Food Borne Illness: Safety And Hygiene

Food borne illness (also food borne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, rather than chemical or natural toxins. Causes Food borne illness usually arises from improper handling, preparation, or food storage. Good hygiene practices before, during, and after food preparation can reduce the chances of contracting an illness.

There is a consensus in the public health community that regular hand-washing is one of the most effective defenses against the spread of food borne illness. The action of monitoring food to ensure that it will not cause food borne illness is known as food safety. Food borne disease can also be caused by a large variety of toxins that affect the environment. For food borne illness caused by chemicals, see Food contaminants. Food borne illness can also be caused by pesticides or medicines in food and naturally toxic substances like poisonous mushrooms or reef fish.

Food quality control is necessary to ensure that food aid supplies are safe, of good quality and available in adequate amounts, in time, at affordable prices to ensure an acceptable nutritional and health status for all population groups. Food quality control includes all activities carried out to ensure the quality and safety of the food at all stages of the food supply chain from primary production or purchase, through processing and storage, to distribution and consumption.

Food borne illness occurs when food becomes contaminated. Contaminated foods contain Hazards that are either naturally presents or that were introduced when a worker does not handle Food safely. There are three types of hazards biological, chemical, and physical


Biological hazards — bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, poisonous plants, poisonous mushrooms, and fish that carry harmful poisons.

Chemical hazards – pesticides, food additives, preservatives, cleaning supplies, and toxic metals

Physical hazards – items that accidentally get into food, such as hair, dirt, metal staples, and broken glass, as well as naturally occurring objects, such as bones.


A) Food can be contaminated biological, chemically and physically. Please explain.

B) What is the definition of portable water, explained it used.



Biological contamination is when something is contaminated with a virus, bacteria or other living organism that can cause harm. What is contaminated can be food, a building, a person or animal, clothing, a surface or container, and just about anything else that can harbor the contaminant. The air in a region or in a building can be contaminated as well as water.There is two types of biological agents are pathogens and toxins. Pathogens are viruses, bacteria, algae, and protozoans that cause diseases in humans, other animals or plants. Biological contamination is when something is contaminated with a virus, bacteria or other living organism that can cause harm. A poisonous substance, especially a protein that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues. The example of biologically contaminated food is ants, flies, plants, fungi, bacteria.


Chemical contamination of food products can occur when food additives, cleaning chemicals or pesticides, or naturally occurring toxins are present in food products. Chemistry (the etymology of the word has been much disputed. It is a physical science which studies various substances, atoms, molecules, crystals and other aggregates of matter whether in isolation or combination, and which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity of chemical processes.Examples of chemical contamination include:

Food additives to which some people are allergic, such as sulfites and MSG.

Cleaning chemicals and pesticides, which should be stored away from food or food handling areas.

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Naturally occurring toxins that can be found in food, including:

The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, milk, petrol, fertilizer, soaps. Cleaners, detergents.


Physical contamination occurs when a foreign object finds its way into food. It can include hair, plastic fragments, broken glass, or insects, but there are many other objects that can contaminate food. Because physical contamination can be readily seen, this type of food borne illness is easier to avoid.In commercial food establishments; employees should wear proper protective equipment, such as hairnets and plastic gloves. In our homes, we can help to reduce physical contamination by following these simple steps:

Ensure the food preparation surface is clean prior to using

Wash hands thoroughly before and after handling any food products, especially raw meats

Cover and properly store any excess ingredients


(The above sources from www.portable

Potable water is water which is fit for consumption by humans and other animals. It is also called drinking water, in a reference to its intended use. Water may be naturally potable, as is the case with pristine springs, or it may need to be treated in order to be safe. In either instance, the safety of water is assessed with tests which look for potentially harmful contaminants. The issue of access to potable water is very important. In developed countries, people may not put a great deal of thought into the source of their water. In many First World nations, citizens can turn on a tap for fresh, potable water which may also be enriched with things like fluoride for health. In developing countries, however, and especially in Africa, a large proportion of the population does not have access to safe water. Potable water is simply water that is safe to drink. Potable water is free from pollution, harmful organisms and impurities. Drinking water or potable water is water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm.


Drinking water or potable water is water of sufficiently high quality that can be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation.

Over large parts of the world, humans have inadequate access to potable water and use sources contaminated with disease vectors, pathogens or unacceptable levels of toxins or suspended solids. Such water is not potable and drinking or using such water in food preparation leads to widespread acute and chronic illnesses and is a major cause of death and misery in many countries. Reduction of waterborne diseases is a major public health goal in developing countries. Typical water supply networks deliver potable water from the tap, whether it is to be used for drinking, washing or landscape irrigation. One country example is Urban and China, where drinking water can optionally be delivered by a separate tap, often in the form of distilled water or otherwise the regular tap water needs to be boiled. Portable water is also use for drinking, in most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry is all of drinking water standard.


(The above sources from www.portable water

A portable water tank is a temporary tank designed for the reserve storage of water in firefighting, emergency relief, and military applications. They can also be used in remote locations where a work camp needs to be set up for a period of time. The tanks can be either supported or unsupported. The supported tanks have a steel or aluminum frame. Besides that, portable water tanks are also unsupported such as self supporting tanks, believes and pillow or bladder tanks. There are many different uses for them and they can be an effective piece of equipment.

