Triumph Of The Nerds Information Technology Essay

Knowing the history of computers can help us understand that how complicated and innovative the creation of computers really is. Computer does not have one inventor instead many clever scientist contributed to the development of advance computers in their era. Today’s modern computers are the result of continuous efforts of many scientists in history.

If we analyze the revolution of computers then we will come to know that today’s computers are different in many aspects from their ancestors. They are small in size, require less cost, less power consumption and most important thing is that they are very fast capable of millions of calculations per second.

Computers built between 1959 and 1964 are often regarded as ‘Second Generation’ computers, based on transistors and printed circuits – resulting in much smaller computers. More powerful, the second generation of computers could handle compilers for and so were much more flexible in their applications.

A brief description of evolution of computers since 1950 is given below.

Second Generation 1952-1965:

Transistors

Vacuum tubes no longer in use and were replaced by Transistors. Transistor is a device composed of semiconductor material.Transistor invented in 1947 at Bell Labs, and now they are used in all digital circuitse.g. computers. Today’s latest microprocessor contains tens of millions of transistors.

Before the invention of transistors vacuum tubes were used in digital circuits instead, having many disadvantages.

They were much

Larger

required more energy

dissipated more heat

Simply, todays computers were not possible without invention of transistor.

The transistor was invented in 1947 after invention it was not widely used in computers until the 50s. The transistor were

smaller

faster

cheaper

more energy-efficient and

more reliable

In second-generation computers assembly language was used instead of machine language, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory.

Z4 (~1950)

Z4 was the second digital computer by German engineers

Specifications

Frequency: (about) 40 hertz

Average calculation speed: 400 ms for an addition

Input: Decimal numbers, punch tape

Output: Decimal numbers, punch tape

Word length: 32 bits

Elements: (about) 2,500 relays, 21 step-wise relays

Memory: Memory of the Z1 (64 words, 32 bit)

Power consumption: (about) 4 kW

(Wikipedia z4(computer) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z4_(computer)

Most successful 2nd generation computer was IBM 1401.

Third Generation1960-1970:

Integrated Circuits

The mass increase in the use of computers accelerated with ‘Third Generation’ computers.The first integrated circuit was produced in September 1958 but computers using them were not built until 1963.The development of the integrated circuit caused the development of the third generation of computers. Transistors were placed on silicon chipswhich dramatically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Read also  The History Of Cnc Machines

Semiconductors make it possible to minimize the size of electronic components.

It means that the components requires

Less space

faster and

Require less energy

The method of interaction of users with computers was changed. Instead of using punched cards now users were able to use keyboard and monitors including OS allowing the device to run many applications at a time. Computers became accessible to a big no of peoples because they were smaller and cheaper. Minicomputers were developed in this era. Many companies started their business in this field; significant names are Digital Equipment Corporation and IBM.

Most significant computer of this era was IBM System/360.

Fourth Generation 1971 and onward:

Microprocessors

The first microprocessor was developed by a prominent company named Intel. The microprocessor caused the fourth generation of computers. Thousands of integrated circuits when built onto single silicon chip then a microprocessor is formed. The terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably. All personal computers and most workstations contain a microprocessor. Microprocessors control the logic of all digital devices.

On November 15, 1971, Intel released the world’s first commercial microprocessor,the 4004.

In this era integration was increased from ‘large scale’ to ‘ultra scale’.

Large scale integration:

Chip contains between 100 and 5,000 circuit elements

Very large scale integration:

Integrated circuits formed by combining thousands of transistor-based circuits typically ranging 100,000 – 1,000,000.

Ultra large scale integration:

Integrated circuits formed by combining more than one million components per chip.

“What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand.”

The Intel 4004chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer – from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls – on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.

As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet.

Timeline of computing 1950-1979

1950s

Date

Place

Event

1950

Sep

GER

Z4 machine

1950

UK

The Pilot ACE computer

1951

USA

EDVAC becomes operational.

1951

Mar 30

USA

UNIVAC

1951

Apr 21

USA

Whirlwind, the first real-time computer was built at MIT by the team of Jay Forrester for the US Air Defense System, became operational.

1951

USA

EDVAC (electronic discrete variable computer). The first computer to use Magnetic Tape.

1951

AUS

CSIRAC used to play music

1952

USA

IAS machine completed at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, USA (by Von Neumann and others).

1954

USA

The NORC was built by IBM for the US Navy.

1956

USA

The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced by the Bendix Corporation

Read also  An Evaluation Of Xmax

1958

USA

LISP (interpreted language) developed, Finished in 1960. LISP stands for ‘LISt Processing’

1958

Sep

USA

The integrated circuit invented by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments.

1959

USSR

Minsk mainframe computer development and production started in the USSR. Stopped in 1975.

1960s

Date

Place

Event

1960

SRB

CER-10 

1962

UK

ATLAS is completed by the University of Manchester team.

1962

USA

Work started on the Linc.

1962

 ?

The AN/UYK-1 computer was designed

1963

USA

Mouse conceived by Douglas Engelbart

1964

USA

Launch of IBM System/360 – the first series of compatible computers.

1964

USA

Project MAC is started.

1964

SRB

CER-20 released by Mihajlo Pupin Institute of Serbia as “electronic bookkeeping machine”.

1965

USA

DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC).

1965

USA

Moore’s law published by Gordon Moore. Originally suggesting processor complexity doubled every year.

1965

USSR

BESM-6 mainframe computer was designed in the USSR.

1965

USA

The first supercomputer, the Control Data CDC 6600, was developed.

