An investigation into the tasks and functions of management

Executive Summary

As retrieved from Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary; manager is defined as the person who is responsible for managing an organization which is mainly associated with the management which is described as the control and organization of something. (Cambridge University Press, 2008).This assignment gives a good understanding on the roles played by a manager in a management. We are able to understand effectively the do’s and don’t’s briefly on a managerial roles and managements styles for future undertakings.

Based from Task 1, the managerial roles and mangement styles is deifined and explained based from an organization im involved on achieving appropriate goals of the organization. Meanwhile, the Task 2 identifies the problems or limitations faced by manager in effective decision making and how it affects the organization and management.

This manager’s role and managerial styles with the barriers to effective decision making faced by managers is being explained briefly in few parts which includes the introduction, management and organization, barriers to effective decision making, and also conclusion and recommendation on the task given.

The findings consist of understanding about the management, managers and their functions with the roles played by them such as interpersonal roles, informational roles, and also decisional roles. Besides that, the history of the organization with the coordination of effort, common goals or purposes, division of labor and the hierarchy of authority is being discussed in here. Not only that, the barriers types such as personal confidence, confirmation bias, anchoring bias, and illusory correlations is also being discussed for better understanding.

Lastly, it can be concluded that, by completing the given task, one can able to identify the important criteria that a manager must consider always in making a decision with suitable recommendations for developing alternative solutions to the occurring problem for the best decision making barriers.

  1. Introduction

To perform a variety of roles in an organization we need to study the management in order to examine the role that managers expect .These roles were solely developed by a researcher who is;Henry Mintzberg in late 1960s after a careful and in-depth study of executives at work. (Burgaz, 1997) If a manager has to achieve the goal in a organization, he has to follow the ten managerial roles which are divided into three categories. The categories are interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles. The efficiency and effectiveness to manage an organization is the priority progress.

Thus manager’s neglect or these processes are executed. The problem might be wrongly defined, or goals misidentified. Insufficient solutions might be generated, or they may have be evaluated incompletely. A satisfying choice compared to maximizing choice may be made. Implementation poorly planned or executed, monitoring may be inadequate or nonexistent. Decision making are influenced by few categories which can be divided to such like; subjective psychological biases, time pressures, and also social realities.

2.0 Management and Organizations

The 21st century has brought with it a new workplace, one in which everyone must

adapt to face the rapid challenges and opportunities. The economy has become global and organizations have to transform themselves to serve new customer expectations. Knowledge based and performance driven is the method of the new economy. The themes widely used in the present context area are such related to ‘respect’, participation, empowerment alongside with teamwork and also self management. In the dark light of the above challenges a new kind of leader is needed to guide business through turbulence. Managers in organizations do this task.

2.1 Functions of Management

In any organization, the most important issue is management. So, we should plan out things done systematically in order to be efficient and effective. Make sure that the plans are followed and the goals are met. Good management is the fundamental of a business. Maintaining a business is to achieve some success. To be more and more efficient is what almost every organization as well as a corporation and government strives for. Organizations often carry out important decisions based on how different alternatives will be efficient. Despite that, many organizations and managers undergo hard time to understand the difference correlatively between efficiency and effectiveness and often get “wrapped around the axle” debating semantics rather than actually evaluating the alternatives at hand. (Ted Schneider, 2008) These concepts are often use little consistency and in some areas drastic change lead to be interdependent. This proves that managers are well dedicated and plan systematically.

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2.2 Who are Managers

Managers are defined as an organized group of people whose purpose is solely to achieve the objectives and desired goals of an organization for the organization’s benefit. To get a better review of the discussed ideas and views expressed by academicians and involved practitioners; that managers are simply known as at the lowest level of management. Then, followed by the middle managers who manage between the first line level and the top level of the organization. Therefore the top level managers who are responsible for making decision and establishing plans and goals that effect the entire organization.

2.3 Managers Task

Table 1: 10 Management Roles.

Category

Roles

Interpersonal Roles

Figurehead Role

Leader Role

Liaison Role

Informational Roles

Monitor Role

Disseminator Role

Spokesperson Role

Decisional Roles

Entrepreneur Role

Disturbance Handler Role

Resource Allocator Role

Negotiator Role

A manager is someone who coordinates and supervises the work of other people so that goals can be achieved. Besides that, managers too have to carry out additional task such as Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. These functions provide a useful structure for management knowledge. Firstly, Planning can be defined as striving for goals and immerge plan for coordination purpose. Secondly, Organizing meant by setting up the work formation to achieve goals. Thirdly, Leading is to lead or guide people with the integrity to achieve goals. Finally controlling focusing and supervising the quality of the work. Mintzberg described Managerial work relates to ten roles those are divided into three categories. Firstly interpersonal roles are the figurehead, leader and liaison. Secondly was an informational role which relates to monitor, disseminator and spokesman. Finally is the decisional roles which caters the entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. Thus, clearly notify the interpersonal, informational and decisional roles.

