Company Overview Of Bajaj Auto Ltd Management Essay

In this project report, I have used the different concepts of management research to study Bajaj Auto ltd., Indias largest and the world’s 4th largest two- and three-wheeler maker. Bajaj is one of India’s ten largest companies in terms of market capitalization and is among the top five in terms of annual sales revenues. Management Research Methods is a comprehensive guide to the design and conduct of research in management-related disciplines such as organisational behaviour, human resource management, industrial relations, and the general field of management.

The automobile industry in India is the eleventh largest in the world with an annual production of approximately 2 million units, the 2nd largest two wheeler market in the world and the 4th largest commercial vehicle market in the world. India is expected to overtake China as the world’s fastest growing car market in terms of the number of units sold and the automotive industry is one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in India . The industry has grown at a CAGR of 14% p.a over the last 5 years, with sales of 9 million vehicles in 2005-06 .Because of its large market (India has a population of 1.1 billion; the second largest in the world), a low base of car ownership (7 per 1,000 people) and a surging economy, India has become a huge attraction for auto manufacturers around the world.

The Indian two-wheeler industry has come long way since its humble beginning in 1948 when Bajaj Auto started importing and selling Vespa Scooters in India. Since then, the customer preferences have changed in favour of motorcycles and gearless scooterettes that score higher on technology, fuel economy and aesthetic appeal, at the expense of metal-bodied geared scooters and mopeds. These changes in customer preferences have had an impact on fortunes of the players. The erstwhile leaders have either perished or have significantly lost market share, whereas new leaders have emerged.

Rising income levels, reducing excise duties, higher loan tenure and loan-to-value offered by the financing companies have all fuelled the growth of two-wheeler sales in the country. Besides, mounting traffic chaos and limited parking space has also increased the demand for two-wheelers from households that can afford or actually do own a car. Furthermore, with increasing women working population, changing social philosophy and broad-mindedness, the penetration of two-wheelers that is currently at abysmally low level is expected to increase significantly going forward.

India is the second largest producer and manufacturer of two-wheelers in the world. It stands next only to Japan and China in terms of the number of two-wheelers produced and domestic sales respectively. Indian two-wheeler industry has got spectacular growth in the last few years. Indian two-wheeler industry had a small beginning in the early 50’s. The Automobile Products of India (API) started manufacturing scooters in the country.

Bikes are a major segment of Indian two wheeler industry, the other two being scooters and mopeds. Indian companies are among the largest two-wheeler manufacturers in the world. In the initial stages, the scooter segment was dominated by API; it was later overtaken by Bajaj Auto. Although various government and private enterprises entered the fray for scooters, the only new player that has lasted till today is LML.

The motorcycle segment was initially dominated by Enfield 350cc bikes and Escorts 175cc bike. The two-wheeler market was opened to foreign competition in the mid-80s. And the then market leaders – Escorts and Enfield – were caught unaware by the onslaught of the 100cc bikes of the four Indo-Japanese joint ventures. With the availability of fuel efficient low power bikes, demand swelled, resulting in Hero Honda – then the only producer of four stroke bikes (100cc category), gaining a top slot.

The first Japanese motorcycles were introduced in the early eighties. TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda brought in the first two-stroke and four-stroke engine motorcycles respectively. These two players initially started with assembly of CKD kits, and later on progressed to indigenous manufacturing. The industry saw a sudden growth in the 80s. The industry witnessed a steady growth of 14% leading to a peak volume of 1.9mn vehicles in 1990.

In 1990, the entire automobile industry saw a drastic fall in demand. This resulted in a decline of 15% in 1991 and 8% in 1992, resulting in a production loss of 0.4mn vehicles. Barring Hero Honda, all the major producers suffered from recession in FY93 and FY94. Hero Honda showed a marginal decline in 1992.The reasons for recession in the sector were the incessant rise in fuel prices, high input costs and reduced purchasing power due to significant rise in general price level and credit crunch in consumer financing. Factors like increased production in 1992, due to new entrants coupled with the recession in the industry resulted in company either reporting losses or a fall in profits.

