of management, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs by reducing waste, rework, staff wasted time and increase customer loyalty. The key is to practice continence improvement and think of manufacturing as a system, not as bits and pieces.
The Deming Theory of Management is a management philosophy based on four principles:
Appreciation for systems.
Knowledge of variation.
Theory of knowledge.
Deming was well known for his model introduced for problem solving based on the Japanese approach of quality. The model was called as Deming cycle or PDCA (plan, do, check, action).
He also introduced 14 points used to reach TQM in organizations as follows:
Create constancy of purpose to improve product and service.
Adopt new philosophy for new economic age by management learning responsibilities and taking leadership for change.
Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality by building quality into the product.
End awarding business on price; instead, minimize total cost.
Improve constantly the system of production and service to improve quality and productivity and to decrease costs.
Institute training on the job.
Institute leadership to help do a better job.
Drive out fear so that all may work effectively for the organization.
Break down barriers between departments; research, design and sales; therefore all teams should work together to resolve problems in production and use.
Eliminate slogans, exhortations and numerical targets for the workforce.
Eliminate quotas or work standards, and management by objectives or substitute leadership.
Remove barriers that rob people of their right to pride of workmanship; hourly workers, management and engineering; eliminate annual or merit ratings and management by objectives.
Institute a vigorous education and self-improvement program.
Put everyone in the organization to work to accomplish the transformation.
(Ahmed and Zairi, 2006)
Characteristics of Successful TQM Companies based on Deming theory are common to companies that successfully implement TQM in their daily operations are as follows:
Strive for owner/customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction.
Strive for accident free work places.
Recognize the need for measurement and fact based decision making.
Arrange for employees to become involved in helping the company improve.
Work hard at improving communication inside and outside the company.
Use teams of employees to improve processes.
Place a strong emphasis on the right kind of leadership.
Involve subcontractors and suppliers in continuous improvement.
Strive for continuous improvement.
Joseph Moses Juran (1904 – 2008) was a 20th century management consultant who was mainly remembered as a caller for quality and quality management, writing several influential books on those subjects. During his 1966 visit to Japan, Juran learned about the Japanese concept of Quality Circles which he actively used in the West. Juran also acted as a matchmaker between U.S. and Japanese companies looking for introductions to each other.
Juran was widely credited for adding the human dimension to quality management as he pushed for the education and training of managers. He was also credited for illuminating the core problem in reforming business quality. For Juran, human relations problems were the main issue in most of the organizations. Resistance to change was identified by Juran as the root cause of quality issues.
He developed the “Juran’s trilogy,” an approach to cross-functional management that is composed of three managerial processes:
Identify who are the customers.
Determine the needs of those customers.
Translate those needs into our language.
Develop a product that can respond to those needs.
Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs and customer needs.
Develop a process which is able to produce the product.
Optimize the process.
Prove that the process can produce the product under operating conditions with minimal inspection.
Transfer the process to Operations.
Malcolm Baldrige (1922 – 1987) was working as United States Secretary of Commerce and then confirmed by the United States Senate in 1981. During his life journey he played a major role in developing and carrying out Administration trade policy. Baldrige was a supporter of quality management as a key to U.S. wealth and long term strength. He took an initiative in developing the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act of 1987 and helped draft one of the early versions. In recognition of his contributions, the congress named the annual quality award under his name – Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. This award contributed to long-term improvement in economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in government.
There are seven Criteria Categories that cover that was set by Baldrige in every management system:
2. Strategic Planning
3. Customer Focus
4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management
5. Workforce Focus
6. Process Management
He also divided the way of how the apply the above criteria based on the work segment: one for education, one for healthcare, and one for business, nonprofits, and government organizations.
The Baldrige Criteria are built on 11 interrelated core values and concepts:
Organizational and personal learning
Valuing workforce members and partners
Focus on the future
Managing for innovation
Management by fact
Focus on results and creating value
These core values and concepts are embedded in high-performing organizations. They are the foundation for integrating key performance and operational requirements within a framework.
(http://www.baldrige.com/criteria/baldrige-core-values , 2010)
Deming, Juran and Baldridge difference in their quest for Quality:
Each one of the above quality gurus is looking into quality from different aspect. They all are working to improve the USA organizations to get better output of products and services. Deming was focusing on the use of statistical quality control. Juran was focusing on managing for quality and started Quality Management courses concentrating on top and middle management of organizations. Baldridge was focusing his on management system to reach performance excellence. He was working on developing the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act. This was the key to introduce the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award that recognizes U.S. businesses that excel in quality achievement and quality management.
If we compare Baldrige with other types of standards we will find that “the Baldrige Criteria serve as a comprehensive framework for performance excellence. They focus on business results as well as organizational improvement and innovation systems. Lean and Six Sigma methodologies drive waste and inefficiencies out of processes, and ISO 9000 is a series of standards for an efficient quality conformance system. Overall, ISO 9000 registration covers less than 10 percent of the Baldrige Criteria” (http://www.nist.gov/baldrige/improve.cfm , 2010).
Quality model in practice:
In my opinion Malcolm Baldrige quality model is the one that it is in practice due to different reasons:
Baldrige developed the legislation that became the Quality Improvement Act since 1987.
Introduction of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award that became a method to motivate U.S. organizations to develop their quality based on a set of standards.
It focuses on management system to reach performance excellence.
It focuses on business results, organizational improvement and innovation systems.
One of the well known quality awards is the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award. It recognizes U.S. businesses that excel in quality achievement and quality management. There are different purposes for the award are:
To promote recognition of the importance of quality.
To recognize quality related achievements of U.S. organizations.
To publicize strategies that improves quality.
This award is providing a detailed feedback for additional step the organizations has to take care of in case they would like to meet today’s quality standards. The candidates, selected are going through three stages review process are:
Evaluation of written examinations submitted by candidate.
Site visits to companies with high scores on the written examination.
Final overall evaluation.
(http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5000218317 , 2010)
They are assed based on seven Criteria Categories that was set by Baldrige are:
2. Strategic Planning
3. Customer Focus
4. Measurement, Analysis, and Knowledge Management
5. Workforce Focus
6. Process Management
The above criteria will asses every single detail of the organization in order to check their quality excellence. Even if the organizations do not want to go for the process of the award, they can go through the award documents, use the awards assessment criteria to check their status and then adapt the applicable quality model on their process in order to reach the quality standard.
Quality has become an important approach that organizations are taking care of while developing their process of work and managing their resources. Quality gurus have introduced several types of management improvement tools to reach quality excellence. Moreover, awards were introduced to check organizations process and motivate them towards quality excellence.
Abdel Ahmed and Mohamed Zairi and Ali Asseri, 2006. TQM Fundamentals: Chapter 1 The Quality Planning Process. Hamdan Bin Mohammed e-University.
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