Analysis Of Human Resource And Scientific Management Management Essay
Scientific management is put forward by Taylor in last century. There is no doubt that the scientific once greatly changed the world. It is highly due to this kind of management that the productivity is able to times increase. Plenty of products and services are produced in relative high efficiency, which dramatically enhance the living standard of people. However, tough it still functions well in some industry such as manufactory, it is not quite proper in current business environment. Staffs now require more respects and dignities and the mere money motivation is not enough to effectively motivate staffs to spare no effort in working. Therefore, a new concept of human relations management which concentrates more on human nature rather than machinery characteristics is high valued currently. In effect, this kind of human relations management is widely used instead of scientific management in most great companies even in some companies belong to manufactory industry.
This essay is divided into three parts. In the first part, the theory of scientific management and human relations management are illustrated. In the second part, some real examples such as UPS, McDonald, and Google are used to concrete demonstrate the implement of these two theories in real world. The finally is the analysis of these two theories in current business environment.
Main Body One: The theory of scientific management and human relations management.
The publication of The Principles of Scientific Management which is written by Frederick Winslow Taylor marks the birth of scientific management. This book introduces the best approach to engage business works via scientific measures in that time of around 1911. (Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management, 2012) It successfully converts management to science.
In the perspective of Taylor, the primary object of management is to maximize the profits of both employees and employers. The only approach to realize this object is to enhance labor productivity. (Frederick W. Taylor: Master of Scientific Management. 2012)That is to say, each worker should make their determination to do work as much as possible every day. However, the majority of workers in effect consciously do exactly the opposite. Taylor considers the hidden reasons as the following three. First, a false thought that a full-speed operation will cause plenty of workers unemployed and further cause huge damages to the entire industry is widely spread among workers. Second, there are too many defects on management systems. They directly
lead workers take a defense measure of demonization in order to protect their best interests. Third, business is also conducted according to personal experiences, which is definitely in a low efficiency.
Therefore, Taylor reckons the scientific management has to take the place of experience principles. Scientific management is set on the base of the accordance of profits of the labor and the capital. He requires each member in the corporation should fully perform the highest efficiency in order to achieve the biggest production and realize the maximum profits.
The significant content of scientific management is chiefly divided into two aspects which are operations management and organization management. The operations management includes four parts. First, the first class workers should be selected for operations. In the perspective of Taylor, each individual possesses a distinct talent and capacity. They all potentially become first-class workers as long as suitable positions are available.(Bell, 2012) After careful observation, Taylor finds that the main feature that differs one from the other is willpower rather than intelligence. Second is the practice of work quota. Originally, the workload for a worker is highly decided by the experience of manager. It obviously lacks scientific foundation. Taylor advocates a scientific measure to identify labor work of an individual. That is to select proper and skillful worker and research their labor time and workload in order to set up a reasonable daily workload. This daily workload is so called work quota. Third is the scientific working measure. A reasonable mixture of operational approaches, serviceable tools, labor time, and leisure time should be paid much attention on(Taylor, 1911). Basing on Taylor’s view, the scientific management means the substitution of scientific knowledge for personal experiences. One of the key measures is to execute standardized management which includes tool standardization, standard operation, standardization of labor movements, and so forth. Only when the standardization is employed, workers are able to use more effective tools and adapt more effective working measures in order to achieve the maximum labor productivity. (Taylor, 1911)Fourth is the implement of incentive salary system. It contains three parts. Above of all, the labor time should be carefully observed and analyzed in order to identify rate of wage. What follows is the differential piece-rate system. That is to say, rate of wage of workers is decided according to the accomplishment of quota. If what a worker real does reaches or even surpasses the quota, a higher rate of wage is offered in order to encourage him. If not, a reduced rate of wage is offered. What is more, sometimes, a yellow card which stands for warning and a punishment of dismissal are employed to
motivate workers. At length, an immediate remuneration should be paid. Rewards have to be provided closely after the finish of established work quota. It will dramatically motivate the workers in production and overcame the workers” social loafing” phenomenon.
Another significant aspect of scientific management is organization management. On one hand, the planning functions and executive functions should be separated. Taylor considers that the labor productivity is not only influenced by labor attitude, labor quota, operational measures, and salary systems but also affected by the organization and conduction of administrative staffs. Therefore, Taylor advocates clearly separate planning apart from executives. (Taylor, 1911) A specially department of planning should be established. The chief task of it is to conduct researches in order to obtain evidences of setting the reasonable work quota and operation measures. On the other hand, functional foremanship is essential. System of functional foreman forms according to specific operation processes and a further divided labor. Taylor advocates set eight foremen (Salimath, 2011) instead of original one foreman. Each foreman is expected merely to bear one management function in order to better educate and supervise workers to accomplish their work, which is significant to achieve a high production rate.
Human relations Management means the conversation management between the enterprise and the employees. This kind of conversation is always flexible, motivate, and not mandatory. The extent of satisfactory and the tendency of supporting the realization of other management objects enhance if human relations management is adapted. The chief duties for managers in human relations management are on one hand to coordinate the relationship between the staffs and the corporation and the relations among staffs; on the other hand to guide to establish a positive and active working environment.