India is the 2nd largest two-wheeler market in the world with a size of over Rs 100,000 mn. The total sale of two wheelers in India has touched a figure of ~7.9 mn units by March, 2007, up 11.4% from the previous fiscal figure of ~7.1 mn units. Production during the period reached 10.8 mn units, entailing a demand ratio of ~72%. In terms of sales and market share the major players of the industry are Hero Honda , Bajaj Auto and TVS Motors. Other players include Kinetic Motors, Yamaha Motor and Honda Motorcycle and Scooter India (HMSI). The composition of the industry consists of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds. Over the past decade, there has been a consumer preferential shift from mopeds to scooters and now motorcycles. On account of the shift, the motorcycle segment dominates the two wheeler industry with a market share of close to 80%. The motorcycle segment is further sub divided into 3 classes, starting from the entry/economy class (Rs 30,000 – Rs 40,000), executive class (Rs 40,000 – Rs 50,000) and the premium class (>Rs 50,000).

The motorcycle segment is primarily led by Hero Honda with a market share of ~59% followed by Bajaj Auto (~18%), HMSI (~9%), TVS Motors (~7%) and Yamaha (~5%). On the other hand the scooter segment is led by HMSI which has a dominant share of ~63% followed by TVS Motors (16%) and Hero Honda (~14%). When it comes to the moped segment, it is primarily dominated by TVS Motors with a market share of ~100%.

Premium Segment: If we analyze the motorcycle sub-segments then it would be visible that Bajaj Auto has a significant presence in the premium segment with a market share of ~55% followed by Hero Honda (~22%), TVS Motors (~13%) and HMSI (10%).

Executive Segment: Hero Honda dominates this segment with a market share of ~70% followed by Bajaj Auto (20%), HMSI (~6%) and TVS Motors (1%). This segment retrieves higher revenues from the rural areas, which are less dependence on finance; therefore comparatively it is among the best performing segments

Economy Segment: This segment is a strong foothold for Bajaj Auto which has a market share of ~45% followed by Hero Honda (~34%) and TVS Motors (~24%). This is the most competitive segment as all the 3 players relatively have a higher presence in the same. But this segment continues to be the worst hit due to the credit unavailability and global slowdown. The industry has shown a CAGR of ~15% from FY04-FY07 on account of finance availability from PSU Banks and private banks like ICICI Bank. But from FY08 – FY09 YTD the industry has shown a degrowth as most of the banks reduced their exposure in the auto finance domain given the unfavorable macro economic situation.

The 2-wheeler industry demand pattern has followed a positive cycle by showing growth during the 3- year period FY05-FY07 end. FY08 onwards the segment has seen a contraction in demand due to the challenging macro- economic situation coupled with higher raw material costs, which inflated the prices of the 2 wheelers followed by tight liquidity and credit non availability.

FY05 was an exceptional year for the industry, which witnessed strong demand given that the 2-wheeler sales/production ratio was at 95%. The 2-wheeler industry showed a growth of 3.6% in FY06 with a realistic demand as the sales/production ratio was at 85%. Strong demand percolated into FY07 with the sales/production ratio maintained at 85%.

During FY07, the industry witnessed a sharp growth of 11.2% with sales at 7.15 mn units. But this brought an end to the 3-year positive cycle as the industry sale volumes showed a dip of 5.1% at 6.8 mn units, albeit the demand ratio was at 85% for the 3rd consecutive year. Industry volumes continue its downward trend in FY09 with YTD-09 sales down by 6.3%. The year FY09 was highlighted with unfavourable macroeconomics, lack of credit availability and production cuts.

The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries, spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers), home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, insurance, travel and finance.

The group’s flagship company, Bajaj Auto, is ranked as the world’s fourth largest two- and three- wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known across several countries in Latin America, Africa, Middle East, South and South East Asia.

Founded in 1926, at the height of India’s movement for independence from the British, the group has an illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today, are often traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture.His son, Kamalnayan Bajaj, then 27, took over the reins of business in 1942. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities.

