Waterfall Model Lifecycle Model Information Technology Essay

Waterfall approach was first Process Model to be introduced and followed widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the project. In The Waterfall approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate process phases.

The phases in Waterfall model are: Requirement Specifications phase, Software Design, Implementation and Testing & Maintenance. All these phases are cascaded to each other so that second phase is started as and when define set of goals are achieved for first phase and it is signed off, so the name “Waterfall Model”. All the method and process undertaken in Waterfall Model are more visible.

Waterfall Model lifecycle modelE:PROGECTpicture]water fall model.JPG

Figure 1. : Waterfall Model lifecycle model

The stages of “The Waterfall Model” are

Problem definition

In this section, you give a short, general description of the system

To be analyzed. This should contain a very short description of the

Organization or the company for which the analysis is to be done as

Well the reasons and advantages why the computerization is needed.

The environment of the analysis being done is to come out clearly in

This section

Requirement Analysis

All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase. Requirements are set of functionalities and constraints that the end-user (who will be using the system) expects from the system. The requirements are gathered from the end-user by consultation, these requirements are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of incorporating the requirements in the system to be development is also studied. Finally, a Requirement Specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model.

System Design

Before a starting for actual coding, it is highly important to understand what we are going to create and what it should look like? The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and system design is prepared. System Design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve as input for the next phase of the model.

Testing

As specified above, the system is first divided in units which are developed and tested for their functionalities. These units are integrated into a complete system during Integration phase and tested to check if all modules/units coordinate between each other and the system as a whole behaves as per the specifications. After successfully testing the software, it is delivered to the customer

Implementation

On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding is started. The system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality; this is referred to as Unit Testing. Unit testing mainly verifies if the modules/units meet their specifications.

Maintenance

This phase of “The Waterfall Model” is practically never ending phase (Very long). Generally, problems with the system developed (which are not found during the development life cycle) come up after its practical use starts, so the issues related to the system are solved after deployment of the system. Not all the problems come in picture directly but they arise time to time and needs to be solve hence this process is referred as Maintenance.

Advantages of the waterfall model

The advantage of waterfall development is that it allows for departmentalization and managerial control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process like a car in a carwash, and theoretically, be delivered on time. Development moves from concept, through design, implementation, testing, installation, troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each phase of development proceeds in strict order, without any overlapping or iterative steps.

Needless to mention, it is a linear model and of lessons, linear models are the most simple to be implemented.

The amount of resources required to implement this model is very minimal.

One great advantage of the waterfall model is that documentation is produced at every step of the waterfall model development. This makes the understanding of the product designing procedure simpler.

After every major stage of software coding, testing is done to test the correct running of the code.

Prototyping

Throw-away prototyping

Throwaway or Rapid Prototyping refers to the creation of a model that will eventually be discarded rather than becoming part of the finally delivered software. After preliminary requirements gathering is accomplished, a simple working model of the system is constructed to visually show the users what their requirements may look like when they are implemented into a finished system.

C:Documents and SettingsNIFRASDesktop1.JPG

Figure 1.1: throw away proto typing

Incremental Prototyping

The final product is built as separate prototypes. At the end the separate prototypes are being merged in an overall design. C:Documents and SettingsNIFRASDesktop3.JPG

Figure 1.2: Incremental Prototyping

Evolutionary Prototyping

Evolutionary Prototyping (also known as breadboard prototyping) is quite different from Throwaway Prototyping. The main goal when using Evolutionary Prototyping is to build a very robust prototype in a structured manner and constantly refine it. “The reason for this is that the Evolutionary prototype, when built, forms the heart of the new system, and the improvements and further requirements will be builtC:Documents and SettingsNIFRASDesktop2.JPG

Figure 1.3: Evolutionary Prototyping

Advantages of prototyping

Proto types make an ideal tool for defending &discussing user interaction

User can understand a prototype far easier than most of the standard base of communicating requirements in the form of the model

Prototypes very quickly resolve misunderstanding between biasness manager & analysis

Disadvantages of proto typing

Leads to implementing and then repairing way of building systems.

