The History Of Supercomputer Information Technology Essay

Supercomputers are started led the market in 1970s until the inventor left his own company. The first supercomputer was introduced in Control Data Corporation (CDC) by Seymour Cray in 1960s. Then, he was took the supercomputer market with his own and new design, he was the top person in supercomputer from 1985 until 1990. In 1980s, there are a quantity of converters entered the supercomputer market, similar to the produce of the minicomputer market in decennium earlier. Unfortunately, many of these are disappeared in the middle of 1990s and call “supercomputer market crash “.Supercomputer is a computer to process on the capacity and the particularly speed when calculation.

The purpose of supercomputer is greatly calculation-intensive operations with the problem of weather forecasting, research and other scientific calculation. Supercomputer can easily calculate this kind of things to scientist. Time-limit of supercomputer as such is rather unfixed. At present, supercomputers tendency become future common computer.

Control Data Corporation (CDC) early computers were simply faster for a quantity of processors, the speed is several ten times of the fastest supercomputer provided by other companies. 1970s had most of the supercomputers for a special purpose to running a vector processor. Many of the newer users were developed their own processors with a lower price to get into the market.

Before the later of 1980s, the supercomputers had an appropriate amount of vector processors in similar to become the standard. A classic number of processors were in the level from four to sixteen. After that, change to pay heed to large parallel processing systems with thousands of the “ordinary” CPUs from the vector processors. Now, similar designs are basic of “off the shelf” server-class microprocessors. For example, Xeon, PowerPC and other coprocessors like IBM Cell. In the general modern supercomputers are using the product processors to combined the usage interconnects.

The difference of capability computing and capacity computing is defined by Graham. Capacity computing: use efficient cost-effective computing power to arrange for functioning on a capability system or solve the large or many small issues.

Capability computing: use maximum computing power to solve large issues in the shortest time. Besides that, capability system can solve the problem that other computer can’t solve it.

Nowadays, supercomputers are representative one and only designs produced by the traditional “companies”. For example, IBM, Cray and Hewlett-Packard, who had obtain their experience in the 1980s for their companies. In the world, Tianhe-1A supercomputer is the fastest supercomputer since October 2010 and located in the China.

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RECOMMENDATION OF SUPERCOMPUTER

SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE DESIGNS OF SUPERCOMPUTER

Supercomputers incline to be specialized for some types of computation, ordinary numerical calculations, and carry out poorly at the most general computing mission. In fact, supercomputers memory hierarchy is very carefully designed to promise the processor is maintain fed with orders and data at any times. It has much of the accomplish discrepancy between supercomputers and slower computers is owing to the memory hierarchy.

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Usage CPUs to be used to acquire their speed over common computers using by supercomputers that use of create something designs which permit them to execute tasks in parallel and complicated detail of engineering. I/O systems of supercomputers incline to be designed to back up high bandwidth to luck the less of a topic because they are not used for transaction processing. Amdal’s law application is a highly parallel systems and supercomputers designs for a special purpose great exert to eliminating software serialization and bottlenecks is remaining by hardware to address it.

Programming of supercomputer

Supercomputers collateral structure was usually to order the unique programming technique to build their speed. In general, the base computer language of supercomputer code is C++ language or Fortran. It is using the unique libraries for share their data between the codes. Most of the common case, MPI or PVM such as environment for loosely connected to troop together and the closely harmonize shared the memory machines by OpenMP to used it. The grave strive must optimize problem for the interconnect property of the machine it will be on.

The purpose is stop from wasting the time to waiting on the data from other nodes in any CPUs. GPGPUs are the new enormously parallel because have hundreds of the processor cores and using the programming model with the programmed likes CUDA.

Operating system of supercomputer

Nowadays, Linux is the often main run for supercomputer. Until 1980s, the code portability and compatibility of instruction set in supercomputers were sacrificed for the memory speed and processing. In that time, supercomputers had hugely different operating systems but not include high end mainframes.

Cray-1 is α-supercomputer that got more than six different proprietary OSs unknown in the ordinary computing community. In the same way, irreconcilable vector and parallel compilers for the Fortran existence. The ETA-10 was the incline continued that not first instruction set compatibility among of Cray-1 and Cray X-MP. It also adoption the computer systems likes Linux.

Software tools of supercomputer

The software tools of supercomputer promote the creation of a supercomputer from servers or a lot of common workstations which distributed processing include standard APIs likes PVM or MPI as open source based software solution likes WareWulf and Beowulf. Technology like can be used to produce supercomputer to gather in large numbers for the own specialized software likes Apple compositing application.

In computer science, an easy programming language for supercomputers belongs to a hot open research topic. Now, it has each utilities that cost thousands of dollars to completely free thanks to open source community that usually creates

disruptive technology.

Processing techniques of supercomputers

Supercomputer first developed by vector processing techniques and the professional high performance applications would be continues. The general-purpose computers for processing instructions with DSP architectures and Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) with vector processing techniques to trickled down to the mass market.