The present Chairman of the group, Rahul Bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from Rs.72 million to Rs.46.16 billion (USD 936 million), its product portfolio has expanded from one to and the brand has found a global market. He is one of India’s most distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit.

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Bajaj Auto is a major Indian automobile manufacturer. It is India’s largest and the world’s 4th largest two and three-wheeler maker. It is based in Pune, Maharashtra, with plants in Akurdi and Chakan (Pune),Waluj (near Aurangabad) and Pantnagar in Uttaranchal. Bajaj Auto makes and exports motorscooters, motorcycles and the auto rickshaw.

The Forbes Global 2000 list for the year 2005 ranked Bajaj Auto at 1946. Over the last decade, the company has successfully changed its image from a scooter manufacturer to a two wheeler manufacturer. Its product range encompasses scooterettes, scooters and motorcycles. Its real growth in numbers has come in the last four years after successful introduction of a few models in the motorcycle segment.

The company is headed by Rahul Bajaj who is worth more than US$1.5 billion. Bajaj Auto came into existence on November 29, 1945 as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited. It started off by selling imported two- and three-wheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained license from the Government of India to manufacture two and three-wheelers and it went public in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle.

In 1977, it managed to produce and sell 100,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj in Aurangabad. In 1986, it managed to produce and sell 500,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1995, it rolled out its ten millionth vehicle and produced and sold 1 million vehicles in a year.

The Bajaj Group is amongst the top 10 business houses in India. Its footprint stretches over a wide range of industries, spanning automobiles (two-wheelers and three-wheelers), home appliances, lighting, iron and steel, insurance, travel and finance.

The group’s flagship company, Bajaj Auto, is ranked as the world’s fourth largest two- and three- wheeler manufacturer and the Bajaj brand is well-known across several countries in Latin America, Africa, Middle East, South and South East Asia.

Founded in 1926, at the height of India’s movement for independence from the British, the group has an illustrious history. The integrity, dedication, resourcefulness and determination to succeed which are characteristic of the group today, are often traced back to its birth during those days of relentless devotion to a common cause. Jamnalal Bajaj, founder of the group, was a close confidant and disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. In fact, Gandhiji had adopted him as his son. This close relationship and his deep involvement in the independence movement did not leave Jamnalal Bajaj with much time to spend on his newly launched business venture.

His son, Kamalnayan Bajaj, then 27, took over the reins of business in 1942. He too was close to Gandhiji and it was only after Independence in 1947, that he was able to give his full attention to the business. Kamalnayan Bajaj not only consolidated the group, but also diversified into various manufacturing activities.

The present Chairman of the group, Rahul Bajaj, took charge of the business in 1965. Under his leadership, the turnover of the Bajaj Auto the flagship company has gone up from Rs.72 million to Rs.46.16 billion (USD 936 million), its product portfolio has expanded from one to and the brand has found a global market. He is one of India’s most distinguished business leaders and internationally respected for his business acumen and entrepreneurial spirit.

Since 1986, there is a technical tie-up of Bajaj Auto Ltd. with Kawasaki Heavy Industries of Japan to manufacture state-of-art range of latest two-wheelers in India. The JV has already given the Indian market the KB series, 4S and 4S Champion, Boxer, the Caliber series, and Wind125.

Kawasaki Heavy Industries is a Fortune 500 company with a turnover of USD 10 billion (Rs. 45,840 crore). It has crafted new technologies for more than hundred years. The technologies of KHI have redefined space systems, aircrafts, jet engines, ships, locomotive, energy plants, automation system, construction machinery, and of course high reliability two-wheelers.

KHI has given the world its legendary series of 600-1200cc Ninja and 1600 Vulcan bikes. Straight from its design boards, the Kawasaki Bajaj Eliminator, India’s first real cruiser bike, redefines the pleasure of “biking” in looks as well as performance.

‘Inspiring Confidence,’ the tagline, has build up confidence, through excitement engineering, not only to domestic consumers but also internationally. Established just eight decades back in 1926 by Jamnalal Bajaj, the company has been vested with India’s largest exporter of two and three wheelers, 196,710 units in 2004-05, a great 26 per cent jump over the previous year.

