Global Leadership Skills In A Multinational Organisations Management Essay
This report is submitted to the as research method for investigation role of global leadership skills of FedEx . This research is a study aim for a better understanding of role of global leadership skills and relation to the company performance. To resolve with these kinds of issues are critical as it was found that among the senior managers leadership skills shortage. As a researcher the author found that empirical research on leadership skills help in decision making on it. Regarding this the first objective of this study is to analyse the the leadership skills in FedEx identified elements of Leadership skills.
Since Global leaders have different leadership skills, abilities, personalities, learning experiences and leadership styles, it’s not surprising that they perceive leadership in different ways, bring different qualities to the workplace and have different aspirations to the jobs (Mullins 2002). Variable individuality consists of many criteria, such as profile, gender, age, ability, personality and perception etc. Each of those may lead to different behaviour to individuals. E.g. female leader, comparing to male leader, may appear more sensible and considerate when dealing with many different situation in the company, but may appear less rational and logical when doing decision-making. Personality, as one of those differences, can reflect the ability or inability to cope with the expectation and demands of Multinational organizations.
Individual leaders values, attitudes, needs and expectations which build up human behaviour. The research question about investigate the role of global leadership skills are related to performance will be discussed in this research methodology. Term is offered by Sharp et al (2002, p.7):’Research is seeking through methodical processes to add to one’s own body of knowledge and to that of others, by the of nontrivial facts and insights.
There are quite few ways and methods which can be adopted to investigate the role of global leadership skills and performance. Also there are some studies and researches being adopted to do this investigation
Critical Literature review
Identification of research problem
This literature review describes and locates the subject of role of global leadership skills in the multinational organisation through a variety of perspectives on organizational development and leadership theory. Literature supporting the importance of global leadership skills and the context of an organization contributing to successful outcomes .This literature review only briefly summarizes the rich empirical research, the gaps and limitations in current knowledge, but introduces and encourages the development of new and innovative approaches through this research study that will expand our present understanding of role of global leadership skills and their contributions to FedEx success. Understand the role of an entrepreneur and a leader in creating a start-up and transforming it into a global player and a leader in its industry. I see the gap in the research referenced by me that performance of the company and leadership skills relation.
One way of describing the differences between supervision and team leadership is offered by Rees (1991). He identifies two different types of leader role which he terms a controlling leader’s role and a facilitating leader’s role. The controlling leader’s role reflects some of the ways in which the `traditional’ supervisory role been described in past literature. The facilitating leader’s role relates to the way in which the team leader role has been described in the literature
Organizations are constructed of component parts that interact (Nadler and Tushman, 1988: 22). These parts can fit together well and function effectively, or they can fit together poorly and lead to problems and disfunctions, that leads to performance below potential (Nadler and Tushman, 1988:22).For an organization to function effectively and deliver its desired output, all of its constituents parts and processes must be driving in the same direction (Semler, 1997; Baird and Meshoulam, 1988; Middleton, 2004). A well aligned system is one in which all of the separate component parts and processes fit together congruently and provide support and reinforcement for each other (Baird and Meshoulam, 1988: 122). Congruence in this sense is defined as “the degree to which the needs, demands, goals, objectives and/or structures of one component are consistent with the needs, demands, goals, objectives and/or structures of another component” (Nadler and Tushman, 1988: 29). Effective alignment therefore can be seen to be “the achievement of congruency where all parts and functions of an organization work towards the same purpose” (Fonvielle and Carr, 2001: 4).Organizational alignment is a descriptive concept referring to the extent to which the various interdependent organizational elements combine to create a synergistic whole that makes it possible to achieve the goals espoused by the organization. It is a measure of degree expressed as a correlation ranging from complete opposition to perfect harmony (Semler, 1997: 28). At the individual level it is a measure of “the degree to which the behaviour of each employee supports the organization’s key goals” (Robinson and Stern, 1997).
The basic concept underpinning alignment theory is that “other things being equal, the greater the total degree of congruence or fit between the various components, the more effective will be the organization” (Nadler and Tushman, 1988: 25); effectiveness being defined as the degree to which actual organization outputs at individual, group and organization levels are similar to expected outputs as specified by management (Nadler and Tushman, 1988: 25). Alignment theory explains how the creation of high-performance work systems results from the creation of internal consistency (Quiros and Rodriguez, 2005: 2) and how alignment is a necessary condition for organizational effectiveness (Fonvielle and Carr, 2001: 4). Alignment theory builds on the original work of Nadler and Tushman on system congruence (1988) who proposed that organizations need to be internally consistent in order to function efficiently and that this consistency can be achieved by aligning interdependent elements towards the same ends.
Leadership is when you lead a group and you can do that through different ways. I am going to write about the people and leadership skills and styles they use An instructor is able to perform the skills. A leader is someone who leads a group and helps others develops techniques and skills. The leader looks after the group and steers it away from danger. They maintain, perform and develop techniques and skills. There are three different leadership styles. Autocratic is when the leader makes the decision and tells everyone what he wants done. It is mainly used on a group that don’t know each other. Democratic is when the group decide what to do and the leader will only interfere if the group are in risk of danger. This is used when a group know each other and can trust each other. Autocratic is when the group and leader decide in a joint decision. It is used when a group know each other relatively well.
