Security Risk Assessment For A Mall Management Essay

Premises: Bay Street is found in St. George’s street Paceville and can be described as a Mega-Mall. Apart from a Hotel, Bay Street is a complex that offers various other services. It has over 25 fashion outlets, 16 other retail shops, 9 dining outlets and other services including hairdressing, nail servicing, telecommunications, money exchange and a large games room for kids. A parking area is also available. Entertaining events such as dancing, singing, games are held mainly during weekends. The complex is open from 10:00 till 22:00, everyday, 7days a week including Sundays and Public Holidays. (Due to certain detail, only the shopping area and parking lot will be assessed for this Assignment.)

Activity

Hazards & Existing measures to control risk

Who might be harmed & how

Impact 1=least

5=Most

Risk

Occurrence

1=least 5=Most

Result

10 < High

6-10 = Moderate

1-5 = Low

Section A: Policy and Program

Security policies and list of duties.

Lack of Collaboration: Security personnel do not know procedures, regulations and duties because they are not written down and forwarded for all staff to see.

Security personnel, employees in the shopping complex and clients. No collaboration and communication between security personnel.

2

4

8

Moderate

Incident Records by Security.

Reoffending: Issues not resolved and not investigated, incidents reoccurring. Management not encouraging employees to record incidents.

Employees and owners of shops. They are being targeted and victimized continuously and their reputation is being damaged.

3

4

12

High

Section B: Organization

Number of Security Personnel working at the complex.

Lack of security: 2 Security Personnel during the week and also during the weekends. Lack of security personnel for all the building which includes the Shopping area, parking and Hotel.

Security personnel, employees in the shopping complex and clients. Security officers cannot cover the whole surface area. In cases of emergency the security cannot be available for the entire complex. Shop lifting, assaults and gang fights may occur due to this problem.

4

2

8

Moderate

Personnel performing security duties.

Inefficient Security: Security officers sometimes carry out jobs that are not part of their duty and they cannot be contacted if they are needed.

Their colleagues, employees and people in the complex. In cases of emergency, the security is not reliable and efficient.

2

3

6

Moderate

Security training.

No security training: No security training performed for security personnel both before and during employment.

All people present at the Complex: Employees, employers and other staff. Lack of knowledge of procedures will lead to lack of collaboration, communication and increase panic in serious cases.

3

3

9

Moderate

Follow up investigations.

No investigations and collaboration: Follow up of incidents generally reflects the seriousness of the offence. Owners do not always want to report shop lifting.

Employees in shops and clients visiting the complex. Less serious incidents that are reported are generally taken for granted and are not written down.

2

4

8

Moderate

Weapons carried by Security personnel.

Self defense: Security Personnel do not carry any weapons.

Security Personnel: Due to the fact that they are few, security staff may be outnumbered and this may prove dangerous for them.

4

2

8

Moderate

Daily tours carried out by the Security Officers.

No reports, no intelligence – reactive not proactive: Security personnel do not keep a written report of their daily and patterns are not varied. They cannot carry out frequent tours during their shift due to lack of personnel.

All persons in the Complex: Shop owners, shop assistants- Higher risks of theft in shops because of low visibility patrols.

3

4

12

High

Conducting Drills for Emergency Procedures

No drills have been conducted in 3 years.

All persons in the complex: Employees, employers, clients and visitors. If the staff do not know procedures it would be difficult to help the visitors who do not have knowledge of the place; includes the fire exits and meeting points

3

2

6

Moderate

Section C: Perimeter

Area; Shopping Area

Potential Offenders have access to the area and youth gangs meeting in the area: Shopping Area is outside barrier. It cannot be locked; each shop has its own locks. This area is under surveillance by 1 security officer during the night. There are hiding places due to areas of poor lighting.

All shops found in this area may be potential targets, including the employees working in shops. Only glass doors and shutters act as boundaries in this area at night.

5

4

12

High

Car Park

Potential Offenders (if on foot) have access to the parking area; they are not controlled or monitored: Cars are controlled by a security officer. Gates are installed in the entry and are opened only when required by operation. Employees have a pass card. People may enter to the complex from the car park by foot. Can be used for entering and exit.

Visitors and Employees: their cars may be targeted for theft or vandalism if there is lack of control from the security.

2

2

4

Low

Section D: Lighting

Lighting

Hiding places for offenders. Entire perimeter is lighted however some areas are not well lit:

Visitors, clients, employees and employers. They can easily be attacked by someone who is not visible by them.