Bajaj Auto Ltd. sales have increased by approximately 21 per cent in the year 2004-05, which exceeds Rs 65.4 billion, a record in the history of the company. The gross operating profit stands at Rs. 9.3 billion, again a record. The profits after tax of the BAL are close to Rs. 7.7 billion, and the pre-tax return on operating capital is at an impressive 80 per cent.

The strength of the company is its quality products, excellence in engineering and design, and its ability to delight the customers. The Pulsar, introduced in November 2004, is continually dominating the premium segment of the motorcycle market, helping to maintain the market superiority. Discover DTSi, one more successful bike on Indian roads, is in the ‘value’ segment of the motorcycle market. It incorporates a high degree of power with fuel efficiency of a 100 cc motorcycle.

BAL is committed to prevention of pollution, continual improvement of environment performance and compliance with all environmental legislation and regulations. They always believe in providing the customer ‘value for money’ and keeps an special eye upon quality, safety, productivity, cost and delivery.

Bajaj Auto Ltd. is one among India’s top ten companies in terms of market capitalization and among the top five in terms of annual turnover.

The company started producing scooters in the year 1961 and followed three-wheelers production in 1962. Its collaboration with Piaggio expired in 1971 and since then, their scooters and three-wheelers are being sold with the brand name “BAJAJ”.

Maharashtra Scooters Ltd., a Company with 24% equity participation by the Company and 27% participation from Maharashtra State Government’s Western Maharashtra Development Corp. was formed in the year 1975 under the “Horizontal transfer of technology” policy.

The first production unit is located at Satara, Maharashtra. The unit continues to collect scooters from CKDs supplied by the Company. These scooters are marketed through the Company’s distribution network and under the Company’s brand name.

In 1984, the second production plant was set up at Aurangabad, Maharashtra. This plant started scooter production in 1986, three-wheeler production in 1987 and scooterettes and motorcycle facilities were commissioned in 1990 & 1991 respectively.

Today, the company has become a market leader with annual production in excess of 1.35 million units which was about 4000 units in 1961. These days, Bajaj Auto Ltd. has started offering products in all segments (mopeds & scooterettes, scooters, motorcycles, three wheelers).

Bajaj Auto is a major Indian automobile manufacturer. It is India’s largest and the world’s 4th largest two- and three-wheeler maker[citation needed]. It is based in Pune, Maharashtra, with plants in Akurdi and Chakan (Pune),Waluj (near Aurangabad) and Pantnagar in Uttaranchal. Bajaj Auto makes and exports motorscooters, motorcycles and the auto rickshaw.

The Forbes Global 2000 list for the year 2005 ranked Bajaj Auto at 1946.[1]

Over the last decade, the company has successfully changed its image from a scooter manufacturer to a two wheeler manufacturer. Its product range encompasses scooterettes, scooters and motorcycles. Its real growth in numbers has come in the last four years after successful introduction of a few models in the motorcycle segment.

The company is headed by Rahul Bajaj who is worth more than US$1.5 billion.[2]

Bajaj Auto came into existence on November 29, 1945 as M/s Bachraj Trading Corporation Private Limited. It started off by selling imported two- and three-wheelers in India. In 1959, it obtained license from the Government of India to manufacture two- and three-wheelers and it went public in 1960. In 1970, it rolled out its 100,000th vehicle. In 1977, it managed to produce and sell 100,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1985, it started producing at Waluj in Aurangabad. In 1986, it managed to produce and sell 500,000 vehicles in a single financial year. In 1995, it rolled out its ten millionth vehicle and produced and sold 1 million vehicles in a year.

