The Problem In Existing System Information Technology Essay
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PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT
PROBLEM IN EXISTING SYSTEM
Cannot Upload and Download the latest updates.
Risk of mismanagement and of data when the project is under development.
No proper coordination between dissimilar Applications and Users.
Fewer Users – Friendly.
Manual system need man power a lot.
Communication between customer and owner is not directly.
The complete hierarchy is doesn’t implemented in manually.
In big organization it is time consuming process.
SOLUTION OF THESE PROBLEMS
The developments of the new system surround the following activities, which try to automate the entire process keeping in view of the database integration approach.
User responsiveness is offered in the request with various organizes.
The coordination makes the by and large project organization much easier and supple.
Readily upload the latest updates, allows user to download the alerts by clicking the URL.
There is no risk of data misconduct at any level while the project progress is under procedure.
After analyzing the necessities of the task to be performed, the next step is to analyze the problem and understand its context. The first activity in the phase is studying the existing system and other is to understand the necessities and domain of the new system. Both the behaviors are equally significant, but the first movement serves as a basis of giving the purposeful specifications and then winning design of the proposed system. Understanding the properties and necessities of a new system is more difficult and requires creative thinking and understanding of existing running system is also difficult, improper understanding of present system can lead diversion from solution.
2.2. ANALYSIS MODEL
The model that is basically being followed is the WATER FALL MODEL. First of all the viability study is completed. Once that part is over the obligation psychoanalysis and project preparation begin. If system exists one and modification and addition of new module is needed, analysis of present system can be used as basic model.
The design start after the obligation analysis is total and the coding begins after the mean is full. Once the indoctrination is finished, the difficult is done. In this model the sequence :
System integration & testing
Here the linear ordering of these activities is critical. End of the phase and the output of one phase is the input of other phase. The output of each phase is to be consistent with the overall necessity of the system. Some of the character of twisting model is also integrated like after the people worried with the project review completion of each of the phase the work done.
WATER FALL MODEL was being chosen because all necessities were known beforehand and the objective of our software development is the computerization/automation of an already existing manual working system.
Executable Software Modules
Integrated Software Product
Delivered Software Product
Fig 2.2: Water Fall Model
2.3. STUDY OF THE SYSTEM
In the flexibility of the uses the interface has been developed a graphics concept in mind, linked through a browses interface. The GUI’S at the top level have been categorized as
Administrative user interface
The operational or generic user interface
The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent data that is practically, part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. The interfaces help the administrations with all the transactional states like Data insertion, Data deletion and Date updation along with the extensive data search capabilities.
The operational or generic user interface helps the users upon the system in dealings through the existing data and needed services. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own data helps the ordinary users in managing their own data in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities.
NUMBER OF MODULES:
Based on the given necessities, conceptualize the Solution Architecture. Choose the domain of your interest otherwise develop the request for ultimatedotnet.com. Portray the various architectural mechanism, show connections and connectedness and show internal and external rudiments. Design the web services, web methods and database infrastructure needed both and client and server.
Offer an environment for upgradation of application for newer versions that are available in the same domain as web service target.
2.4. HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS
PIV 2.8 GHz Processor and Above
RAM 512MB and Above
HDD 20 GB Hard Disk Space and Above
WINDOWS OS (XP service pack 2 /windows 2003 Server)
Visual Studio .Net 2005/2008(according requirement)
Internet Data Server 5.0/6.0 (IIS)
Visual Studio .Net Framework (Minimal for Deployment)
2.5. PROPOSED SYSTEM
To debug the existing system, remove procedures those cause data redundancy, make navigational sequence proper. To offer data about audits on dissimilar level and also to reflect the current work status depending on organization/auditor or date. To build strong password mechanism.
NEED FOR COMPUTERIZATION
We all know the importance of computerization. The world is touching ahead at lighten momentum and each one is organization short of time. One forever needs to get the in order and perform a commission he/she/they wish(s) inside a short phase of time and too with amount of efficiency and accuracy. The application areas for the computerization have been selected on the basis of following factors:
Minimizing the manual records kept at dissimilar locations.