Practically, this methodology may increase the complexity of the system as scope of the system may expand beyond original plans.

The Spiral Model

The spiral model, also known as the spiral lifecycle model, is a systems development method (SDM) used in information technology (IT). This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is intended for large, expensive, and complicated projects.

The steps in the spiral model can be general as follows

The new system requirements are define in as much detail as possible. This generally involves interviewing a number of users representing all the outside or internal users and other aspects of the existing method.

A preliminary design is created for the new system.

A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is usually a scaled-down system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product.

A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure: evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths, weaknesses, and risks; defining the requirements of the second prototype planning and designing the second prototype constructing and testing the second prototype.

At the customer’s option, the entire plan can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. Risk factors might involve development cost overruns, operating-cost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer’s judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.

The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and, if necessary, another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above.

The preceding steps are iterated until the consumer is satisfy that the developed

Prototype represents the finishing product desired.

The final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype.

Advantages of spiral model

The spiral model is a realistic approach to the development of large-scale

software products because the software evolves as the process progresses.

In addition, the developer and the client better understand and react to risks

at each evolutionary level.

The model uses prototyping as a risk reduction mechanism and allows for

the development of prototypes at any stage of the evolutionary

development.

It maintains a systematic stepwise approach, like the classic life cycle

model, but incorporates it into an iterative framework that more reflect the

real world.

Disadvantages of spiral model

   1. Highly customized limiting re-usability

   2. Applied differently for each application

   3. Risk of not meeting budget or schedule

   4. Risk of not meeting budget or schedule

C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopspiral model.png

Figure 1.4: spiral model

Rapid Application Development (RAD) Methodology what is RAD?

RAD (rapid application development) is a concept that products can be developed faster and of higher quality through:

Gathering requirements using workshops or focus groups

Prototyping and early, reiterative user testing of designs

The re-use of software components

A rigidly paced schedule that defers design improvements to the next product version

Less formality in reviews and other team communication

Advantages of RAD

Early visibility

Greater flexibility

Standardized look and feel

Increased user involvement

Buying may save money compared to building

Disadvantages of RAD

This method may not be useful for large, unique or highly complex projects

This method cannot be a success if the team is not sufficiently motivated and nor is unable to work cohesively together.

Success depends on the extremely high technical skills of the developers. C:Documents and SettingsNIFRASDesktopproto type.jpg

Figure 1.4: RAD model

Dynamic System Development Method Dynamic System Development Method is another approach to system development, which, as the name suggests, develops the system dynamically. This methodology is independent of tools, in that it can be used with both structured analysis and design approach or object-oriented approach.

Advantages of DSD

An importance on testing is so strong that at least one tester is expected to be on each project group

Sets stakeholder expectations from the starts of the project that not all requirements will make it into the final deliverable

Has specific approach to determining how important each requirements is to iteration

Disadvantages of DSD

Access to material is controlled by a consortium, and fees may be charged just to access the reference material

Probably the most heavy weight project compared in this surveyC:Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopdynamic-system-development-method.jpg

figure1.2.1: DSD method

During the below given reasons I have chosen Waterfall Model for this project

It is a linear sequential model

It is very simple model to implement

Easy to use

It is the first model.

It needs very few resources to implement

Suitable for small projects

Water fall model:

This is very simple model. It moves like water fall from top to down of SDLC. The drawback of this model is ineffectiveness of verification and

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Validation activities.

TASK 02

The water fall modelE:PROGECTpicture]water fall model.JPG

The water fall stages

Problem definition

Requirement analysis

System design

Coding testing

Implementation

Maintenance

1. Problem definition

In this section, you give a short, general description of the system to be analyzed. This should contain a very short description of the Organization or the company for which the analysis is to be done as Well the reasons and advantages why the computerization is needed.

The environment of the analysis being done is to come out clearly in this section

2. Requirement Analysis

All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase. Requirements are set of functionalities and constraints that the end-user (who will be using the system) expects from the system. The requirements are gathered from the end-user by consultation, these requirements are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of incorporating the requirements in the system to be development is also studied. Finally, a Requirement Specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model.