The demerger of Bajaj Auto Ltd into three separate corporate entities-Bajaj Finserv Ltd (BFL), Bajaj Auto Ltd (BAL), and Bajaj Holdings and Investment Ltd (BHIL)-was completed with the shares listing on May 26, 2008.[4]

In November 2007, Bajaj Auto acquired 14.5% stake in KTM Power Sports AG (holding company of KTM Sportmotocycles AG). The two companies have signed a cooperation deal, by which KTM will provide the know-how for joint development of the water-cooled four-stroke 125 and 250cc engines, and Bajaj will take over the distribution of KTM products in India and some other Southeast Asian nations.[5] Bajaj said it is open to taking a majority stake in KTM and is also looking at other takeover opportunities. On the 8th of January 2008, Managing Director Rajiv Bajaj confirmed the collaboration and announced his intention to gradually increase Bajaj’s stake in KTM to 25%.[6]

Bajaj Auto Finance Ltd offers schemes that are specially formulated with you in mind, and go easy on your wallet. All schemes are: Completely transparent with absolutely no hidden costs or charges.Offer the lowest interest rates.

Congratulations on having acquired your new Bajaj vehicle. Now, let us help you to look after it so that you continue to own it proudly for several years of faithful, trouble-free performance.

Browse this section for our simple maintenance tips and recommended service schedules. Locate the Bajaj service station closest to you.We will help you get the maximum value for your money through our troubleshooting tips.

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SWOT Analysis – Baja Auto:

Let’s analyze the position of Bajaj in the current market set-up, evaluating its strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities available.

fragmented and are extremely critical for this industry since most of the component work is outsourced. Proper supply chain management is a costly yet critical need.

  • Buyer’s Bargaining Power: Buyers in automobile market have more choice to choose from and the increasing competition is driving the bargaining power of customers uphill. With more models to choose from in almost all categories, the market forces have empowered the buyers to a large extent.
  • Industry Rivalry: The industry rivalry is extremely high with any product being matched in a few months by competitor. This instinct of the industry is primarily driven by the technical capabilities acquired over years of gestation under the technical collaboration with international players.
  • Substitutes: There is no perfect substitute to this industry. Also, if there is any substitute to a two-wheeler, Bajaj has presence in it. Cars, which again are a mode of transport, do never directly compete or come in consideration while selecting a two-wheeler, cycles do never even compete with the low entry level moped for even this choice comes at a comparatively higher economic potential.

    Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers (Harland, 1996). Supply Chain Management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption

    Distribution Strategy: questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared); delivery scheme, e.g., direct shipment, pool point shipping, cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping; mode of transportation, e.g., motor carrier, including truckload, LTL, parcel; railroad; intermodal transport, including TOFC (trailer on flatcar) and COFC (container on flatcar); ocean freight; airfreight; replenishment strategy (e.g., pull, push or hybrid); and transportation control (e.g., owner-operated, private carrier, common carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL).

    Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities: The above activities must be well coordinated in order to achieve the lowest total logistics cost. Trade-offs may increase the total cost if only one of the activities is optimized. For example, full truckload (FTL) rates are more economical on a cost per pallet basis than less than truckload (LTL) shipments. If, however, a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs, there will be an increase in inventory holding costs which may increase total logistics costs. It is therefore imperative to take a systems approach when planning logistical activities. These trade-offs are key to developing the most efficient and effective Logistics and SCM strategy.

    Information: Integration of processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, potential collaboration, etc.

    Inventory Management: Quantity and location of inventory, including raw materials, work-in-progress (WIP) and finished goods.

    Cash-Flow: Arranging the payment terms and methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain. The way the supply chain is designed has significant implications on companies’ working capital, and can have important consequences especially for leveraged and distressed companies.

    Supply chain management is a cross-function approach including managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the end-consumer.

    As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other entities that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively. The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer demand, while reducing management control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply chain partners led to the creation of supply chain management concepts. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory visibility and the velocity of inventory movement.

    Several models have been proposed for understanding the activities required to manage material movements across organizational and functional boundaries. SCOR is a supply chain management model promoted by the Supply Chain Council. Another model is the SCM Model proposed by the Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF). Supply chain activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational levels.

    The focus of BAL off late has been on providing the best of the class models at competitive prices. Most of the Bajaj models come loaded with the latest features within the price band acceptable by the market. BAL has been the pioneer in stretching competition into providing latest features in the price segment by updating the low price bikes with the latest features like disk-brakes, anti-skid technology and dual suspension, etc.