There will be more data honesty.
Facilitating desired data display, very quickly, by retrieving data from users.
Facilitating various statistical data which helps in decision-making?
To decrease labor-intensive labors in behavior that occupied boring work.
Update and removal of such a huge quantity of data will turn out to be easier.
FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OF THE MODEL
As far as the project is developed the functionality is simple, the objective of the proposal is to strengthen the functioning of Audit Status Monitoring and make them effective and better. The entire scope has been classified into five streams knows as Coordinator Level, management Level, Auditor Level, User Level and State Web Coordinator Level. The proposed software will cover the data needs with respect to each request of the user group viz. accepting the request, providing vulnerability document report and the current status of the audit.
WORKING OF THE SYSTEM
The entire scope has been classified into five streams known as: –
(Addressing the data management needs of coordinator)
(Addressing the data management needs of management)
(Addressing the data management needs of auditors)
(Addressing the data management needs of the user group)
State Web Coordinator level
(Addressing the needs of coordinator of the state)
2.6. INPUT AND OUTPUT
The main inputs, outputs and major functions of the system are as follows.
2.7. PROCESS MODELS USED WITH JUSTIFICATION
ACCESS ORGANIZE FOR DATA WHICH REQUIRE USER AUTHENTICATION
The following commands specify access organize identifiers and they are typically used to authorize and authenticate the user (command codes are shown in parentheses)
USER NAME (USER)
The user identification is that which is needed by the server for access to its file system. This authority will usually be the first authority transmit by the user after the organize relations are made (some servers may necessitate this).
This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command, and, for some sites, completes the user’s identification for access organize. Since code word in order is quite sensitive, it is attractive in general to “mask” it or hold back type out.
Beginning examination examine project viability, the probability the system will be functional to the organization. The main purpose of the viability study is to test the technological, prepared and Economical possibility for adding new module and debugging old organization system. All system is possible if they are uncontrolled resources and never-ending time.
3.1. Technical Feasibility
Technical issue typically raised during the possibility stage of the examination includes the following:
Do the planned equipments have the industrial capacity to hold the data obligatory to use the new system?
Will the future system offer plenty response to investigation, not considering of the quantity or setting of users?
Can the organization be upgrade if developed?
Are there technological guarantee of correctness, dependability, ease of access and data safety?
Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of ‘Secure Infrastructure Implementation System’. The present system urbanized is strictly reasonable. It is a web based user boundary for audit workflow at NIC-CSD. Thus it affords an easy right of admission. The database’s purpose is to produce, generate and continue a workflow between various entities in order to facilitate all alarmed Users in their various capacities or roles. Authorization to the user would be decided based on the roles particular. Therefore, it affords the technical declaration of rightness, reliability and security. The employment for the project is absolute by means of the current tackle and existing software technology. Indispensable bandwidth exists for only if a fast criticism to the users irrespective of the figure of users using the system.
3.2. Operational Feasibility
The system study is beneficial only if they can be twisted out into data system. That will get together the organizations in commission necessities. Ready feasibility aspect of the project. As a significant part of the scheme conclusion. Some of the significant issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project.
Will the system be used and work correctly if it is being urbanized and implement?
Will there be any hostility from the user that will undermine the promising application benefits?
This system is under attack to be in agreement with the aforementioned issues. Ahead of time, the organization issues and user necessities have been
Taken into consideration. So there is no question of confrontation from the users that can weaken the possible request benefits.
The well-planned design would ensure the optimal consumption of the computer capital and would help in the development of presentation status.
3.3. Economic Feasibility
A system can be developed to be precise and that will be used if install must still be a good speculation for the organization. In the reasonably priced viability, the growth cost in creating the system is evaluate in opposition to the ultimate advantage derived from the new systems. financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs.
The system is inexpensively possible. It does not necessitate any adding hardware or software. Since the border for this system is urbanized using the existing possessions and technologies obtainable at NIC, There is nominal expenditure and economical feasibility for certain.
SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
The software, Site Explorer is designed for management of web sites from a remote location.
Purpose: The main purpose for preparing this document is to give a general insight into the analysis and necessities of the existing system or situation and for determining the operating characteristics of the system.