3. System Design

Before a starting for actual coding, it is highly important to understand what we are going to create and what it should look like? The requirements specifications first phase are studied in this phase and system design is prepared. From System Design helps in specifying hardware and method requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve up as input for the next phase of the model.

4. Coding Testing

As specified above, the system is first divided in units which are developed and tested for their functionalities. These units are integrated into a complete system during Integration phase and tested to check if all modules/units coordinate between each other and the system as a whole behaves as per the specifications. After successfully testing the software, it is delivered to the customer

5. Implementation

On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding is started. The system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality; this is referred to as Unit Testing. Unit testing mainly verifies if the modules/units meet their specifications.

6. Maintenance

This phase of (The Waterfall Model) is in effect never finish phase (Very long). Commonly, difficulty with the system developed (which are not found during the development life cycle) come awake later than its practical use start, so the issues related to the system are solved after deployment of the system. Not all the problems come in images directly but they arise time to time and needs to be solve hence this process is referred as Maintenance.

7. Specification

Specification is the first step in the process. In this stage, companies find a problem they want to join and think of a viable result. They then write down the solution on paper and move on to the next stage in the waterfall standardization

Testing includes verification and validation

1. Verification: Are we building the product right.

2. Validation: Are we building the right product

1. Validation

Am I building the right product?

Determining if the method complies with the requirements. And perform functions for which it is intended and meets and is performed at the finish of the project.

Am I accessing the right data (in terms of the Data? Required to satisfy the requirement)

High level activity

Performs after a work product is produced against Established criteria ensuring that the product integrates correctly into the environment.

Determination of correctness of the final software Product by a development project with respect to the user Needs and requirements.

2. Verification

Am I building the product right?

The review of interim work steps and interim Deliverables during a project to ensure them are Acceptable. To determine if the system is consistent, Adheres to standards, uses reliable techniques and prudent Practices, and performs the selected functions in the correct manner.

Am I accessing the data right (in the right place; in?

The right way)

Low level activity

Performed during development on key artifacts, like Walkthroughs, reviews and inspections, mentor feedback, Training, checklists and standards.

My Opinion about This Task with Victoria Hospital

The Victoria Hopital has some problems.

The 1st problem is the victoria Hospital at presnt does not use Computer and not asystem to save data and details Appointment details, patient detail and payment detail.

2nd problem is can’t V.H take a details in time of important.That problam is some time May be loss detail in physical fils so the V.H is face these problems becaus we can analysis requirements to the V.H those are need to V.H a good system to save details & datas secent is the method should preparednes easy & good to hendal to the operaters.

3rd problem is the implementations should have to a good system.

4th

is give a good knowledge to operates.these implementations are want to V.H those are A Server Machine 5clients, 1GB Ram, or 512MB ,Laser Printer Dot matrix printer Bar code reader and the knowledge given by system supporters to Operater. Want to Operaters condect with system supporters and the system supporters must mainten the problems of system in time ofcoming problems.

TASK 03

Data flow diagram

Data flow diagrams can be use to provide an understandable representation of any business function. The system starts with an overall image of the business and continues by analyzing each of the functional areas of interest. This analysis can be carried out to precisely the level of detail required. The technique exploits a system called top-down expansion to conduct the analysis in a targeted way.

C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopdfdg.JPG

Figure 1.2.2: data flow diagram

Process

Processes show a transformation or manipulation of data flows within the system. The symbol used is a rectangular box which contains 3 descriptive elements:

Firstly an identification number appears in the upper left hand corner. This is allocated arbitrarily at the top level and serves as a unique reference.

Secondly, a location appears to the right of the identifier and describes where in the system the process takes place. This may, for example, be a department or a piece of hardware. Finally, a descriptive title is placed in the centre of the box. This should be a simple imperative sentence with a specific verb, for example ‘maintain customer records’ or ‘find driver’.