    BAL adopted different marketing strategies for different models, few of them are discussed below: –

    Kawasaki 4S – First attempt by bajaj to make a mark in the motorcycle segment. The target customer was the father in the family but the target audience of the commercial was the son in the family. The time at which Kawasaki 4S was launched Hero Honda was the market leader in fuel-efficient bikes and Yamaha in the performance bikes.

    Boxer – It took the reins from where the Kawasaki 4S left. Target was the rural population and the price sensitive customer. Boxer marketed as a value for money bike with great mileage. Larger wheelbase, high ground clearance and high mileage were the selling factors and it was in direct competition to Hero Honda Dawn and Suzuki MX100.

    Caliber – The focus for the Caliber 115 was youth. And though Bajaj made the bike look bigger and feel more powerful than its predecessor (characteristics that will attract the average, 25-plus, executive segment bike buyer), its approach towards advertising is even more radically different this time around. Bajaj gave the mandate for the ad campaign to Lowe, picking them from the clique of three agencies that do promos for the company (the other two being Leo Burnett and O&M). Going by the initial market response, the campaign was clearly a hit in the 5-10 years age bracket. So, the teaser campaign and the emphasis on the Caliber 115 being a `Hoodibabaa’ bike placed it as a trendy motorcycle for the college-goers and the 25 plus executives both at the same time.

    Pulsar – Pulsar was launched in direct competition to the Hero Honda’s ‘CBZ’ model in 150 cc plus segment. The campaign beared innovative punch line of “Definitely Male” positioning Pulsar to be a masculine-looking model with an appeal to the performance sensitive customers. The Pulsar went one step ahead of Hero Honda’s ‘CBZ’ and launched a twin variant of Pulsar with the 180 cc model. The model was a great success and has already crossed 1 million mark in sales.

    Discover – The same DTSI technology of Pulsar extended to 125 cc Discover was a great success. With this, Bajaj could realize its success riding on the back of technological innovation rather than the joint venture way followed by competitors to gain market share.

    BAL now is taking a leaf out of the FMCG business model to take the company to greater heights.Bajaj has kicked off a project to completely restructure the company’s retail network and create multiple sales channels.

    Over the next few months, the company will set-up separate sales channels for every segment of its business and consumers. Bajaj Auto’s entire product portfolio, from the entry-level to the premium, is being sold by the same dealers. The restructuring will involve separate dealer networks catering to the urban and rural markets as well as its three-wheeler and premium bikes segments. Bajaj Auto also plans to set-up an independent network of dealers for the rural areas. The needs of financing, selling, distribution and even after-sales service are completely different in the rural areas and do not makes sense for city dealers to control this. The company also plans to set-up exclusive dealerships for its three-wheeler products instead of having them sold through an estimated 300 of its existing dealers.

    Cash is strength: Bajaj Auto has been sitting on a cash pile for over five years now. Over the next couple of years, competition in the two-wheeler market is set to intensify. TVS Motors and Hero Honda are on a product expansion binge. To fight this battle and retain its hard-earned market share in the motorcycle segment, Bajaj Auto will need its cash muscle. A look at its own story over the past five years provides valuable insight.

    Delisting worry: What is worrying is that there is an idea to delist the investment company (also an indirect indication that it would be listed initially). This would be closing the valve of equitable ownership distribution.

    There is a hint of a buyback of shares of the investment company as this is the only way it can be delisted. The company would not be short of cash to put through such a buyback.

    Factors such as low valuation, low trading interest and the need to provide shareholders may be cited as plausible reasons for the buyback.

    Stake for Kawasaki: Bajaj Auto’s attempt to vest the surplus cash in a separate company may be a prelude to offering a stake to Kawasaki of Japan in the equity of the automobile company. The latter has been playing an increasingly active role in Bajaj’s recent models, and its brand name is also more visible in Bajaj bikes than in the past.

    Better value proposition: Shareholder interests may be better served if the cash is retained to pursue growth in a tough market. This would also obviate the need to fork-out fancy sums as stamp duty to the government for the de-merger. A combination of a large one-time dividend and a regular buyback program through the tender route may offer better value. A strategic stake for Kawasaki would only positively influence the stock’s valuation.