Scope: This Document plays a vital role in the development life cycle (SDLC) and it describes the complete requirement of the system. It is meant for use by the developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the necessities in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.
DEVELOPERS RESPONSIBILITIES OVERVIEW:
The developer is responsible for:
Developing the system, which meets the SRS and solving all the necessities of the system?
Demonstrating the system and installing the system at client’s location after the acceptance testing is successful.
Submitting the needed user manual describing the system interfaces to work on it and also the documents of the system.
Conduct any user preparation that might be wanted for using the system.
Maintain the system for a episode of one year after installation.
4.1. FUNCTIONAL NECESSITIES:
Outputs from computer systems are needed primarily to communicate the outcome of processing to users. They are also used to offer a permanent copy of the outcome for later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are:
External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization,.
Internal Outputs whose destination is with in organization and they are the
User’s main interface with the computer.
Operational outputs whose use is purely with in the computer department.
Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly with
The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points:
Type of the output
Content of the output
Format of the output
Location of the output
Frequency of the output
Volume of the output
Sequence of the output
It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable.
Will decimal points need to be inserted
Should leading zeros be suppressed.
In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are:
The suitability for the device to the particular application.
The require intended for a hard copy.
The answer time necessary.
The location of the users
The software and hardware available.
Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are:
The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.
Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input design is as given below:
To produce a cost-effective method of input.
To archive the highest possible level of accuracy.
To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.
The main input stages can be listed as below:
It is necessary to determine the various types of inputs. Inputs can be categorized as follows:
External inputs, which are prime inputs for the system.
Internal inputs, which are user communications with the system.
Operational, which are computer department’s communications to the system?
Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue.
At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to;
Type of input
Flexibility of format
Ease of correction
Storage and handling necessities
Easy to use
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As
Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device.
At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remains accurate form the stage at which it is recorded up to the stage in which the data is accepted by the system. This can be achieved only by means of careful organize each time the data is handled.
Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors, still a small proportion of errors is always likely to occur, these types of errors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data.
Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level of detail. Data validations have been integrated in the system in almost every area where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors. The system will not recognize invalid data. Whenever an invalid data is keyed in, the system immediately prompts the user and the user has to again key in the data and the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. Validations have been integrated where necessary.
The system is designed to be a user friendly one. In other words the system has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. The system has been designed with pop up menus.
USER INTERFACE DESIGN
It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs while designing the user interface:
USER INTERFACE SYSTEMS CAN BE BROADLY CLASIFIED AS:
User initiated interface the user is in charge, organize ling the progress of the user/computer dialogue. In the computer-initiated interface, the computer selects the next stage in the interaction.
Computer initiated interfaces
In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress of the user/computer dialogue. Data is displayed and the user response of the computer takes action or displays further data.
User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes:
Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the computer.
Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the form to his/her screen and fills in the form. The forms oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice.
The following computer – initiated interfaces were used:
The menu system for the consumer is obtainable with a list of alternatives and the user chooses one; of alternatives.
Questions – answer type dialog system where the computer asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users reply.
Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven, the opening menu displays the available choices. Choosing one option gives another popup menu with more choices. In this way every option leads the users to data entry form where the user can key in the data.
ERROR MESSAGE DESIGN:
The design of error messages is an important part of the user interface design. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing a system the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the user with data regarding the error he/she has committed.
This application must be able to produce output at dissimilar modules for dissimilar inputs.
4.2. PRESENTATION NECESSITIES
Presentation is measured in terms of the output offered by the application.
Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a system. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it is possible to design a system, which will fit into needed environment. It rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the system. This is because the necessities have to be known during the initial stages so that the system can be designed according to those necessities. It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the other hand designing a system, which does not cater to the necessities of the user, is of no use.
The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as given below:
The system should be able to interface with the existing system
The system should be accurate
The system should be better than the existing system
The existing system is completely dependent on the user to perform all the duties.