2.3.1 Interpersonal Roles

Figurehead role perform the ceremonial duties. Leader role motivate and support the workers and Liaison role involve duties with other unit bodies.

2.3.2 Informational Roles

Monitor role for environmental issues. Disseminator role is that to exchange or interchange knowledge in their departments. Spokesperson role part their knowledge by sharing information outside their companies.

2.3.3 Decisional Roles

Entrepreneur role is to adopt and adapt to change. Disturbance handler role set an alert supervision to clear out any serious problem. Resource allocator collects and handles resources. Lastly, negotiator role compromise with update schedules, current projects, available resources, goals achievements and injecting employees to the company without fail.

2.3.4 Company History

Jack Cohen from a market stall in East London founded in 1919. Currently we operate in 12 countries around the world, 530000 employees and serve thousands of customers daily. We are efficient in our sales experience. Nowadays, we believe that we do the right things to satisfy all walks of life that prefers our service. In Malaysia, from 2001 till today, TESCO had been the best Hypermarket. The mangers at TESCO prefer the interpersonal roles to welcome customers warmly, introducing new benefits and support charitable organizations. Besides this, managers motivate and encourage staffs to achieve the objectives. At TESCO, managers regularly acknowledge employees with celebratory lunches and gifts certificates. Moreover the managers exchange ideas outside their units. Evidence shows managers spend most of their sharing ideas and information with other ‘VIP’ groups.

2.4 Management Style

Management style is a managerial parlance often used to describe the how of management. It is a function of behavior associated with personality.(McGuire.R, 2005).A way which is used to manage an organization can be referred as management style. Management style is “the adhesive that binds diverse operations and functions together”. It is the philosophy or set of principles by which the manager capitalizes on the abilities of the workforce.(Nwadukwe Uche.C, 2012).Management style is often mistaken for a procedure on how to do the management framework for doing. A management style is essentially a way of life to operate throughout the organization and to be able to permit an executive to rely on the initiative of the personnel of an entity. The four often used managerial styles in an organization are leadership and management style, autocratic style, democratic style, laissez-faire.

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In this organization, Tesco; the management choose democratic style to achieve the goals of the organization. Inputs are gathered and decisions as well as the responsibilities are shared is a way of how the democratic style is being implemented. This can be done where the manager ignites a meeting among the team member from the same department to brain storm and to make appropriate decision involving the specified task and to have a faith and trust on the team members to have the capability to develop the appropriate direction to fulfill the decision made.

2.5 An Organization

Basically, an organization as known and not necessarily a legal entity, corporation or low liability company(LLC) is a person or group of people intentionally to achieve a common goal. A business organization varies in size from one person to thousands. Therefore essential aspects have to consider about the organization’s goal. These features are explicit; therefore deliberate and recognized or implicit in an operating unrecognized with the term “behind the scenes”. (Koontz.H, 1997) Usually during the strategic planning process, these features are carefully considered and established ideally. Upon completing, we’ll consider deeply on dimensions and concepts that are very common to organizations. The prominent psychologist, all the organizations together share four characteristics which is coordination effort, common goal or purpose, division labor, and hierarchy of authority.

2.5.1 Coordination Effort

The well known quotation agrees that two heads are sometimes better than one; Individuals who join force together and be able to coordinate their mental and or physical efforts can accomplish many great and exciting things. (David A.Nadier) Great inventions and sky scrapers were erected by the talent and desire of an individual. Hence, collaboration and coordination only implies with multiple thoughts.

2.5.2 Common Goals or Purposes

Managerial force and the Labor force coordinate with mutual interest, it ensures to achieve the target goal of the organization.

2.5.3 Division Labor

An organization can use its human resources efficiently by systematically dividing complex tasks into specialized jobs. Division of labor permits in each organization member has to become more and more proficient by repeatedly doing the same assigned specialized task. The advantage of division of labor is well known to all of us.

It is better to divide human resources into diversification tasks. When experience and proficiency exceeds, an organization can utilize its human resource to carry out the complex tasks into specialized jobs. Thus, division of labor is a healthy decision that can be implemented.

2.5.4 Hierarchy Of Authority

Figure 1: The Hierarchy of Authority in TESCO,Malaysia.

Table 2: Acronim of Hierarchy of Aunthority in TESCO,Malaysia.

