Effectiveness of expatriate remuneration in multi national organization

Sending employees to other countries is going to be popular everywhere around the globe; anyhow it’s an expensive practice for the organizations. Exchange the knowledge and resources are the main duties of expats working other countries for their organizations.

Basically, the corporation expects its expatriates to infuse the company philosophy into the local branches in general and impose the policies and procedure in regard to the headquarters in particular. Furthermore, the managers are liable for all kinds of financial resources no matter whether it is physical capital or the ability to strike local debt and equity markets. More importantly, they carry with them the managerial and technical expertise, functional capabilities or the trainings which are essential to introduce as well as foster these among the local personnel, and after all the structural and control mechanisms. Among these are the appraisal systems and motivational tools and incentives as well.

The expatriates should certainly be capable to share information with the parent company about the prevailing local infrastructures, for instance the road, housing conditions, transport system etc. irrespective of whether on assignments or upon repatriation. Besides, proper information regarding the political up downs, techniques to negotiate, concerns of host government and consumers preferences need to be transferred to the headquarters. All in all, expatriates should learn the fundamental techniques about the region-based practices of the spot they are assigned upon, which mostly consist of holidays and observances, accepted business attire and the appropriate ways to communicate and hence socialize with co-workers and public.

Whenever an employee agrees to go abroad as an expatriate, he/she has to make and arrange various personal adjustments. They expect that they will get compensation for the disruption to their personal as well as professional life giving a justification or other. Nevertheless for some employees, it becomes very essential to check their expenses as the compensation made by the company may not be flexible. This may sometimes lead to search for some other alternatives to the usual compensation trends that the companies are adopting.

There is tendency of companies not to pay for the expatriate employees wherever, they are sent. (Latta, 1998). This gives an opportunity to the employee to achieve personal as well as career development. Experiences from the international platform are essential for the fostering of mobility in the organizations. In order to get promoted the employees need to spend a considerable time in other countries. For this, the employee equally needs to develop his/her career. GTE focuses on the importance of positions to the company and thus helps to promote the assignees when they are sent to other countries as an inducement to take an overseas assignment. Besides, it helps them in growing a position in the country abroad. Such an assignment is basically an investment in career development for the future (Allard 1996).


Set the fast rise in the internationalization of markets, contest, and technology, expatriates and in particular long-term expatriates can give much of the value-creation opportunities global firms are seeking. But as the numbers of assignments increases, along with their annual cost by some estimates, two-to-four times the individual’s base salary, there is need to assure such assignments are being successfully utilized in achieving Company’s strategic goals.


“Toyota Motors” has more the ten thousands experts working all over the globe. Toyota Motors is a globalized company having operation in many countries and thousands of employees. Investigation of the efficiency of expatriate remuneration in Toyota Motors is the main purpose of this report.

This report examines the effectiveness of their expatriate programmes. How the company sets the packages for their expats including wages packages and incentives. It examines the literature review to analyze the research and research methodology which has been used in this research report. The company has constant, developed, maintained and transparent policies of remuneration packages for the expatriates working all areas of the world.

Remuneration systems for expatriates range from simple systems based on base country net salaries plus various allowances to ones of eye-watering complexity operated by large multinationals for hundreds of nationalities with thousands of permutations.

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Aims and Objectives of Report:

This research is focussed to achieve following aims and objectives;

Investigation of Toyota Motor’s expatriate remuneration and effectiveness

Strategies adopted by Toyota about their expats.

Critical analysis on expatriate remuneration in Toyota and its competitors adopted.

Role of expatriates.

Issues faced be expatriates:  

If someone gets ready for overseas assignment, there would be some issues which need to be measured. The main issues for sending the expatriates for long term or short term are:

The cost of assignment

Security and healthcare

Career development

Career disruption for the expatriate’s partner.

Continuing to operate legally within changing laws across the world.

How much of expatriate administration management should be done in-house.

Managing assignment costs:

Toyota Motor Corporation has standardised its policies for the expats. Sue Calvey, Toyota’s global assignments manager that there is no difference in the policies for the expats working in different countries and on different levels. She said that the company gives the attractive packages in shape of incentives and quality of living to expatriates.