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DISTRIBUTED DATA SHARING
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SOPHISTICATED CONCURRENCY ORGANIZE
Real World applications demand access to critical data. With most database Systems application becomes “contention bound” – which presentation is limited not by the CPU power or by disk I/O, but user waiting on one another for data access . SQL Server employs full, uncontrolled row-level locking and contention free queries to minimize and in many cases entirely eliminates contention wait times.
NO I/O BOTTLENECKS
SQL Server’s fast commit groups commit and deferred write technologies dramatically decrease disk I/O bottlenecks. While some database write whole data block to disk at commit time, SQL Server commits dealings with at most sequential log file on disk at commit time, On high throughput systems, one sequential writes typically group commit multiple dealings. Data read by the transaction remains as shared memory so that other dealings may access that data without reading it again from disk. Since fast commits write all data necessary to the recovery to the log file, modified blocks are written back to the database independently of the transaction commit, when written from memory to disk.
Software design sits at the technical kernel of the software engineering process and is applied regardless of the development paradigm and area of application.
The importance can be stated with a single word “Quality”. Design affords us with representations of software that can assess for quality. Design is the only way that we can accurately translate a customer’s view into a finished software product or system. Without a strong design we risk building an unstable system – one that will be difficult to test, one whose quality cannot be assessed until the last stage.
During design, progressive refinement of data structure, program structure, and procedural details are developed reviewed and documented. From the technical point of view, design is comprised of four activities – architectural design, data structure design, interface design and procedural design.
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STRATEGIC APPROACH TO SOFTWARE TESTING
Unit testing begins at the vertex of the spiral and concentrates on each unit of the software as implemented in source code. Testing progress by moving outward along the spiral to integration testing, where the focus is on the design and the construction of the software architecture. Talking another turn on outward on the spiral we encounter validation testing where necessities established as part of software necessities analysis are validated in opposition to the software that has been constructed.
8.3. Unit Testing
Unit testing focuses confirmation effort on the negligible unit of software design, the unit. The unit testing we have is white box leaning and some steps are conduct in similar.
1. WHITE BOX TESTING
This type of testing ensures that
All independent paths have been exercised at least once
All logical decisions have been exercised on their true and false sides
All loops are executed at their boundaries and within their operational bounds
All internal data structures have been exercised to assure their validity.
To follow the concept of white box testing we have tested each form .we have created independently to verify that Data flow is correct, All conditions are exercised to check their validity, All loops are executed on their boundaries.
2. BASIC PATH TESTING
Established technique of flow graph with Cyclomatic complexity was used to derive test cases for all the functions. The main steps in deriving test cases were:
Use the design of the code and draw correspondent flow graph.
Determine the Cyclomatic complexity of resultant flow graph, using formula:
V (G) =E-N+2 or
V (G) =P+1 or
V (G) =Number Of Regions
Where V (G) is Cyclomatic complexity,
E is the number of edges,
N is the number of flow graph nodes,
P is the number of predicate nodes.
3. CONDITIONAL TESTING
In this part of the testing each of the conditions were tested to both true and false aspects. And all the resulting paths were tested.
4. DATA FLOW TESTING
This type of testing selects the path of the program according to the location of definition and use of variables. This kind of testing was used only when some local variable were declared. These were predominantly useful in nested statements.
5. LOOP TESTING
In this type of testing all the loops are tested to all the limits possible. The following exercise was adopted for all loops:
All the loops were experienced at their limits, just exceeding them and just under them.
All the loops were omitted at least once.
For nested loops test the internal most loops first and then work outwards.
For concatenated loops the values of reliant loops were set with the help of linked loop.
Unstructured loops were resolute into nested loops or concatenated loops and experienced as above.
Each unit has been separately tested by the development team itself and all the input have been validated.
The size of the database increases day-by-day, increasing the load on the database back up and data maintenance activity.
Training for simple computer operations is necessary for the users working on the system.
This System being web-based and an undertaking of Cyber Security Division, needs to be thoroughly tested to find out any security gaps.
A console for the data centre may be made available to allow the personnel to monitor on the sites which were cleared for hosting during a particular period.
Moreover, it is just a beginning; further the system may be utilized in various other types of auditing operation viz. Network auditing or similar process/workflow based applications…