Data flow

A data flow shows the flow of information from its source to its destination. A data flow is represented by a line, with arrowheads showing the direction of flow. Information always flows to or from a process and may be written, verbal or electronic. Each data flow may be referenced by the processes or data stores at its head and tail, or by a description of its contents.

External entity

An external entity is a source or destination of a data flow which is outside the area of study. Only those entities which originate or receive data are represented on a business process diagram. The symbol used is an oval containing a meaningful and unique identifier.

Data storage

A data store is a holding place for information within the system:

It is represented by an open ended narrow rectangle.

Data stores may be long-term files such as sales ledgers, or may be short-term accumulations: for example batches of documents that are waiting to be processed. Each data store should be given a reference followed by an arbitrary number.

DFD context level diagram (0 level diagram)

E:my project level df (1).jpg

Figure 2.2.1: DFD context level diagram

DFD 1st level

E:PROGECTdrawing diagram dfdDrawing2.jpg

Figure 2.3.1: DFD 1st level

E:my project level df (5).jpg

Figure 2.3.2

E:PROGECTdrawing diagram dfdDrawing4.jpg

Figure 2.3.3

E:PROGECTdrawing diagram dfdDrawing5.jpg

C:Documents and SettingsALLAHDesktop level df (11).jpg

Entity relationship diagram

C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopdfd4.JPG

Entity

A person, place, object events about which we need to compare & store data are called as entities

E.g. – students, book, department

Relational ship

A relationship captures how two or more entities are related to one another. Relationships can be thought of as verbs linking two or more nouns. Relationships are represented as diamonds, connected by lines to each of the entities in the relationship.

Relationship instance-link between entities (corresponds to primary key-foreign key equivalencies in related tables)

Relationship type-category of relationship…link between entity types

Attributes

Attributes are the properties of entities & relationship in other attributes is used to describe entities & relationship in the ER diagram an entity has many attributes there for it needs to identifier. A key is attributes, group of attributes which we can use to identify an entity uniquely.

Entity types

E:my projectpicture]dd.jpg

ERD diagram for Victoria hospital system

D:tt.JPG

Appointment to Patient

One patient must have one appointment this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

One appointment must have one patient this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

Appointment to GP

One GP have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment must have one GP this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

Appointment to nurse

One nurse have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment have many nurse this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

Appointment to treatment

One treatment have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment have many treatment this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

Treatment to clinic

One treatment have many clinic this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One clinic have many treatment this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

E:my project1235.jpg

TASK 4

Requirement specification

NO

Requirements

BSO 1

BSO2

BSO3

BSO4

BSO5

1

Register patient

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2

Invoice the patient

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3

Inquiring handling

€ € ƒ»€ € 

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€ ƒ¼

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4

Accept patient ordering

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€ ƒ¼

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5

printing debater report

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6

Medical laboratories

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7

Arrange the delivery

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8

Printing a patient report

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Business system option (BSO)

The set of Business System Options which is compiled so that a selection can be made. The selected Business System Option is a description of a chosen system development direction. The description documents the system boundary, inputs, outputs and the transformation taking place within the boundary. Essentially, the description is textual with supporting products such as Data Flow Diagrams, a Logical Data Structure and a Work Practice Model

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Technical system option (TSO)

The set of Technical System Options which has been developed so that the system development direction can be chosen.

Each option documents the functions to be incorporated and details implementation requirements. Each description is textual with some planning information. Functional elements are taken directly from the Requirements Specification

Logical System Specification

NO

requirement

TSO1

TSO2

TSO3

TSO4

TSO5

1

Visual basic 2007

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2

Windows 2003

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3

Java J2SE Development Kit (JDK) 5.0

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4

CCT camera

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5

A Server Machine

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6

Firefox 9.02 latest version

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7

5 clients,1GB Ram,80GB

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8

SQL Server

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9

Windows 2007

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10

Laser Printer

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11

Scanner

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12

Credit Card reader

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13

JDBC 3.0 compliant driver

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14

IIS Server

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15

Dot matrix printer

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16

Wi5 connection

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17

Win 2003 server

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18

Barcode reader

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19

Credit card

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.