Security/health care:

There are some countries which are not stable economically and politically as well. There is an office of the company working in Bahrain. In the office the things are running smoothly there at present but are closely monitored (Calvey). Toyota has also offices in Middle East. The countries in Middle East are not stable economically and politically. There’s war against terror, for this situation the company has developed plans for the security and healthcare issues for their employees.

Linking career development :

In the past decades, the employee who could not perform well were transferred to other countries rather than terminated of the company, but this is the modern era. The things have been changed, the business style has been changed, and the competition is high in every field. The career planning is often not done well in many companies (Heather Duncan). The major problem with expatriate and the company also is that when an expatriate being send on long term assignment, the employee becomes localised after five years. The employee adopts the local culture and when he goes back in his homeland there will be discomforts for the employee in changed circumstances to work.

Partner’s career disruption: 

On sending an expat on an assignment to other country, it’s essential to minimize the impacts that may cause the disruptions to family and partners. Many families have dual income and one of those incomes will probably have to be sacrificed in order to move with the employee.

There are many expats working in various countries for Toyota. Toyota facilitates its expats in various ways viz. it provides funds for getting the visa for the accompanying partner. Moreover it helps in finding the jobs for partner. In some cases, Toyota pays for the overall documentation procedure that may need to be processed.

Operate within changing laws:

Every country has own rules and regulations. It’s never easy to operate as an expat in the other country. Even companies that manage all of their expatriate administration in-house will outsource its international taxation compliance to a specialist firm. According to Toyota’s Global Assignment -Policies and Practices Survey 2003, 78 per cent of companies tax equalise their assignees.

In-house or outsource? 

“It is important to understand what is involved in international relocations. It is extremely time consuming and a long process. If you don’t have the resources, you’d be well advised to seek external specialist support and develop successful partnerships,” says Toyota’s Calvey. Orica outsources all but remuneration, in order to “free up the line managers and HR to focus on the business policies and strategies, so they don’t get bogged down with administration,” saysScott 

Expatriate administration:

An exhausting, but not exhaustive list of considerations

Salary package: 

Cash component, currency, where it’s paid, where it’s taxed, tax equalisation, cost of living allowance, hardship allowance, superannuation continuity

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 Home visits, school fees, tax on fringe benefits, relocation leave, extra annual leave


 Language classes, cross-cultural training, driver or translator, communications in host country


Sell or rent out own home, find accommodation in host country, pay rent in host country, relocation allowance, international removalists, local storage, family relocation, visas for all, ability of partner to work in host country, suitable schools and health care, security/health considerations

Risk minimisation:

Immunisations, pre-assignment medical, transit insurance, travel insurance, vehicle insurance, health insurance, safe driving courses, evacuation plans, personal security (bodyguards)

Literature Review:

Modification to the abroad workplace, adjustments to interacting with host nationals and adjustments to the general overseas surroundings are regarded as the three domains that expatriate adjustments engage. By the help of these three facets of adjustments which shaped the core Black, Mendenhall and Oddou (1991) developed their international adjustment model. The model became very successful and a triggered variety of studies which used it as its opinion. A 2003 meta-analytical reassess of 42 studies was based on the three-facet conceptualisation of adjustment (Hechanova, Beehr, & Christiansen, 2003). A meta-analytical reassess of 66 studies got favour for the Black et al. Model that recommended some extensions to contain current conclusion in expatriate research in 2005. (Bhaskar-Shrinivas, Harrison, Shaffer, & Luk, 2005).

(Hippler, 2000; Stahl & Caligiuri, 2005; Suutari & Brewster, 1999; Thomas & Lazarova, 2006).

Have recommended that the factors were not in theory rational and admitted that there were some inaccuracy in their work despite of the huge advance that had been made in their understanding of expatriate correction.

Measurement of effectiveness:

Collapse in assignments is also the calculate of the efficiency of expatriates. These days collapse rate of expatriates are 10 to 45 % in most of the companies in North America (Black et al., 1999: Thomas 2002). The collapse rate of expats in their assignment is a lesser amount of in Europe as compare to other regions. Likewise Scullion’s (1991) study of UK and Irish multinationals originate in their study that only 10% of firms in the Europe based had only 5% expats assignment failure rate. Even so the rate of expatriate’s collapse is likely to result in significant cost implications for the organisation afraid and has also the possible to significantly collision on the contributory operation. Therefore this was the metric usually utilised by MNCs in evaluating the efficiency of expatriation programmes.