The next sector is group dynamics which is about the stages of group development by Tuckman (1965). There are four main stages. Forming is when a group comes together, with individuals meeting and familiarising themselves with the other members of the group. Storming is a period of conflict as individuals seek their roles and status in the group. It is also inter-group competition. Norming is when individuals leave the group or accept the common goals and values of the group. They start to cooperate and work together. The group pulls together and the roes are established and become stable. Performing is when the group members work together to achieve their mutual goals. The relationships are well established; the group is stable and perform well together.
Further topic is hard and soft skills. Hard skills can be defined as physical skills , various qualifications and driving. Soft skills can be defined as mental skills and way you appear for example group control, body language, confidence and relationships.
The aim is to analyze FedEx role of global leadership skills within the multinational organization.
Research Objectives (Intended outcomes/significance and scope of the project)
The main objectives of this research are,
To discover role of global leadership skills within FedEx related to its performed leadership
To examine, identify and analyze senior management leadership skills
To examine and identify the change in leadership skills its performances of the company.
To provide a profile of FedEx global leadership skills showing their strengths and weaknesses
Quiros and Rodriguez, 2005: 2
Formulation of research problem
The alternative hypothesis
H1: The role of leadership skills within FedEx affects the performance of the company.
HO: The role of leadership skills within FedEx doesn’t affect the performance of the company.
. My research is to analysing and investigating the role of global leadership skills of FedEx is based positivism approach. As its in real life situation of the business situation.
Nature of research
Explanatory research will be search an explanation of an established situation and gather data and information to explained the reasons behind a problem or situation and experiment is an acceptable method for data collection and analysis the problem. From the above explanation, it is understandable that my research methodology based on explanatory. My research is to analysing and investigating the role of global leadership skills. The aim is to look for patterns and confirming a hypothesis. I can conclude that my research based on explanatory.
The model based upon the literature Deductive reasoning is used to lead the inquiry. The focus is on whether or not the suggested method fits and is appropriate for the chosen organisation. Using a Deductive reasoning approach I will conduct surveys and questionnaires to address my hypotheses. Where it would help me to test it with specific data or confirmation of theories detailed in the literature review
Research approach and techniques are very important in research methodology Survey is one of the most used approaches which collecting information from a selected group of people by asking a series of questions. In my project work, role of global leadership skills in FedEx is to be designed and implemented. In this case, there are will be performances of the leader’s skills. There will not be a change after the implementation. I will be using an research method. Literature review and data collection technique used as tactics used to carry out research.
As I have clearly explained and justified in other part of this report
Data collection approach
Questionnaire, Secondary data,
Data collection method
Research design /Research strategy
The choice between theoretical and empirical research is often difficult. The Empirical research strategy is uses of observations of, or experience with, a particular event to collect research data. Further Positivism derived from the natural sciences allied generally to the deductive theory. The above strategy would be implemented for this FedEx Research purpose.
Idea development play major role in research methodology. There are two broad types of idea development in research methodology. Fixed design, flexible design. Mixed design is combination of fixed and flexible design. In fixed design we need to know what to do before we start collecting the data for analysis and collect the data before analysis. It gives researches to develop own ideas. Since I have the clear picture of the project as I known exactly what to do before collecting the data for analysis, and collect all the data before analysing it. So I have decided to use fixed design.
Data collection techniques are surveys and questionnaire. Literature review has already completed as part of the section. Quantitative approach is the one which collects information about things that can be counted. Quantitative approach is based on hypotheses, theory, believe.
Leaders have skills and perceptions about many aspects of their skills, their careers, and their decision making. However, from the perspective of research and practice, And to know how these skills and performance will relate to leadership and performance we’ll focus in this study. There are a number of possible methods for measuring leadership skills, such as conducting focus groups, interviewing employees, or carrying out employee surveys. Of these methods, the most accurate measure is a well-constructed leadership skills survey. For this we’ll investigate the FedEx Leaders skills and perception, and how these could be related to their performance. To achieve this; one survey of some questionnaire will be set which include some 35 to 40 questions, and has to ask all senior team to fill it.
Before the launch of this questionnaire the knowledge of important considerations for analyzing senior team survey results and for taking appropriate steps to improve leadership skills is essential. Finally, practitioners often use survey feedback discussion meetings as a means for acting on leadership skills surveys the final part of this section addresses research related to this topic and the most important ways to support action. We need to consider following points before launching the survey
A justification for the survey, including: the basis for the survey, the goals and objectives, and related hypotheses to be tested.
The goal here is to minimize respondent burden. If a new survey is needed, efforts should be made in the development of the questionnaire and any assessment items to minimize the burden to individual respondents.