TASK 5

Fact-finding technique

Interviews

Questionnaires

Observations

Sampling

Record-searching

Fact-finding technique

Fact-finding is a main activity in system investigation. In this chapter, the functioning of the method is to be understood by the system analyst to design the proposed system. Different methods are used for this and these are known as fact-finding techniques. The analyst needs to fully understand the current system.

The analyst wants data about the requirements and demands of the project undertaken and the technique employed to gather this records are identified as fact-finding techniques.

Various kinds of techniques are used and the most popular with them are interviews, questionnaires, record reviews, case tools and also the personal observations made by the analyst himself. Each of these techniques is additional dealt in next pages.

Two people can go into the same area to gather facts and experience entirely different results. One spends weeks and gets incomplete and misleading data. The other is finished in a few hours and has complete and solid facts. This session outlines some of the things a person can do to achieve the latter. It covers:

Interviews

Interviewing is the one of the most common method in fact finding. It bring the analysis

Into a direct contact with the users where he gets an opportunity to listen in to the opinion (advantage &disadvantages) about the existing system also to identify the issues &propose solutions the new system

Interview is a very effective fact finding techniques. But the main problem is that it requires a lot of resources, especially time. So it is very important to plan the interview before hand &the analysis is required to have considerable amount of skills

Interview needs a start from the top level management to get permission &also get an overview idea about the total system. Then the interview process can be move to which will provide more & more specific details

Interviews are not required to find out how exactly a system should work, but it needs to deter mine the needs of the users that we have to satisfy with a new system.

The success of the interview depends upon the skills of the interviewer the preparation for the interview.

Choose the person who is mostly appropriate for the interview

Preparation for the interview

Setting a proper date, and time ,venue & the topic

Correct sequence of questions

These factors should include in an interview plan before conducing it. There are 3 types of questions usually asked in an interview

Open questions

Closed questions

Probes questions

Open question general questions that relates with the personal view on the subject

Example-   ‘what do you think of ….?’

                    ‘What is your opinion of …?’

                    ‘How could ……. be improved.

Advantages

 Puts the interviewee at ease.

 Permits extra questioning into area that was not anticipated during interview scheduling.

 Provide detail.

Disadvantages

 interview may get off the track (i.e. the interviewer lose control of the interview)

can be time-consuming, particularly if the interviewer is experience

Closed question > question that is needed direct answer

Example – ‘ How many employees are in your

                    department?’

                    ‘How long have you …..?’

Advantages

 Makes it easy to compare interviews.

 The interviewer is in control.

Allows you to get to the relevant data quickly.

Disadvantages

Difficult to gauge attitudes opinions.

Makes it difficult to establish a rapport between interviewee and interviewer.

You only get answers to the questions asked so it is difficult to identify and explore unanticipated area for further inquiring.

Interviews are normally held in an organization in friendly manner. A question should follow a logical order .when conducting an analysis or interviewer should process the following qualities

He should design the question in a why where he can gather more information from the users

He should respect user ideas &suggestions

He should try to get the solution from the user rather than being an advisor to him

He should be a good listener

He should respect user needs &position

An actual interview process consist of 3 faces

Opening

Body

Conclusion

Opening face include – introduction preparation for the interview object of the interview

Body of the interview – obtain interviews response to the analysis list of question

Conclusion – summarizes the finding & verifies the summary 7 arrange the next interview date if necessary.

Advantages of interview

New ideas my arise

Results can be produced in a short period of time

It allows the analysis to look for more feedback from the user

Easy to evaluate result

Body language

Allows interviewer to follow up on interesting

Disadvantages of interview

May not be suitable for all satiation

Success of the interview is highly depending on the system analysis skill

Cost effective

Very time-consuming and costly,

2. Questionnaires

A different fact-finding technique is to manner surveys through questionnaires. Questionnaire

Are special-purpose documents that agree to facts to be gathered from a big number?