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Video game consoles were use Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) popularly. The reason is manufacturers demand to manufacture the supercomputers having the game machines. Certainly, few of the graphics cards have the calculating capability of some TeraFLOPS. The early video processing by the special-purpose which of the applications power can be applied was finite. The video processing would become sophisticated because the graphics processing units (GPUs) have be more useful with entire computer science and general-purpose vector processors were exploit this capability. It is General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU).

The top 500 list of supercomputer in the world (from 2010, November) has 3 supercomputers according to General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs).Indeed, the no.3 supercomputer also according to General-Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPUs) and built in China by Dawning, called Nebulae.

Supercomputer that developed technologies includes:

Liquid cooling

Vector processing

Parallel file systems

Striped disks

Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA)

Research finding of supercomputer

Nowadays, supercomputers are used to national high-tech areas and cutting-edge technology research by company or research institutions for process the large calculation in everyday. Personal computers or laptops are used for us to research or doing work. This scenario will be change in next generation. In future, supercomputers will become human necessities for daily life. Today, Human pursue more and more convenient with their life. Technological developments will be the choice for human to achieve a comfortable life. Unfortunately, personal computers are difficult to handle with human needs. Therefore, the super computer becomes human choice. Because supercomputers having the strongest function, fastest speed calculation and storage capacity. Personal computer never had these, so eliminated will become the final outcome.

In this generation, human was enhanced the ability of the supercomputer. The reason is supercomputers can ensure that the user data, data in software systems to update or CPU upgraded has no effect, safeguarding the safety of the information stored, truly realize the keep long, efficient, reliable operation and easy to upgrade and maintenance of advantage. Supercomputers are used in the environment, weather, technology, industry and other domain. But it will be change in the future. Supercomputer will walk into human family to help human in their life.

In next generation, supercomputer will help human in education, business, personal problems, transport, safe protection and other ways. Human can learn knowledge in home any kind of subject by supercomputer. Besides that, technological consequences cause working decrease and unemployment. It will make most of the people life be painful. Therefore, brainwave virtual game is not a dream with us. We can let the spirit into the game, reduce our activity. We also can take our work or learn in the game. It likes another world to us. Humans can long stay in the game and the money got from game can convert come true money. This can help human life existence technological world.

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In conclusion, supercomputers will be the important issues for our life. It will be the necessary thing to our future.

Graph of the top speed of supercomputer in country (from November 2010)

*RESOURCE FROM www.top500.org

Pie chart of top500 supercomputer in countries (from November 2010)

RESOURCE FROM www.top500.org

Table of top 50 Supercomputer in the world

(from November 2010)

Supercomputer

Manufacturer

Country

Year

Operating system

1

Tianhe-1A

NUDT

China

2010

Linux

2

Jaguar

Cray Inc.

United States

2009

Linux

3

Nebulae

Dawning

China

2010

Linux

4

TSUBAME 2.0

NEC/HP

Japan

2010

Linux

5

Hopper

Cray Inc.

United States

2010

Linux

6

Tera 100

Bull SA

France

2010

Linux

7

Roadrunner

IBM

United States

2009

Linux

8

Kraken

Cray Inc.

United States

2009

Linux

9

JUGENE

IBM

Germany

2009

CNK/SLES 9

10

Cielo

Cray Inc.

United States

2010

Linux

11

TSUBAME 2.0

SGI

United States

2010

Linux

12

BlueGene/L

IBM

United States

2007

CNK/SLES 9

13

Intrepid

IBM

United States

2007

CNK/SLES 9

14

Red Sky

Oracle

United States

2010

CentOS

15

Ranger

Oracle

United States

2008

Linux

16

Dawn

IBM

United States

2009

CNK/SLES 9

17

Lomonosov

T-Platforms

Russia

2009

Linux

18

Cray XE6 8

Cray Inc.

United States

2010

Linux

19

Haedam

Cray Inc.

Korea, South

2010

Linux

20

Haeon

Cray Inc.

Korea, South

2010

Linux

RESOURCE FROM www.top500.org

Conclusion

In this report, l had learned about detail of supercomputer. Supercomputer will become necessary in our future. The reason is supercomputer has strong operation system, storage capacity and function to help us to calculation.

In next generation, we can see supercomputer in anywhere because it becomes necessities to us. For example, each family has supercomputer to deal with family affairs, safety protection system and family communication system. Besides that, every education system, company, government will use supercomputer to deal with various kinds of difficulties and things. In the future, the progress of science and technology make supercomputer become smaller and lighter, but better functions. F:cscNew Folderxrdarabia.org.jpg

In this report, we can know the history and internal structure with supercomputer. In the research finding, it can say is my dream. Brainwave virtual game is the game that human spirit can enter into the game. We also can have senses by stimulating our brain. In the game, human also can bring their works into the game to finish it and student also can learn their knowledge in the game. At last, money and virtual currency conversion can let the poor man be survived.

Nowadays, experts is dedicated to the study of supercomputer, let the supercomputer function more good for humans bring more benefits with future life. I hope supercomputer can quickly enter ordinary people’s life to help us have a lovely life.

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