2

1

2

Low

a. Parking Area

Potential offenders meeting in the parking lot to push drugs. Parking area contains little lighting and columns also produce darker shadows due to bad lighting bulb positions making it possible for potential offenders to hide.

Visitors, but mostly employees who have to retrieve cars after closing time.

3

2

6

Moderate

b. Emergency Exits- Stairs

Emergency exit stairs have little light. People may easily hide in the shadows without anyone detecting them.

Visitors and employees, mostly in cases of emergencies.

3

2

6

Moderate

c. Staff Corridors

Inside corridors, used by staff are not well lit especially during the night where some lights are turned off to reduce light expenses.

Employees mostly cleaners, technicians, maintenance people and security persons who make use of these corridors.

2

2

4

Low

Lighting repairs

Lighting repairs are not always changed immediately and therefore some areas remain unlit for too long. In these cases, the illumination is not sufficient to detect human movement easily even from a short distance.

Employees are most at risk and can be targeted after they close shops at 10:00pm when less people are around. They can be attacked and assaulted.

3

2

6

Moderate

Switches and Controls

Employees meddling with Electricity: Switches and controls are placed in staff corridors. These cannot be accessible for visitors of the complex but are easily accessible to other staff working at the complex such as cleaners, technicians and also maintenance personnel.

Employees, employers and visitors at the complex. People may tamper with the electricity on purpose to be able to carry out other crimes.

2

1

2

Low

Section E: Locks and Keys

Locks and Keys Responsibility

Employee helps a third party gain entry: Stolen/Lost Keys: For the shopping area, each shop has its own keys. Security personnel have keys for staff corridors, restrooms and video security rooms. Hotel keys are distributed among the employees – Managers- accordingly.

Employers, employees and shops are most at risk if keys are left unsupervised or get stolen. People may use stolen keys to break in shops or access places they should not enter.

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4

1

4

Low

Receipt for keys

Stolen/Lost Keys: No receipts are issued if keys are either lost, duplicated or have to be returned in after there is termination of employment.

Employers, employees and shops are most at risk if keys are left unsupervised or get stolen. (As above).

4

1

4

Low

Locks and Keys Procedures

Burglary, Vandalisms: Employees are offered no regulations regard keys and key procedures. They are only advised that if a key is lost, it has to be remade at their expense. High quality locks are not installed in all doors of the retail shops since they all have their own design of shop and different owners.

Employers of shops and their employees. In Hotels, the visitors may be at risk and also the employees due to the fact that offenders may have access to their rooms.

4

1

4

Low

Checking Locks

Tempering with Locks: Locks on inactive doors are not checked regularly for evidence of tampering.

Employees, employers and visitors in the complex. Unauthorized personnel may have access to certain important areas.

2

2

4

Low

Combination Locks

Vandalism, Arson, Burglary: Employee reveals information to a third party to gain entry: Combination is not changed when a knowledgeable person is either transferred, leaves or fired.

Mainly the employers of shops who may fall victims of some kind of revenge from former employees.

4

2

8

Moderate

Doors

Burglary, Vandalisms: Doors in hotel are accessed with combination locks, a key or an authorization card so unauthorized persons cannot open them. In the retail area, doors are generally shutters with glass panels and are opened by the employees with keys.

Employers of shops and their employees. Employers may lose big sums of money if the shop is burgled and/or doors have to be changed due to vandalism.

3

2

6

Moderate

Safes

Employee reveals position of the safe to a third party: Each retail shop has its own safe. It can be opened only by the employer and it is always locked. The installation position varies from shop to shop.

Employers of shops and their employers. Employees may be threatened by a robber to open the safe. Employers may fall victims of burglary.

2

2

4

Low

Section F: Alarms

a. Fire Alarms

Alarms set off by people on purpose to induce panic. There are 2 Fire Alarms on every floor of the Complex. They can be accessed by everyone in an emergency.

Everyone in the complex may be harmed if a fire is started.

4

2

8

Moderate

b. Heat or smoke sensing

Every shop is equipped with smoke sensors but not fire alarms since these are installed outside. Outside of the shops there are also heat and smoke sensors installed all over the area.

Most that can be affected by smoke are the employees working in the shops. However all people present in the complex are at risk.

2

2

4

Low

c. Monitoring of Fire Alarms

Alarms are only monitored by the CCTV found in the area and are connected directly with the fire department.

Everyone in the complex is at risk. The company as a whole.