Of nation while maintain some manage over their responses. When dealing with a huge

Listeners, no other fact-finding technique can tabulate the same details as efficiently.

Free-format questionnaire

A questionnaire designed to offer the respondent greater latitude in the answer. A question is asked. And the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question

Fixed-format questionnaire

A questionnaire containing questions that require selecting an answer from predefined available responses

Advantages of questionnaires

People can full and revisit questionnaires

at their convenience

Relatively expensive mode to gather records

from a large quantity of people

People extra likely to provide the real

facts as responses can be kept confidential

Responses can be tabulated and

Analyzed quickly

Disadvantages of questionnaires

No of respondents often low

Mostly suitable for closed type of question

A good questionnaire is difficult to prepare & it’ll take long time

3. Observation

Unlike the extra fact finding techniques, in this technique the analyst himself visit the group and observes and know the flow of papers, working of the existing system, the users of the system etc. For this method to be adopted it takes an analyst to perform this job as he knows which points should be noticed and highlighted. In analyst may observe the unwanted things as well and simply cause delay in the development of the new system.

Observation type

Formal observation

Informal observation

Formal observation – observation person by him being noticed

Informal observation – observing a person without him being noticed this is not an ethical practice

Advantages of the observation

Observations are sometime used to check the velocity of e data obtained from other fact finding methods

Complex task are &sometimes difficult to clearly explain in words through observation &analysis can identify complex task easily

The system analysis able to see exactly what is been done

Other techniques usually require more employees and more time

Disadvantages of the observation

While trying to gather information the person has been observed may not act in his normal behavior

4. Sampling

This may involve studying a subset documents or subset of the activity in the area in order to get an impression of the whole activity or document set. It is useful to verify findings from interviews or the above discussed techniques.

E.g. – studying customer bills & invoices filling. Orders for an hour peak sampler 3 or 4 class. And observe for a special period of time to get information

5. Record searching

Through record searching we can get coordinative information such as volume techniques & essential data. This can be used check the estimate made by the user

System investigation methods

Interviews

A face-to-face meeting between the user of the existing system and the person analyzing the present system

Advantages: much more flexible than a questionnaire as the responses to questions can lead to new questions as the interview takes place and it is much easier to clarify any difficult points.

Disadvantages: the interview can take time to set up and may involve travelling (although a telephone or video-conferencing could be used).  The person carrying out the interview will need to record the answers through the interview unless it is recorded Questionnaires

A series of question which are answer by the user of the existing system.  They can be paper based or electronic.

Advantages: quick to distribute to a number of users, either by post or email.  A range of closed and open questions can easily be asked.

Disadvantages: some questions and/or answers may not be clear, particularly if the person who created the questionnaire is totally unfamiliar with the existing system.

Observation and inspection

The existing system is observed during its normal operation and the recording system looked at.

Advantages: the existing system can be observed throughout the whole input, processing and output cycle.  The recording system will show clearly what data is collected and what the information output is.

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Disadvantages: can be very time consuming. The observer may not fully understand what they are observing without asking further questions.  It can be difficult to record the observations in a useful way.

TASK 6

Computer based system

Complex systems in which computers play a major role. While complex physical systems and sophisticated software systems can help people to lead healthier and more enjoyable lives, reliance on these systems can also result in loss of money, time, and life when these systems fail. Much of the complexity of these systems is due to integration of information technology into physical and human activities. Such integration dramatically increases the interdependencies among components, people, and processes, and generates complex dynamics not taken into account in systems of previous generations. Engineers with detailed understanding both of the application domain and computer electronics, software, human factors, and communication are needed to provide a holistic approach to system development so that disasters do not occur.

Computer-based information systems have advantages Faster, fast retrieval

Large storage

Different display options available

Data does not have to be in a set order

Data management is easier

Data easily exchanged between applications and over networks

Computer-based information systems have disadvantages

Data can only be accessed if you have a computer

Training required

Exchange of data with other computers creates security and confidentiality issues

Traditional file based system

Traditional file based system is basically a file based system, in which we manually or through PC handle the database such as update, insertion ,deletion adding new files to database etc.