Acronim:

AGM

Area General Manager

SGM

Store General Manager

TM

Trading Manager

SM

Section Manager

If an organization is to achieve the targeted goal, then it should follow a strict and rigid system of management. Thus providing the necessary guidelines and resources which procedure a conductive working environment. A leader should take charge and his commands are followed. Thus, authority should be given to such leaders in order to follow orders effectively and efficiently. Coordination of effort is difficult to achieve without a clear hierarchy of authority. Accountability is mainly enhanced by having such leaders so called ‘managers’ in an organization.

3.0 Barriers to Effective Decision Making

Effective decision-making is an interdisciplinary process that involves applying social psychology, group dynamics and management theory (K.Borchardt, 2010). A vital part in making a good decision is actually checking the problems which can be solved by one. However, neglected difficulties, such as cognitive biases, often cause the most challenges in making effective decisions, which ends up making poor decisions. These mental barriers are often subconscious. Cognitive biases present both in individuals and teams often choose options and making decisions. However, there are ways to identify and leap over problems. The most important fact is that to ignore and break off from these barriers such as the personal overconfidence, confirmation bias and anchoring bias.

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3.1 Personal Overconfidence

“Psychologists diligently have shown that human beings are precisely systematically overconfident in making judgments”. (A.Roberto, 2009) Personal overconfidence leads to poor judgment and often faces high-risk decisions for not prepared for any factors. This is more common to high performers who are very self-confident and ready to bear the risk.

3.2 Confirmation Bias

A contractor who possesses a lengthy history of good work performance and a good working relationship can also lead to confirmation bias. In an organization groups decision making encourages confirmation bias.

3.3 Anchoring Bias

Anchoring bias is the term used for the notion that we sometimes allow an initial reference point so it could distort our estimate. (S.Nickerson, 1998) Anchoring bias can occur when negotiating renewal of a contract or negotiating a new contract. Anchoring bias can also occur when the cost of supplying goods or services specified in the contract changes. This misjudge can lead to losses for the organization which can affect the whole managerial management.

3.4 Illusory Correlation

Illusory correlation can be best described as the fact that we sometimes jump into conclusions about the relationship which is between two variables with no relationship exists.(Borchard, 2010). As an example, a manager whom hires someone under him may place too much reliance on a job candidate’s verbal presentation skills, believing there is a strong correlation of these skills with the skills required for excellent job performance. Second rate candidates are more preferably to be selected or hired through this illusory correlation.

4.0 Recommendation

This task helps the student to understand fully on how manager should make effective decision making and it is recommended that managers need to focus on the relevant and irrelevant considerations as well as understand fully the act and consequences arise from the decision made. Besides that, other effective decision making theories are also suggested to improve the quality of management and managerial styles. Those theories are such like:

  • Rational Decision Making
  • Tradeoff
  • Behaviour Decision Making Psychology
  • Resistance to Change

5.0 Conclusion

Eventually there are many roles in an organization which involve ways to handle various situations according to their management. In an organization managers can describe the managerial roles used to familiarize with the management style so they can achieve the goals of the organization.

At this moment the managers can handle or face any barriers by making decision very effectively. In this situation, we should learn how to make decision very carefully and don’t be so overconfidence in order to improve ourselves in a more effective decision making.

Reference

A.Roberto Michael The Art Of Critical Decision Making [Book].- 2009.- p. 56.

Borchard John K. Overcoming Barriers to Effective Decision Making [Book].- [s.l.]: Contract Management, 2010.

Burgaz Assit.Prof.Dr.Berrin Managerial Roles Approach And The Prominent Study Of Henry Mintzberg 1960 [Journal].- 1997.- p. 2.

Cambridge University Press Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary [Book].- [s.l.]: Cambridge, 2008.- Vol. third edition.

David A.Nadier Michael L.Thusman,Nina G.Hatvany Managing Organization[Journal]// Little ,Brown And Company Boston Tronto.- p. 42.

Koontz.H Heinz Weihrich Managerial Roles Approach And The Prominent Study OfHenry Mintzberg 1960 [Journal].- 1997.- p. 10.

McGuire.R ‘Which Management Styleto Use’ [Journal].- London: The Pharmaceutical Journal, 2005.- 275: Vol. 9.

Nwadukwe Uche.C Court Oggele Timinepere Management Styles and Organizational Effectiveness : An Appraisal of Private Enterprises in Eastern Nigeria [Journal].- Nigeria: American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2012.- no.9: Vol. 2.

S.Nickerson Raymond Confirmation Bias : A Libiquitous Phenomenon Occurring InMany Guises [Journal]// Review of Clinical Psychology.- 1998.- p. 58.

Ted Schneider Brian Leslie Efficienc Vs Effectiveness : Defining The Difference[Journal]// Switch Point LLC.- 2008.- p. 1.

Weblite Tesco Homepage [Online]// http://www.tesco.com.my/.- 09 08, 2014.

APPENDIX

Principles and Practices in ManagementPage | 1

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