The combination of expatriates to their home country through the course of their assignment has been often deserted by the company even if it is an vital element of expatriate’s cycle. Turnover of expatriates to repatriation has become a secondary problem in the companies even as measuring the helpfulness of expatriate’s programs. It is a demanding factor for the companies to have their assignees repatriate at the time when there is crises of international experts and capable man-power correct at the instant while there is high require of goods in the country abroad. Based on the number of studies of Black et al., (1999). It originate out that more or less 20 % of managers go away their organizations within the one year of finishing their assignments. The companies have used the level of turn over as means to calculate the cost-effectiveness of international assignments when this defeat is considered in mixture with cost linked with the international assignment.

The economic cost of expatriates has developed into a key calculate to assess the use of expatriate assignments. Total cost of assignments has also appeared as a challenge to staffing of key positions in the multi-national companies. This is because the expatriate assignees generally get a best for going abroad which has a straight impact to the companies for relocating them. 85% of companies offer with the home-country salary to the expats (GMAC, 2003). This is mainly significant while the wages paid to the expat is fewer and the differentiation between the cost for expats and home country assignees is huge.


The variety of sources of information has been used in this report. It would be extra helpful if grounded theory will be used to recognize Toyota’s situation in current market and also to examine expatriates performance against their remuneration. Collected information is reliable but needs a significant investigation because results are quite up and down. Grounded theory methodology should be involved to understand the information about usefulness of expatriate wage as far as Toyota’s is apprehensive. Denzin and Lincoln (1994) recommended this methodology in such a case where qualitative data is in focus. Some information is giving an idea that Toyota is successful because they are meeting their targets but they could not succeed to introduce their organizational culture in full flow. The proof for the usage of grounded theory is that data is collected from a variety of resources by using collection methods. In this research, data is collected, analysed and then an approach is compulsory to get a superior idea how Toyota changed its strategy particularly because their living and working style is different. In such a case grounded theory is always an suitable approach because it helps to collect and analyse data and then prepare a theory to get a balanced approach and that’s what it is achieved that how expatriates are providing effective outcomes when they are reaching high salaries and profit.

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Ethical Issues:

It is never easy to assess the internal ethics of companies for various sensitive reasons. As there was no interaction to the responsible executives of Toyota. There are some other sources for the most likely real issues like articles of economic experts, business commentaries, magazines and so forth.

Depending on all the articles, facts, commentaries and news updates analysis was done in the most appropriate way as far as practicable. Nevertheless, had I got an opportunity to interrelate to the executives of the company it would have been more believable. The analysis also concerned use of company’s IT resources like internet, desktop and other supplementary equipments.

Additionally in gathering information about my research/field work I had to make convinced quality compromises, as the information was not willingly accessible and the accountable executives of Toyota were not available.


Since there was no primary source available, that’s why the secondary sources have been used to gather the data for this report. There was no accessibility for direct meetings with the executives of the company. Many attempts have been made regarding this matter but because of various circumstances, I could not get in touch with the executives.


There is variety of factors concerned in this report. There is clear understanding in this report that how Toyota Motors getting the benefits from expats in response to of giving high salaries, incentives and other benefits. The company is giving high salaries to expats working all around the globe. The company is giving good trainings to the expats as well as high salaries and handsome benefits for getting the best results. Many research works have been done regarding this field and most of researchers stated that only high salaries and benefits does not matter but the planning and proper training have good meaning for getting the better results. There has been analysed that most of multinational organizations train their employees who are working outside the country and giving them handsome packages in shape of salaries and incentives but there is lake of proper planning. The most companies do not focus on market research. There is need to establish the relationship with local community and developing the trust. The same thing is happening with Toyota Motor as well. There are good packages for their expats and proper training as well but there is lake of proper training. The company should focus on this as well.

Effective expatriate remuneration is quite significant element behind any success. Expatriate must be knowledgeable and aware about the market conditions. They must realize that the remuneration they are getting must be responded as a result of hard work and devotion to the international assignment they are given.

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