2

2

4

Low

d. Tests of Fire Alarms

Alarms not working properly. Fire Alarms are tested once every 2 years, they are not recorded and fire drills are never carried out.

Everyone in the complex is at risk. This includes the employees, employers and clients.

3

3

9

Moderate

23. a. Intrusion Alarms

Burglary: All shops contain an intruder alarm. Outside the shops there are no alarms installed since this is used by people even when shops are closed. In shops the alarms are activated or deactivated by the employees.

Employers of the shops are mostly affected if an intruder gets inside the shop and has access to high value items.

5

2

10

High

b. Recorded Test

Alarm not working as it should be: Tests are carried out by a technician every so often depends on the owner of the shop. However these are not recorded by shop owners.

Employers of the shops are mostly affected if alarm does not work and therefore it would be easy for the intruder to get inside shop.

2

4

8

Moderate

24. a. Closed Circuit Television

Insufficient amount of CCTV cameras monitoring: Potential offenders not monitored during a criminal activity. Shops are all equipped with CCTV Cameras. The area outside the shops is also monitored with CCTV Cameras. Some cameras are situated at strategic points, near entrances, restrooms, lifts and escalators. In the other areas 2 huge CCTV cameras are installed on every floor. However, these CCTVs are not well placed due to the fact that some areas are not visible due to the position of the cameras. .

All persons present in the complex. They can be targeted for certain crimes and it would be difficult for law enforcers to catch the criminal due to lack of surveillance in all the areas. Shops also can be targeted if the area is not monitored. The company as a whole is affected.

3

4

12

High

b. Usage

Employee introduces a virus in the CCTV and technical system: CCTVs are used for continuous monitoring and surveillance. The footage is recorded and is kept for a minimum of 7 days. However the CCTVs are not monitored by persons all the time.

System would not be working therefore there would be less surveillance. This makes everyone at risk.

2

4

8

Moderate

Section G: Communications- Control Room

25. The Control Room

An employee helps a third party gain access to sensitive information: Control room is not separated from the main mall. Many a time the control room is left unattended. There is an emergency link with fire departments but the mall control room has no link and therefore is not in touch with the police.

The company may lose important information loss and communication between all members in the complex. This may also cause high reputational damage.

4

2

8

Moderate

26. Communication between staff

Cannot communicate to Security personnel in an emergency: Security Officials use radio (walkie-talkie system) to communicate with each other and with facility staff such as technical and cleaning service. Telephones and cell phones are used in an emergency. However it was reported that telephones and cell phones are not always answered by the security personnel and therefore are not really reliable.

Security personnel, employees in the shopping complex and clients. No collaboration and communication between security personnel may be dangerous if an incident occurs. Employees do not get assistance since they cannot communicate the problem with security officers.

4

4

16

High

27. Alerting the employees including those in shops, bars and restaurants

Mobile phones are used to alert employees in an emergency. Word of mouth is also how employees are alerted. This system is very time consuming and proves to be very inefficient even worse if 1 security guard is working at that time.

Employees who work at the complex and cannot leave their post due to orders from their employers. Moreover it makes it worse if employees do not know what procedures to follow before they leave the place of work.

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4

3

12

High

Section H:

Emergency Planning

28. Fire

A group of juvenile delinquents start a fire: In cases of fire, the building is equipped with fire alarms and fire extinguishers. Each shop has its own alarms and extinguishers. The shopping area is very spacious. It also contains emergency exits and stairways so that the lifts are not used. The complex does not have signs of assemble points. Personnel have only written procedures in case there is a fire.

Employees and visitors or clients present at the complex. They may be harmed if procedures are not followed due to lack of training and lack of knowhow regarding procedures.

4

2

8

Moderate

29. Explosion

Employee/ Person create explosion in the complex: The complex is not equipped for an explosion. It is built mainly on 4 columns and if an explosion hits one of these, half of the building would easily collapse. There are no controls, checks or monitoring of delivered items.

Anybody present at the complex. Explosion would create a blast and this would kill persons who are near to the explosion and possible injure others who are at a distance.

5

2

10

High

30. Bomb threats

Employee/Person brings a bomb into the Complex and it detonates: The security of the complex has a set of goals that were developed in order to prevent any terrorist attacks. Staff is instructed to report any unusual behaviour or dress of clients. Suspicious behaviors include taking photos or notes of facilities, and having suspicious clothing such as extra bulky clothes and large unusual packages.