    Strategies for the Overseas Markets: Bajaj Auto looks at external markets primarily with three strategies: –

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    Earlier, most of the products that Bajaj exported were scooters and some motorcycles. However, in its target markets, like in India, the shift was towards motorcycles. With the expansion in Bajaj’s own range to almost five-six platforms of motorcycles, it had a better offering to export, also the reason for its stronger showing. For the last fiscal, 60 per cent of its exports were two-wheelers and the rest three-wheelers. Of the two-wheeler exports, close to 90 per cent were motorcycles.

    Bajaj has identified certain key markets, which hold potential. Its first overseas office established at the Jebel Ali free trade zone has been the focal point for exports to middle Africa and the Saharan nations. Egypt and Iran also continue to be strong markets for Bajaj.

    The other market, which would be a focus area, is South America, where the company feels it is fairly well represented in most countries, except in Brazil, the largest market. The company recently participated in a large auto exhibition in Brazil and found good consumer acceptance to products like Pulsar and Wind 125.The other focus area is the ASEAN nations, which constitute the third biggest consumer of two-wheelers. The biggest among them is Indonesia, where Bajaj distributors are looking to introduce eco-friendly four-stroke auto rickshaws. But two-wheeler market requires great deal of effort from BAL. Everybody is there with Honda leading the show. There’s Suzuki, Kawasaki and some Korean and Chinese models. BAL should look at the right product mix for two-wheelers. Bajaj’s Pulsar model has taken off well there. It also wants to develop a new step-through model for the Indonesian market, but for now it will create a base there with its motorcycle models.

    Bajaj has also made a beginning by selling bikes in the Philippines branded in the name of its technical partner, Kawasaki. The two signed an MoU in February. Kawasaki, a large multi-product conglomerate, only makes high-end bikes and does not have sub-200cc models. Kawasaki is marketing the new model, Wind 125, developed by both companies, in the Philippines. The Bajaj-developed models, Caliber and Byke, which is a fuel-efficient bike, are also being distributed by Kawasaki. This is a good beginning strategically for Kawasaki to evince interest in Bajaj products for markets which can still buy less than 150 cc.

    Managing Change in Organisation

    The rate of organizational change has not slowed in recent years, and may even be increasing. The rapid and continual innovation in technology is driving changes to organizational systems and processes. Witness the startling growth of the internet, which is enabling much faster and easier access to knowledge. Add to this the increased expectations of employees as they move more freely between organizations. And, of course, globalization has seen the tearing down of previous international market barriers. It is no wonder that relentless change has become a fact of organizational life.

    In spite of the importance and permanence of organizational change, most change initiatives fail to deliver the expected organizational benefits. This failure occurs for a number of reasons. You might recognize one or more of these in your organization.

    Failed organizational change initiatives leave in their wake cynical and burned out employees, making the next change objective even more difficult to accomplish. It should come as no surprise that the fear of managing change and its impacts is a leading cause of anxiety in managers.

    Understanding your organization and matching the initiative to your organization’s real needs (instead of adopting the latest fad) is the first step in making your change program successful. Beyond that, recognize that bringing about organizational change is fundamentally about changing people’s behaviour in certain desired ways. As is apparent from the above list of reasons for failure, lack of technical expertise is not the main impediment to successful change. Leadership and management skills, such as visioning, prioritizing, planning, providing feedback and rewarding success, are key factors in any successful change initiative.

    The following model has been developed by Gallup to understand the importance of a fit between a person & the organization he is working to the performance of the organization. According to this model, stock price of a company depends upon its sustainable growth which in turn depends upon engaged customers, engaged employees & how they are managed. So, it becomes imperative to find the right fit between the – would be employee to the organization.

    Marketing environment consists of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers. The marketing environment offers both opportunities and threats. The environment continues to change rapidly. The marketing environment is made up of Micro-environment and Macro-environment.

    The Micro environment consists of the actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers. These actors are: the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors and publics.

    The Macro environment consists of the larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment. These forces are: demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural forces.