The objects of human relations management are chiefly three. First is to coordinate and improve the internal interpersonal relationship in a particular corporation. Whether the general object of the corporation is able to realize or not is highly due to the accordance of personal objects and corporation objects. When an interaction, interwork, mutual support relationship forms, a relative brilliant business psychology atmosphere is created, which definitely will enhance the working efficiency and become the powerful motive power of corporation development. Second, intrinsic value of staffs should be established. The corporation value is acknowledged and shared by the majority of staffs. It is the common belief and the standard to distinguish right from the wrong. The corporation value is gradually formed by a long term education and cultivation. Therefore, the human relationships management continuously cultivates all staffs to hold the common value and perceptions which will further influence the decisions of corporation operation, leadership style, and the entire manner of work for all staffs. Third is an increased powerful cohesion. Each staff will truly reckons himself belong to his company
internally. Then staffs will unconsciously pay more attention on the honor, reputations, and interests of the corporation.
All in all, the human relations managements concentrate on three aspects: the positive future which is generally identified by its staffs, the constraint system of perfect motivation, and soul contract. Compared with Taylor’s scientific management, human relations management is more hommization.
Main Body Two: The real world examples that relate to scientific management and human relations management.
There are two typical real examples in current business environment that Taylor’s scientific management applies. They are the United Parcel Service and the MacDonald.
United Parcel Service hires more than 150 thousand of staffs. And there are about 9 million packages which are expected to transport to all states of the US and 180 (Soupata, 2009) other countries. Therefore, the administering authority of UPS has to systematically educate their staffs in order to achieve their business target of offering the fastest and most convenient delivers in the industry of mail transportation. Basing on the principle of scientific management, a systematic education for staffs will enhance the working efficiency as high as possible. The industrial engineers have carefully observed and analyzed the required time for each driving route. Besides, several standards are set on business activities such as transportation, pause, and delivering. In effect, these industrial engineers records the required time of nearly all possible activities that happens to a staff of UPS when he is in the work. Time for waiting the red light, time for transportation, time for ringing the buzzer, time for crossing the yard, time for going upstairs, time for breaks of drinking the coffee, and even time for the toilet are key data which are input into computers in order to calculate a specific time standard for each driver every day. Drivers have to strictly follow programs set by industrial engineers. If not, the daily task of delivering 130 pieces (Soupata, 2009) of packages will not be able to successfully accomplish. When these drivers drive close to dispatching stations, they loosen the safe belt, sound the horn, close the engine, pull up the emergency brake, and pour the transmission to first gear. These series of actions which are done for preparing leaving after delivering packages are closed related one another. Then the driver will slip to the ground from the driving cab with right arm tucking file folder, left hand grasping packages, and right hand holding the key to car. They take a look at the address written on the package and remember it in mind. A speed of 3 feet per second (Soupata, 2009)is necessary for a driver to fast go to the doors of houses where their clients live. The time of finding for the doorbell is even
saved instead by a direct knock on the door. After the delivery, they have to finish the work of entering certain data and information of this deliver on the way back to their cars.
Basing on a series of verbs that clearly show how exactly a driver of UPS performs in his work; the labor productivity is to the most degree enhanced. It is closely related to the chief issue of increasing labor productivity for scientific management. What is more, the research conducted by industrial engineers on time and the use of computer in management fully identify the UPS has successfully replace the traditional experiencing management to advanced scientific management.
Another typical example of scientific management is McDonald which is the world’s biggest fast food company. It is highly due to the standardization principle of scientific management that McDonald is able to provide a high efficiency and convenient service which is generally view as one of the biggest competition advantages.
Actually, McDonald Corporation has conducted a careful motion study to nearly all behaviors such as making hamburgers, frying potato chips, treating costumers, and cleaning tables advanced for the sake of determining the best way to conduct these behaviors. All standards are collected and edited in a handbook which is used to guide behaviors of managers and common staffs of each sub branch.
The standards on supply of McDonald chiefly concentrate on four aspects. First, the process of making food is improved. Semi-finished products are heated or fried in high temperature, which reduces the production time of food. Second, the replenishment of drink is improved. Several kinds of beverage outlets are set in order to make sure certain quantity of drink flow to the bottle accurately without the nursing and waiting of working staffs. It definitely increases the speed of servicing for staffs. Third is to make overall managements. Business activities in the surrounding areas are referenced in order to accurately estimate peak crowd and prepare enough staffs advanced. Fourth is enhanced quality of food. Raw materials of McDonald are in the same and strict standard. All kinds of nutrition are scientifically matched.
The standard of ordering chiefly concentrates on three aspects. Above of all, special staffs are expected to integrate the order, the collecting of cash and the supplement of food together. All middle steps of information transmitting are eliminated, which both saves the costs and enhances the service efficiency. (Bock, 2009) Besides, the menu is simple. Costumer’s time is to the biggest degree saved, which unconsciously increase the efficiency of making effective selections for consumers. In addition, several kinds of set meal are provided to enhance the efficiency and expand the sales.