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(The above sources from www.water

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from contaminated water. Most water we would think of as clean contains a variety of different contaminants, including chemical and biological contaminants. Chemical contaminants are chemicals that have entered the water. The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi. However, if we are using the purifier water, our family will have a water that is safe to be drink because its can remove the both chemically and biologically contaminated water.


(The above sources from www.portable water

Look for a portable bottle that guarantees removal of 99.9% of many health-threatening contaminants including harmful pathogens, pesticides, detergents, Aluminum, Mercury and lead. We can use the bottle for exercising, sports events, travelling and can also be used at home. The water bottle is very easy and save for bring to all over the place we are going.


What should the manager do about an employee who reports to work with the following symptoms: fever, coughing, and a sore throat?

Why is hand washing so important?

2.1 Fever

Fever refers to an elevation in body temperature. Technically, any body temperature above the normal oral measurement of 98.6 F (37 C) or the normal rectal temperature of 99 F (37.2 C) is considered to be elevated. However, these are averages, and one’s normal body temperature may actually be 1 F (0.6 C) or more above or below the average of 98.6 F. Body temperature can also vary up to 1 F (0.6 C) throughout the day. Fever is not considered medically significant until body temperature is above 100.4 F (38 C). Anything above normal but below 100.4 F (38 C) is considered a low-grade fever. Fever serves as one of the body’s natural defenses against bacteria and viruses which cannot live at a higher temperature. For that reason, low fevers should normally go untreated, unless accompanied by troubling symptoms

Place the employee on restricted duty, that is, no working with or around food.

Allow food employees to return to work with written medical documentation from a health practitioner.

If the food employee works in a facility that serves an HSP, exclude the food employee from the food establishment.

2.1.2 Coughing

Coughing is your body’s way of removing foreign substances and mucus from your lungs and upper airway passages. Productive coughs are often useful, and we should not try to eliminate them. Sometimes, though, coughs are severe enough to impair breathing or prevent rest. Home treatment can help you feel more comfortable when you have a cough.

Exclude the employee from the operation. They should be free of symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea for at least 24 hours before they return to work, or have a written release from a medical doctor.

Employees with jaundice should not be allowed to return to work until they provide a written release from a medical doctor.

2.1.3 Sore Throat

Most sore throats are caused by viruses or mechanical causes (such as mouth breathing) and can be treated successfully at home. However, a person should be seen by a healthcare professional if they have a sore throat that has a rapid onset and is associated with a fever or tenderness of the front of the neck. A sore throat that causes the person to have difficulty swallowing (not just pain swallowing) or breathing or if a sore throat lasts for more than a week.

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Sore throats can be painful and annoying. Fortunately, most sore throats are caused by a minor illness and go away without medical treatment. Many sore throats are caused by a viral illness, such as the common cold, the most common type of infection, infection of the voice box (laryngitis),mononucleosis (mono, “the kissing disease”), a viral infection that tends to cause a persistent sore throat. Other viral infections, such as mumps, her angina, or influenza

2.2.1 Why is hand washing so important?

The main purpose of washing hands is to cleanse the hands of pathogens (bacteria or viruses) and chemicals which can cause disease. This is especially important for people who handle or cook food. With the emergence of diseases that are resistant to antibiotics, hand washing is taking on new urgency. Always wash our hands after using the toilet, changing a diaper or tending to someone who is sick; before eating; before handling or cooking food and after handling raw meat, fish or poultry. Besides that, use soap and warm, running water and wash all surfaces thoroughly, including under fingernails. Rub wet, soapy hands together outside the stream of running water for at least 10 seconds. Rinse thoroughly (soap does not kill pathogens, it merely traps them, so all soap must be removed). Dry with a clean or disposable towel. Moisturizing lotion is recommended to keep the hands from drying out if your hands require washing more than a few times per day. Furthermore, hand washing is by far the best way to prevent germs from spreading and to keep your kids from getting sick. Germs can be transmitted many ways, including touching dirty hands, changing dirty diapers, through contaminated water and food, through droplets released during a cough or a sneeze, via contaminated surfaces through contact with a sick person’s body fluids. Germs can also be lurking on objects, like pencils, handles, phones, and doorknobs. If the person that used the object before didn’t wash his or her hands, germs can be passed on to us. Good hand washing is the first line of defense against the spread of many illnesses, from the common cold to more serious illnesses such as meningitis, bronchiolitis, influenza, hepatitis A, and most types of infectious diarrhea. Proper hand washing (for at least 15-20 seconds) helps to remove harmful germs from your hands. We can protect our self from illness by washing our hands because we can pass germs to our mouth, nose, eyes or an open sore. Hand washing also prevents spreading germs to other people. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Hand washing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection.”


As the conclusion personal hygiene and food safety are essential for good health. Many of the food borne diseases that are reported are due to poor personal hygiene. It is therefore imperative that good hygienic practices should be practiced in order to ensure public health food safety. We also must follow the correct way when wash the hand to remove the bacteria from our body. Personal hygiene is an important requirement for food safety and it cannot be overly emphasized. Some essential personal hygiene tips are provided below as a means of public education and awareness for consumers and the general public. Key words: personal hygiene, food safety.


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