In addition, the confidentiality and privacy provisions, all the data about the employees should be kept safe
A preliminary analysis plan that identifies analysis issues, objectives, key variables, minimum substantively significant effect sizes and proposed statistical techniques.
A list of data items that will be maintained over time as part of an organization data series, including the justification for each item.
A preliminary time schedule that accounts for the complete survey cycle from planning to data release.
A preliminary survey evaluation plan that identifies the proposed analyses necessary for data users to understand the quality and limitations of the survey
These data collection is based on intranet therefore a random sample population based on database FedEx Head office therefore it can be a view of worldwide FedEx.
Research Time scale (Gantt chart)
(Plan of action)
Assessing various topics
Formulation of Research problems :- Hypotheses
Designing a Questionnaire, approval distribution
Distribution of Questionnaire
Final writing up and correction
Extra Time for unforeseen problems
Method and techniques
In these activities I will take advantage of the following methods to complete the planned activities:
Previous research about role of global leadership skills and its findings. Facts in FedEx as an organization.
Analytical-Synthetic method to obtain results from information and experienced senior team matters related to multinational companies
Structure of Survey
This survey would be based on extensive ethnographic field work, and the systemic assessment we conducted will provide special opportunities for learning how the survey is perceived by rank-and-file leaders and the ways in which it will functions in application. So we need to make sure some fundamental questions about the use and purpose of surveys of this kind could be arising. E.g. the employees could ask why they going to filled up this questionnaire, is there anything they doing wrong, or they can think company is going to default. So need to call the meeting with all the senior teams and make them sure that filling up this survey would benefit them, and we can launch some kind of incentive for the respondents of this survey, so most of them would fill it happily.
Two types of questionnaires will take place as part of the research methodology
To complete this investigation we’ll take FedEx senior team of about 150 people and after carefully taking consideration the following set of questionnaire is created, which will cover the questions of their leadership skills and competences about their job. And this would be distributed to them for competition.
Each question can be answered in format of 5 point scale, e.g. If it is very much relevant than the senior team can tick to Strongly Agree, or if don’t agree at all than Strongly disagree, or if he/she is in between of strong agree/disagree situation he/she would have 3 other options to choose. The Questionnaire 2 in appendix refers.
With Human resources management department of FedEx head office to clarify and provide insight of its global leader’s database and communicate for survey via online regarding role of global leadership skills activities and feedback obtain from senior team based in different countries where FedEx operates.
. I will create a questioner based 12-18 question of simple selection and focus to the “Level of strengths and weaknesses of FedEx leaders related to their leadership skills. The results will be judge against information obtained from the previous FedEx leaders Interview.
It will be necessary to require the Professional development plans (PDP) or individual performance’s results of each leaders to the HR department, to verify real result based on annual performances. (Outcome for the company)
The activity will be conducted to leaders and senior team of FedEx. It will be sent via intranet as authorized by FedEx.(please refer Appendix 1 )
When the survey has been filled and the data has been handed over we can than count how many staff took part in this, and how many employees completed it fully. Now it shows how many employees filled this questionnaire completely and with seriousness.
With respect to leadership skills, we’ll get the approximate percentage of leadership skills related to performance and leadership skills is not related to company performance from the respondents and the respondents who were positive about the hypothesis H1 they performance oriented leadership acceptance or non related of its performance .
This research will also revealed the reasons for this role of global leadership skills and company performances, and the respondent to this survey will help us to understand their future plan their thoughts, perceptions and behaviour, which we can match with their last some years of their performance. So we can understand why they are not performing well. To make sure and for further leadership skills training we can adopt more methods;
1. For further investigation and data validation we can carry out in-person and telephonic interviews of the respondents of survey, these interviewees should provide the team with documents to analyze and to offer general insights into the surveying processes as used in this corporation as well a detailed understanding of the purpose.
2. We can conduct focus groups composed of senior managers and leaders, in order to explore the conceptualization of the leadership skills and to begin to see the extent to which we can measure these hypotheses.
3. We can also carried out the think-aloud protocols to understand the reaction of senior managers to this survey. This will give us crucial insight how the respondents understand the questions and for validity the data.
4. The utilisation of secondary sources such as internal records and company reports, external sources i.e. census of the public sector, as well as telephone surveys would have added further depth and validity to the research. I feel the use of technology was one tool that would also have been very beneficial.
Comparisons and Numerical Accuracy.
Comparing data is one of the most useful survey analysis techniques, like using norms to compare a company’s survey results to other companies. Comparisons for the same organization or unit over time with a trended survey are also valuable to measure progress. At the same time, comparisons must be done with professional care, taking into account measurement issues (Cascio, 1986). This is one of the major areas of practitioner misinterpretation in our experience.
The research has not come across with any evidence of unethical activities such as unfair practices, discrimination, corruption and others, involve in the expatriates strategy and remuneration.
However, could be considered as an issue that in the FedEx information could be go to next hand.
The framework remains to be tested longitudinally with a large sample of senior managers. Given the lack of empirical work to support an expressed link between design and outcome to maximise effect, a mixed methodology examining both approach and rationale would be essential.