    Marketing

    Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goals and services to create to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. Marketing management has the task of influencing the level, timing and composition of demand in a way that will help the organization achieve its objectives, Marketing management is a essentially demand management.

    Marketing concept and tools distinguishes eight different sates of demand and the corresponding tasks facing marketing managers. Marketing managers cope with these tasks by carrying out marketing research, planning, implementation and control. Within marketing planning, marketers must make decisions on target markets, market positioning, product and development, pricing channels of distribution, physical distribution, communication and promotion.

    Strategic Market Planning

    Strategic planning is managerial process of developing and maintaining a viable fit between the organization’s objective and resources and its changing market opportunities. The aim of strategic planning is to shape and reshape the company’s businesses and products so that they combine to produce satisfactory profits and growth.

    Philip Kotler. Concepts addressed include ‘generic’ strategies and strategies for pricing, distribution, promotion, advertising and market segmentation. Factors such as market penetration, market share, profit margins, budgets, financial analysis, capital investment, government actions, demographic changes, emerging technology and cultural trends are also addressed.

    There are two major components to our marketing strategy:

    In today’s very competitive marketplace a strategy that insures a consistent approach to offering your product or service in a way that will outsell the competition is critical. However, in concert with defining the marketing strategy you must also have a well defined methodology for the day to day process of implementing it. It is of little value to have a strategy if you lack either the resources or the expertise to implement it.

    In the process of creating a marketing strategy you must consider many factors. Of those many factors, some are more important than others. Because each strategy must address some unique considerations, it is not reasonable to identify ‘every’ important factor at a generic level. However, many are common to all marketing strategies. Some of the more critical are described below.

    You begin the creation of your strategy by deciding what the overall objective of your enterprise should be. In general this falls into one of four categories:

    A DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY is one of creating a product or service that is perceived as being unique “throughout the industry”. The emphasis can be on brand image, proprietary technology, special features, superior service, a strong distributor network or other aspects that might be specific to your industry. This

    A FOCUS STRATEGY may be the most sophisticated of the generic strategies, in that it is a more ‘intense’ form of either the cost leadership or differentiation strategy. It is designed to address a “focused” segment of the marketplace, product form or cost management process and is usually employed when it isn’t appropriate to attempt an ‘across the board’ application of cost leadership or differentiation. It is based on the concept of serving a particular target in such an exceptional manner, that others cannot compete. Usually this means addressing a substantially smaller market segment than others in the industry, but because of minimal competition, profit margins can be very high.

    10a,Conservation of energy:

    As a part of continuing efforts to conserve various resources, following steps were taken to conserve energy Electrical energy saving was achieved by installation of localised portable air compressors at various shops during low production periods, energy efficient screw compressors by replacing CPT compressors, real timer electrical circuits installed to switch off electrical equipments during lunch / tea breaks and during non utilisation of production equipments, fan less cooling towers for AC plants, high efficiency reflector fittings with electronic ballasts tube lights, use of LED & CFT street lights, replacement of 350 W air circulators by 180 W air circulators, 150 W MH lamps instead of 250 W HPSV lamps at shop floors, Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) for ASUs in paint shops, washing machine blowers, compressors etc and rationalisation of pumping hours of main pump as well as booster pump of pump house.

    Water saving was achieved by replacement of old under-ground water pipes with aboveground pipes to avoid water wastage through leakage, drip irrigation system for gardening, installation of localised fresh water storage systems, usage of treated water for bin washing and paint shop process, rain water harvesting and use of bio-chemical additives to reduce frequency of water change in various paint processes; and LPG saving was achieved by installation of waste heat recovery system for hot water generation used in pre-treatment process of paint shop, use of reflective coating inside furnaces for better heat retention, three-wheeler electro-deposition (ED) painting process changed from Acrylic ED to cathodic ED, optimisation of loading pattern in CGC and seal quench furnaces, reduction of hot water temperature for pre-treatment, use of bio- gas for cooking in canteens, start-up losses in ovens and hot water generation plants and changed design of paint jigs to reduce jig stripping frequency.

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