There are some advantages of TFB(Traditional file based system)

No need of external storage

No need of highly technical one to handle the DB (data base)

Processing speed is high as compare to DBMS.

TFBS has also some disadvantage:

Provide less security.

Redundancy is more

Less integrity

high complexity in updating of database

duplication of data

data integrity problem

limited data sharing

lengthy processing time

TASK 7

Context LEVEL DIAGRAM FOR VICTORIA hospital system

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Aim and Objectives

The Scenario

Victoria Hospital

Victoria Hospital has 15 General Practitioners (GPs) and approximately 15,000 patients. It has 5 reception staff, a number of nursing staff, who carry out minor procedures at the surgery, and a team of district nurses, who visit patients in their homes.

When patients join the surgery they are allocated to one of the GPs, however they may make an appointment to see any of the GPs. At an appointment a GP may prescribe many treatments for the patient.

The surgery also processes repeat prescriptions and runs a number of clinics, such as Baby Care, Asthma and Diabetes.

At present the surgery does not use computers, but due to the high volume of paperwork involved in scheduling appointments the surgery would like to develop a computer system to cover this part of its operation.

The following tasks relate to the proposal to computerize the manual operations of Victoria Hospital. You may need to carry out some additional research into the operations of a local doctors’ surgery to acquire a better understanding of how it operates. I am a Systems Analyst invited by the Surgery Partners to investigate whether computerization is feasible.

Data Flow Diagram for VICTORIA HOSPITAL system

Process Description

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Process Description

Process No. : 1.1

Process Name : Registration

Activity : Providing Reg. details

: Providing appointment details

: Providing patient details

Process No. : 1.2

Process Name : hospital schedule

Activity : Providing hospital details

: Providing hospital schedule details

: Providing hospital schedule details

Process No. : 1.3

Process Name : payment

Activity : Providing payment details

: providing payment Receipt

Process No. : 1.4

Process Name : treatment

Activity : Asking treatment details

: providing clinic details

Dataflow description

The patient is asking appointment details and Victoria hospital system providing appointments details. The patient is making payments and getting appointment.

Nurses are providing appointment and preparing the appointment schedule and providing the Victoria hospital system.

Doctors are providing treatment to the patient a Victoria hospital system premises soon as possible. In usual cases doctors are asking appointment schedule and providing treatment on time.

Patients are asking payment details from Victoria hospital system and they are providing payment details. Patient are making payments and getting payment receipt.

Data store content

In registration file:

The patient’s name, patient ID, patient’s contact number, patient’s contact address and patient’s registration number are storing in to the Victoria hospital system. In this file patient ID is taken as a primary key. Patient ID and registration number are taken as composite primary key.

In payment file

The patient’s name, patient ID, patient appointment fee, appointment number, Treatment Fee. Are storing in to the Victoria hospital system. In this file patient ID is taken as a primary key. Patient ID and payment number are taken as composite primary key.

In hospital schedule

Hospital open time, end time, treatment fee, patient room number, storing in to the Victoria hospital system. In this file hospital schedule file is taken as a primary key.

In treatment file

Patient’s name, patient ID, registration number, treatment number, treatment descriptions are storing in to the Victoria hospital system. In this file treatment number is taken as a primary key. Patient ID and treatment number are taken as composite primary key.

EXTERNAL ENTITY DEFINITIONS

Nurse

Nurse is an external entity in a Victoria hospital system. They are control, administrating the Victoria hospital system as well as they are doing treatment with the patient. They are registering the patient, providing registration number, and providing patient ID to the patient.

GP

GP is an external entity in a Victoria hospital system. GP are providing treatment to the patient. Patient takes appointment GP are providing treatments to the patient.

INTERNAL ENTITY DEFINITION

Patient

Patient is an external entity in a Victoria hospital system. Patient coming to the Victoria hospital system with their patient for the treatment. They will get appointments and treatment on time. The Victoria hospital system and getting treatment soon as possible in Victoria hospital system premises.