All the people at the complex are at risk if bomb is ignited. All personnel. Property and the company as a whole are affected due to structural damage in building therefore this may put building our of use for long term or possible relocation of premises.

5

2

10

High

31. Natural Disasters

Natural Disaster such as Earth quakes, floods: Written protocols for security staff to follow if there is an emergency. These plans include coordination and communication with the local law enforcement and medical responders.

All personnel. Property and the company as a whole are affected due to structural damage in building therefore this may put building our of use for long term or possible relocation of premises.

4

1

4

Low

32. Plans for post- disaster recovery

A lot of causalities and deaths due to a shoot out: Only written evacuation plans are available as plans for post disaster recovery. When a disaster happens, the people will not be prepared to reduce the incidents and reduce casualties.

All personnel. Property and the company as a whole are affected.

4

2

8

Moderate

Comments and Recommendations:

Remove excuses – Set rules. It is important that security personnel haaveinformed and have policies set in place ds plex and clientsv eve dsave a guiding manuscript available so that procedures are carried out the same among all the security officers. Top management should also offer a clear defined mission statement for security department and list the duties required by the security personnel. These should be reviewed regularly and updated as needed. New policies should be made available for all in writing.

Reduce Provocation – Discourage imitation. The complex must have an efficient incident recording system in order to report the incident quickly and therefore it can be investigated and resolved so as to reduce the risk of reoccurring or imitation. The management must assure staff that action would be taken on all reported incidents even if the incident was not serious enough.

Increase the risks – extend guardianship. For a large complex containing various avenues such as a parking lot, a hotel, retail shops ,and food courts it is important to have a substantial number of security officers all over the area so that they are readily available for the public’s needs. Extra security officers should be added mostly during weekends and when there are entertaining events going on.

Increase the risk – Utilise place Managers, train employees to prevent crime. Security officers must be aware of their responsibilities for security. The complex should employ a security supervisor so as to check on the other security personnel by doing regular checks either by phone or in person. Reports should be issued if security staff is not doing the job right. Automatic warning signs which are set off when a person does not report in at a set time can be a simple step to reduce the risks. Security must be reliable and efficient for all the people present in the complex. A supervisor may develop systems that become policies and once the policy is written down it can be forwarded to all staff.

Reduce Provocation – reduce frustration and stress among employees. In-service training should be throughout the year and personnel should be trained in using alarms and computer systems. Security personnel should also be briefed about the cultural trends and the area’s crime statistics. This will be of help to spot suspicious behavior during the daily routines, and therefore suspicious activities are stopped beforehand. All staff must be aware of emergency and security procedures and these should be reviewed on a regular basis.

Reduce Provocation – Prosecute shoplifters. All incidents should be reported to police and reports should be written down even if the incidents are not serious. The company is to employ a system for reports and procedures should be followed by all personnel.

Increase the effort – Control tools and weapons. Security personnel should always have personal alarms and radio link schemes in case something comes up. Since weapons in Malta are not permitted, for their own protection, personnel should use pepper spray and batons that can only be used in life threatening situations for self defense.

Increase the risk – strengthen visible surveillance. Tour and routine reports should be written down by security personnel so that hot spots and problem areas can be highlighted. Visibility patrols should be increased especially in the high theft areas, entrances, car parks and other problematic areas listed down in the reports. It is important that extra security officers are added and tour patterns are varied when complex is busy.

It is important to conduct periodic emergency drills which consist of live exercises. All staff should know the procedures and local police and fire departments should also participate in them as well. Drills should be carried out at least once every year.

Increase the Effort – Harden the targets by securing the perimeter. Weak points in the shopping areas must be pointed out. Where possible, install gates, railings or walls to keep potential offenders out especially during the night when there are few people around. Sign installations are also effective since staff remains vigilant and visitors have to abide by them.

Increase the Effort – Deflect offenders and control access to the facility. Provide more than one security person for the parking lot. Some may control the entrance and exit of the parking area while others may patrol interior area. One way traffic should also be used for cars entering and exiting.

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12. and 13.Increase the risks – Assist natural surveillance. Lighting should be adequate and efficient in all parking, interior and exterior areas associated with the complex. Lighting inspections should be carried out on a day to day basis and replacements of any damaged or malfunctioning equipment should be changed immediately.

14. Increase the Effort – Control the access. Controls should only be accessible to secure personnel or technicians who need to use them in emergency. Access should be limited to the supervisors and not all personnel.