Apart from the establishment of all kinds of standards, McDonald always picks up the first class workers. When staffs enter McDonald, a systematically professional training is forced. They are taught to keep a good attitude of servicing. Smiles and a positive and active conversation to consumers are essential. Besides, all kinds of services such as holding a birthday party for children should be provided friendly. What is more essential is the immediate and accurate service, which causes a reduced time on waiting in the queue and getting food.
The separation of planning from executives is also stressed by Taylor in his scientific management. On one hand, the planning of McDonald is conducted by corporation headquarters. Headquarters of McDonald is responsible for setting all detailed programs, rules, and regulations for all outlets spreading around the world. On the other hand, managers and common staffs of all sub branches of McDonald should follow the established standardization. It means no innovation is allowed in management and specific tasks. Professional education and training should also be strengthened in order to guarantee the accurate understanding and the thorough implement of rules and regulations.
As to human relations management, Google Corporation is a brilliant example. As is known to all, Google is a great Internet company and more and more people are reliable to services provided by Google. Plenty of fresh ideas and services are put forward by Google continuously, which benefit costumer a lot and attract an enhanced quantity of talent people to work for Google. Besides wonderful services, the human relations management is also a significant factor that makes Google world famous.
The work tasks in Google are tough and challenging and staffs of Google are almost so called talents. Therefore, they require a better working environment and Google cleverly satisfies them. In Google Corporation, there is no sign of traditional scientific management and even no sign of work. In effect, some people are in delightful and casual conversations, some people are drinking coffee, while some people are even playing table tennis. There seems no one actually on the work which is totally unacceptable according to scientific management. However, the free, innovational, and democratic working atmosphere also creates a high efficiency and a striking productivity. It is so called human relations management. Staffs of Google satisfy with the relaxed external atmosphere. The fully respect of their labor dramatically and effectively motivate them to do their best to accomplish their working objectives.
Main Body Three: The analysis of these two theories in current business environment.
In my analysis, the Taylor’s scientific management causes some consideration of optimization of labor for the society. This kind of consideration always continues since then.
In current business environment, the human relations management which concentrates more on staffs is more proper. The satisfactory of employees are foundations and preconditions of the satisfactory of customers. The human relations management in human management sets a respect of personal independence and personal dignity (Ratha, 2011) as the precondition of management. The cohesion for staffs to their company is enhanced due to the decentralization of management. The potential capacity, activity, and spirit of innovation are inspired internally deeply in each employee. This truly comfortable mood will unconsciously and continuously encourage staffs to initiate new and excellent performances. Companies that adapts the human relations management in human management are more likely to achieve compared advantages in the aspect of human resource management, which will to a large degree make them achieve a great power in the current bitter market competition.
Compared with traditional so called scientific management, human relations management requires more high quality and quick witted staffs. Human relations management focuses on a kind of intelligence operation model rather than an assembly line mode which praised highly by Taylor. Both managers and common staffs are required to get a well knowledge on modern science and master various kinds of techniques in order to be capable to handle with tough problems dependently in the business environment of information. That is to say, staffs under human relations management should have knowledge, master information, adapt to external environment, and be awarded certain power. Both scientific management and human relations management stress on the significant of education and knowledge. However, human relations management concentrates more on an active learning rather than passive learning forced by managers according to scientific management.( Rose,2005) New skills are expected to be effectively learned by staffs actively in order to successfully accomplish certain tough tasks. What is more, intersect education will make staffs under human relations management possess a broad technical ability which is of great use on taking advantages of open information environment. In effect, the core and most precious treasures are skillful staffs themselves for companies which employ human relations management. In addition, human relations management also emphasize on effective motivations. However, compared to scientific management, this kind of motivation is more uneconomic. That is to say, compared with simple money motivation, staffs in human relations management pay more attention on equal treat, mutual respect, awarded power of employing their own wisdom on work, and the self-fulfilling sense of accomplishment. These will bring more satisfaction than merely money brings them.
Human relations management indeed has lots of advantages. However, it is not right to one-sided say he human relations management is more proper in current business environment compared to scientific management. In effect, in most companies belong to manufactory industry; the scientific management is widely employed especially in developing or less developed countries where the mechanization is not quite advanced.(Myers, 2011) To some degree, in the perspective of scientific management, staffs are more considered as machines which have a reduced decision-making power. And in the perspective of human relations management, staffs are considered as people who are fully respected. What is more, theoretically, a reduced profit is created by mere human labor compared with innovation and technology advance. Therefore, scientific management will be replaced by human relations management gradually.
This essay has carefully introduced the two typical theories which are currently widely employed in today’s business environment. They are respectively the scientific management and human relations management. Real examples of UPS and McDonald are employed in order to clearly demonstrate the machinery behaviors for staffs working under this kind of scientific management. No self discovery is available in those companies and each one is able to be replaced. All these are quite easily to arouse negative motions of staffs even though they are forced to hang a smile on their face when services are provided. However, the Google who adapts the human relations management represents the model of future enterprises. Human relations management makes it easy to display the strengths without constraints, which is one of the significant reasons that lead Google gain a wide reputation. As the technology the economic develops, the human relations management will be adapted by more companies and the implement of Taylor’s management will be reduced.Order Now