An Entity Relation Diagram for victoria hospital

System

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Appointment to Patient

One patient must have one appointment this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

One appointment must have one patient this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

Appointment to GP

One GP have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment must have one GP this is called one to one relationship and this is mandatory

Appointment to nurse

One nurse have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment have many nurse this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

Appointment to treatment

One treatment have many appointments this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One appointment have many treatment this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

Treatment to clinic

One treatment have many clinic this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

One clinic have many treatment this is called one to many relationship and this is optional

ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM WITH ATTRIBUTESE:my projectpicture]1235.jpg

Entity Description for An Entity Relationship Diagram

Entity name : patient

Activities : Making Registration

: Getting Appointment

: getting treatment on time

: Making payments on time

: getting payment receipt

Entity name : Clinic

Activities : Clinic start on time

: Clinic end time

: Getting patient clinic ID

Entity name : Appointment

Activities : Making Registration

: Getting Appointment

: Making payments on time

: getting appointment on time

Entity name : Treatment

Activities : Making Registration

: Getting Appointment

: Getting treatment

: Patient getting treatment soon as possible

Entity name : Nurse

Activities : Control, patient and act as an administrator

: Providing Registration

: Providing Appointment

: Providing treatment

: Home visit

: getting nurse id

Entity name : GP

Activities : treatment check the appointment schedule

: Providing treatment

: providing treatments to the patient

Appropriate attributes for all entities in the Victoria hospital system

Patient

In this table patient ID (Patient ID) is taken as a primary key. Ss id (SS ID)

Clinic

Pa Id

Pa name

Pa _add

Home TP No

age

sex

SS ID

Last name

Pa_001

Arul

Galle

0652209770

20

male

ss_0123

Pa_002

Kumar

Colombo

0652261780

25

male

ss_0213

Pa_003

Ravi

Jaffna

0652223470

16

male

ss_0321

Kumar

Clinic _ type

Clinic _name

Clinic _no

Asthma

Aathra

Clinic _003

Baby care

Gayathri

Clinic_004

ENT

Sun medical

Clinic_005

Appointment

Appointment no

Start time

End time

date

App_004

08:30

10:30

05/04/2010

App_005

12:00

02:00

10/04/2010

App_014

09:00

12:00

20/04/2010

Treatment

P no

TR code

date

time

result

T prize

Pa_001

000123

05/04/2010

12:20 pm

……….

…….

Pa_002

000124

10/04/2010

09:00 am

………..

……..

Pa_003

000125

20/04/2010

06:00 am

………..

………

Nurse

Nurse name

Nurse no

Home_ no

Ravi

N_000123

0653245126

Gaeta

N_000145

0652246565

Kumar

N_000152

0655450555

GP

First name

Last name

GP no

Off no

Home no

Mobile no

specialty

Ss

no

Ravi

G_0006

0114546666

0654545455

0715458562

005

Prasad

G_0005

0124588668

0605666999

0754578952

009

soma

G_0003

0458599866

0625598565

0751248750

099

VICTIRIA HOSITAL SYSTEM GANTT CHART

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STRENTHNESS OF THE SYSTEM

Automated decision making system it used to make decision to the management

GUI system it is a user friendly system to the user

Fast record searching using primary keys

Fast data retrievals

Reduce time consuming and workload

FUTURE IMPLEMENTATION

Implementing web server

Implementing own website

Online Appointment

Online medicine

Online Payment

Online Receipt

Online consultant

CONCLUSION

A proper knowledge about the System Analyzing is got by do this assignment. This knowledge will be the good starting to be a good successful software Engineer. This assignment is written as task wise through the following knowledge.

There were 7 tasks given by the lecturer. It was explained clearly by me with the help of books, e-books, lecture notes and web research. I have gained much knowledge by completing this assignment. I hope that it will help the people who all are going to read this assignment.

During the assignment work time it was very enjoyable to search details from books and it was very interesting.

I want to thank my lecturer once again at this moment.

THANK YOU

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