15. and 16. Remove excuses – Post instruction to employees. Each person must be responsible for the keys they are given, employer must be advised to keep keys in a safe place and that if any keys are stolen or lost they should be reported. Locks must also be changed if such things happen. Receipts must also be presented so the information is written down and therefore people know who used such a key and when the key was used. Receipts of keys that are used by more than one person (hotels) must contain building, room number, date, and name of authorizing manager.

17. Increase the effort – harden targets by employing anti robber screens. If employees are responsible of the keys, they must be briefed about the procedures of handling and using the keys mostly when keys are lost, stolen or persons are terminating from employment. Having good quality locks is very important and necessary.

18. Increase the effort- harden targets. Glass doors and windows should be fitted with toughened glass, though this is more for safety rather than security. It could be useful if anti-shatter film is applied to the glass or using laminating glass with appropriate strong frames and fittings. Doors should contain an anti lifting device such as positioned locks, so that they cannot be lifted. Moreover, if doors open outwards and therefore hinges are on the outside, hinge bolts should be fitted.

19. and 20. Unattended external doors must always be secured and checked regularly to make sure the mechanisms work properly and that they were not tampered. Door glazing may affect the level of security. Doors and windows should reflect the level of risk. Combination locks should be changed when persons are not working there anymore most importantly if the person is fired or transferred.

21. Reduce the rewards-remove targets such as reducing the amount of money you handle. Safes should be professionally fitted. It is important that safes are not built with outside walls. The only way in should be a well constructed and adequately secured door that is kept locked.

22. Fire Alarms should be checked regularly. They should also have staining powder so that if alarm is set off on purpose, the culprit could be identified.

23. Increase the effort-target hardening. Adequate intruder alarms should be utilized; this is a way to reduce risk and increase the effort by target hardening. Also panic attack buttons, fixed or mobile should be utilized in cases of robberies. Staff should be aware of the procedures in the event of false alarms.

24. Increase the risks -Strengthen formal surveillance by monitoring CCTV systems. Since the video is not monitored constantly it is important to have a high quality video recording system in operation. Good quality camera surveillance increases the ability to record clear video and pictures of the criminal activities and this may better help law enforcements to capture the culprits. Cameras must all be installed in good strategic points therefore pointing towards selected areas. This will guarantee surveillance for the whole transit space where people move.

25. -27.Extend Guardianship-improve the communication. The control room must be situated in an area separated from the main mall. This is important so that if an emergency like fire occurs in the complex, the control room is not jeopardized by it. The Control room must be well equipped with the video surveillance monitors, security devices such as alarms, telephone, mobile phones and a PA system for announcements. The control room must not be left unattended; a person must be in charge of the surveillance cameras as well as all alarms and communication systems. It is very important that cell phones are always carried by security personnel so that shops can inform security in case and emergency arises. Police should also be connected to the complex so that they can be alerted about an emergency.

28 – 31. In cases of emergencies, written procedures should cover evacuations in the event of fire, gas leak or suspect bombing, emergency communications, small arms attacks and also basic first-aid and triage. Plans should be specific and staff should have a designated location where they could meet or evacuating through specific routes.

Live exercises should be held in order to rehearse emergency protocols. Members from local police, fire department and medical responders should also take part in these exercises. Emergency procedures should be enhanced by adding high threat, criminal activity training. Security should know what specific actions should be assigned during an emergency or a disaster. It is very important that emergency communication protocols are determined and personnel know about them. Staff should be educated on the elements of the emergency management program and tests and exercises should be carried out regularly. It is important to know what to do in emergencies such as a hostage situation, a bomb threat or a shoot out.

To prevent bomb threats, the complex may monitor deliveries to stores because currently packages and boxes are not checked or controlled and random searches should be conducted. The complex could also prohibit certain activities such as large group gatherings and loitering. One must note that the complex is found very near to Paceville. Baystreet is a place where people meet before or after they frequent Paceville. Such people may also be under the influence of alcohol. So it is important that visitors are monitored and if such behavior is noted, security must ask for these people to leave the premises. Undercover officers should be also employed in prevention strategies on certain occasions such as holidays and weekends.

32. It is important that there is some kind of communication plan so that every whereabouts of an individual may be reported during the disaster. Assembly and meeting points must be identified and must be away from the complex. Personal supplies such as medical, first aid and other equipment like flash lights must be available and maintained. Emergency responders must be contacted as soon as possible; they are trained to take the best course of action to save lives. People must be evacuated from dangerous areas.


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