Von Neumann Computer Architecture Information Technology Essay

The Von Neumann Computer is a digital pc that storing the data in a single separate way and it use a processing unit. A digital computer keeps its program in instruction with its data as well. The Von Neumann Computer named after name of computer scientist John von Neumann.

5 Internal Components: Description of each components, how they are connected to Mother Board, Diagram.

Hard Disk: Hard disk is a magnetic disk that allows you to store your computer data, a hard disk consist of several platters, which every individual platter is able to read and write. The hard disk is connected to the motherboard by ribbon cable (ATA66/100).

Random Access Memory (RAM:

It is type of computer memory but it can be accessed randomly, RAM is very fast to read than any storage device in a PC. As long as your computer is running the data store in a RAM but when the computer turns off, Ram will lose its data. The Ram connected to the motherboard by small circuit, in the motherboard there is two circuit places which is one for inline memory and the second is duel inline memory.

Processor: Processor or Central Processing Unit (CPU) it is part of computer system and in easy way it is a brain of computer the job of CPU in a computer is to give a instruction for any computer program the processor is connected to the motherboard directly.

Graphic Card: It is a bridge between processor and other devices to send command and gets back the signal, the Graphic Card is connected throw the expansion slot which is in the Motherboard.

5 External Components: Description, how are they connected? Eg Ports, USB, etc. Diagram.

Key Board: keyboard is primary way to communicate with input; you can use the keyboard to input text and data. When we press a key, it presses a button, completing the circuit and allowing an amount of current to run through and keyboards are connected by USB cable or PS2.

Mouse: mouse is device which lets you work with graphical objects that the computer displays on the screen. Mouse has one button or sometimes three buttons and it have scroll wheel that enable user to scrolling long document or webpage. The Mouse is connected by USB cable or PS2.

Printer: It is a device that can print text or graphic that stored in a electronic form, and it connect to the PC by USB Port.

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Scanner: It is a device that scans data or any text, printed page or photo you scan it to the computer and it connected to the computer by USB Port.

Monitor: A Monitor is like a television but the difference is that monitor display the information produced by a computer, basically it is a screen display of a computer and it connect VGA port in a PC or in some PC by the Video card.

Task 2 Describe the characteristics of the various types of internal memory of computer:

What is internal memory of computer?

The internal memory of computer is also part of computer devices that recoding media that keep digital data used for computing for some interval of time.

What are the major types of internal memory of computer? For each type of internal memory, explain how it works and what are its major characteristics

There are types of computer internal memory which is Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM).

Random Access Memory (RAM): It is a temporary computer internal memory and it is a space that allows us to temporarily store data when a program is running. The contents are being lost when the computer is switched off it only holds data while power is on.

There are some major types of RAM which are

:

Rambus DRAM (RDRAM): is a serial memory technology that arrived in three flavours, PC600, PC700, and PC800. PC800 DRAM has doubled the maximum throughput of old, but a higher speed and it use small capacitors to store each bit of memory in an addressable format that consists of rows and columns, DRAM designs with multiple channels.

SIMM chips: Single in-line memory modules (SIMMs) it is a type of solid state computer memory which is used particular for the processor cache memory. The 72-pin SIMM has a notch among the contacts in the middle. An important characteristic of RAM is that the entire memory place can be accessed at almost the same speed.

Read Only Memory (ROM): Is a kind of memory that store the data permanently and it cannot be removed, eventually every computer is coming with a small amount of ROM which recorded of boot firmware, when we start our computer the ROM chips will running hardware diagnostics that will loading the operating system into RAM.

Cache: The cache will make our computer more skilled and better, your computer memory, cache is extremely fast memory that store data and the data is accessible quickly and it gives quickest response to the CPU.

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Virtual Memory: The virtual memory task was to enable a process to operate or establish the status of pages in its virtual address space.

Task 3 Explain the purpose and functions of the system busses of a computer:

Explain how the internal subsystems are linked through buses and where these buses could be found inside a computer.

The computer internal subsystems are connect to the busses through wire inside the computer and the data transfer throw these from one part to the another part of computer. Busses connect the entire computer component with the main memory and processor.

Explain the functions of control, data, and address busses. What is “bus width” and what is the effect of the “bus width” on the bus performance?

The architecture of buses is a wire inside a computer which data is transfer from one part to another part inside the computer, the purpose of buses is to connect the entire computer component to the processor and to the central memory. Busses are dividing into two parts the Data busses and Address busses. The function of data busses is to transfer the data and the function of address busses is to give direction to data where to go. Bus width is a canal that information is flowing; when the bus width is wider it is beneficial for busses because more information can flow in more speedy time.

What is a motherboard “chip set”? With use of a diagram, explain what is the role and characteristics of the North and South Bridge of a motherboard.

It is a specific chip in a computer that calls motherboard chipset. The Northbridge is core logical in a computer motherboard and its role is to hold communication with RAM, BIOS ROM, PCI and CPU. The South Bridge job is to manage the basic of input/output These include all hard drive and expansion slots, USB, FireWire, RAID, audio codes, real-time system clock, system power management, interrupt controller, direct memory access (DMA) controller, and non-volatile BIOS memory.

Task 4 Describe, with the aid of diagrams, what are the components and

the structure of CPU and how CPU works:

What is the CPU of a modern computer and what are the CPU components?

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The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of a computer that gives function to a computer programme. Every time when CPU doing a job there is a stored code in the computer’s memory that instructs the CPU what to do. CPU needs to decode the instruction code to find what it needs to do finish the task. After the CPU solve the code, the CPU will start to perform calculation and the result whether it store the result back in memory, to hard drive, or the computer display. The way that we can understand how powerful a process is by the number of instruction that a CPU can execute per second.

The CPU components are:

Logic or Arithmetic unit (ALU) it performs calculations, there are four types of function that ALU do and it depends on these to perform and they are addition, subtraction, multiplication and division even registering and instruction.

Register or the memory which stores the data, it tell CPU where the information is located, also it’s a temporary storage areas for instructions or data and they are not part of the memory. Register hold and transfer instructions. Register operate faster than a Ram, normally register assess by bit like 32 bits.

Control unit which give direction to the data around the CPU by sending control signals and it’s job is to control the data that executed by the ALU, also the Control Unit keeping communicate with ALU and system memory.

Use a diagram to explain the components of CPU

CPU Components Diagram

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Registers

Control Unit

Input Device

Secondary Storage

Output Device

Explain shortly the Fetch Execute Cycle of CPU referring to its components and RAM.

Fetch Execute Cycle of CPU it is an order of actions that the central processing unit (CPU) perform to execute each machine code instruction in a program. There are five register in the Fetch Execute Cycle which are:

The Instruction Register that hold the solved and executed last instruction. The memory buffer register that use to get data from memory. The memory address registers that to be use when a word is transferred between memory and MBR. The accumulator job is to hold the result of ALU for the time being and the programme counter that hold the address of the next instruction to be fetched from memory.

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