1966

SRB

CER-200 released by Mihajlo Pupin Institute of Serbia

1967

SRB

CER-22 – first transistor-based computer created.

1969

USA

Novas

1970s

Date

Place

Event

1970

Jun

USA

CTC creates the Datapoint 2200.

1971

Nov

USA

First microprocessor, the 4004, developed by a team at Intel, was released.

1972

Apr 1

USA

8008 microprocessor released by Intel.

1974

 ?

CLIP-4, the first computer with a parallel architecture.

1974

Apr 1

USA

Introduction of the 8080. It ran at a clock frequency of 2 MHz and did 0.64 MIPS.

1974

USA

Motorola announces the MC6800 8 Bit Microprocessor.

1974

Dec

USA

The MITS Altair 8800.

1975

NOR

Norwegian company Mycron releases its MYCRO-1, the first single-board computer.

1975

USA

IBM 5100 computer released; with integrated keyboard, display, and mass storage on tape.

1976

USA

Introduction of the Intel 8085 chip. An improved version of the 8080.

1976

USA

Z80 chip released by Zilog.

1976

USA

Cray-1 supercomputer was invented by Seymour Cray.

1977

Aug

USA

Tandy brought out the TRS-80 with “Level I BASIC.

1977

Sep

USA

Heathkit made the H8 Home computer kit available

1978

USA

Introduction of the 16-bit Intel 8086, the first x86 microprocessor. 

1979

USA

The 68000 Microprocessor launched by Motorola.

1979

USA

The IBM PC

1979

USA

Texas Instruments releases the TI-99/4 microcomputer.

(Wikipedia Timeline of computing 1950-1979

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1950-1979)

Links:

http://www.softwaretipsandtricks.com/windowsxp/articles/582/1/The-History-of-Computers

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/second+generation+computer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_computing_hardware#Second_generation:_transistors

Assignment # 1

Part B

By

M-Wajeeh

2008-NUST-BIT-36

(II)

Characteristics:

Cache size: 32Kbyte

Main memory: 16Mbytes

Size of block transfer: 4 Bytes

Direct mapping:

Address length (s + w): 24 bits

Line size 2w : 22

Number of blocks in main memory 2s : 222

Number of addressable units 2s+w : 224

Number of lines in cache 2r : 213

Size of tag (s-r): 9

Tag : 9 bit

Line : 13 bit

Word : 2 bit

Associative mapping:

Address length (s + w): 24 bits

Line size 2w : 22

Number of blocks in main memory 2s : 222

Number of addressable units 2s+w : 224

Number of lines in cache: undetermined

Size of tag s: 22

Tag : 22 bit

Read also  Meaning Of Mobile Banking Information Technology Essay

Word : 2 bit

Set associative mapping:

Using two way set associative mapping

Address length (s + w): 24 bits

Line size 2w : 22

Number of blocks in main memory 2s : 222

Number of lines in set k : 2

Number of sets v or 2d : 4K

Number of addressable units 2s+w : 224

Number of lines in cache kv: 213

Size of tag (s-d): 9

Tag : 10 bit

Set : 12 bit

Word : 2 bit

Replacement algorithm:

We will use LRU (least recently used)

Simulations have shown that random replacement provides only slightly inferior performance to LRU, So random algorithm can be used instead.

Write policy:

We will use write back technique i.e. update will only be made at replacement if UPDATE bit is set.

(i)

MEM A (1001);

LDR A (1001);

STR MR;

MEM B;

LDR #1; Store 1 in memory B (numbers to be multiplied)

STR B;

MEM C;

LDR #1000; Store 1000 in memory C (to stop after 1001)

STR C;

MEM D;

LDR #2000; Store 2000 in memory C

STR D;

LOOP1:

LDR #B; store the number to be multiplied in IR

STR IR;

LDR D; store 2000 in MR

STR MR;

LOOP2:

LDR IR;

DEC #1; Loop until number to be multiplied does not zero

STR IR;

BRZ L2;

LDR MR; Add 2000 in MR ‘number to be multiplied’ times

ADD D; Note: for first time it will not execute and the result

STR MR; 2000 x 1 will be stored in A(1) later.

JMP LOOP2;

L2:

LDR B;

STR IR;

INC #1; be ready to multiply with next number (previous remain stored in IR)

STR B;

LDR MR; pick the value stored in MR after multiplication (1st time 2000)

STR A (IR); and put it at IR’th location

LDR C;

DEC #1; do not cross 1001

STR C;

BRZ L1;

JMP LOOP1;

L1: end;

(ii)

MEM A (748);

LDR A (748);

STR MR;

MEM CC;

MEM B;

LDR #802; Store 802 in memory B (divisors)

STR B;

MEM C;

LDR #748; Store 748 in memory C (to stop after 748)

STR C;

MEM D;

LDR #98000; Store 98000 in memory C

STR D;

LOOP1:

LDR #1;

STR CC;

LDR #B; store the divisor in IR

STR IR;

LDR D; store 98000 in MR

STR MR;

LOOP2:

LDR MR;

SUB IR; DIVISION

STR MR;

BRN L2;

LDR CC;

INC #1; store the result in CC

STR CC;

JMP LOOP2;

L2:

LDR B;

DEC #1; be ready to divide with next number

STR B;

LDR CC; pick the value stored in CC after division

STR (A); and put it A

LDR C;

DEC #1; do not cross 748

STR C;

BRZ L1;

JMP LOOP1;

L1: end;

Order Now

Order Now

Type of Paper
Subject
Deadline
Number of Pages
(275 words)