Identify and analyse the three organisations
To my Teachers, Parents, Familyand to all those supported me during the completion of this assignment with Love
I am heartily thankful to my Supervisor, Dr. Rajni, whose encouragement, Supervision and support from the preliminary to the concluding level enabled me to develop an understanding of the Subject.
Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to my Parents and all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the project.
In this task we have to identify and analyse the three organisations which change the methods of achieving their goals and objectives. In this process point out the significant change in last 5 year and also what is the situation of their economy and also give a SWOT analysis about that companies.
The main objectives of this task are as under;
- Analyse three organisations those change the method for approaching on their target.
- Discuss the structure of organisation.
- What method they have adopted?
Three organisations are as under;
- Sony Ericson
- The Royal Bank Of Scotland (ABN AMRO Bank), Pakistan
- Walkers Crisp
The first organisation is as under;
1). SONY ERICSON:-
Sony Ericssonis a joint venture established on October 1, 2001by the Japanese consumer electronics companySony Corporationand the Swedish telecommunications companyEricssonto make mobile phones. The stated reason for this venture is to combine Sony’s consumer electronics expertise with Ericsson’s technological leadership in the communications sector. Both companies have stopped making their own mobile phones.
The company’s global management is based inHammersmithinLondon,UK, and it has research & development teams in Sweden, Japan, China, Germany, the United States, India and the United Kingdom. By 2009, it was the fourth-largest mobile phone manufacturer in the world afterNokia, SamsungandLG.The sales of products largely increased due to the launch of the adaptation of Sony’s popularWalkmanandCyber-shotseries.
Changes in Sony Ericson:-
April 24, 2001, saw the announcement that Ericsson was merging its mobile telephone operations with Japan’s Sony, forming Sony Ericsson with each company owning 50 %. The Japanese electronics giant was to contribute its know-how in design and consumer sales that Ericsson had not been able to acquire. Sony had been mentioned as a possible partner as early as 1998 when Seven-Christer Nilsson had discussed Ericsson’s adaptations to all the new possibilities with the Internet.
The new, mutual company was headquartered in London. Ericsson kept hold of platform production and the basic mobile telephone technology. In October of that year most of the mobile telephone operation had been transferred, but only after dramatic personnel cutbacks. Thus the new company began operations with some 4,000 employees. The manufacture of Ericsson’s mobile telephones, already mostly subcontracted, disappeared for good from Sweden in 2003.
Benefits of Changing
The merging of Sony & Ericson is very beneficial for the both of the companies. Some positive impacts are as under;
- The merger of both companies gives them a new soul.
- Now Sony Ericson is the 4th largest company in mobile phone production.
- Introduce a lot of Walkman series, which give the hype of rise.
- The customers are satisfied with the Sony Ericson mobile sets.
Second Organisation is as under;
2). Royal Bank Of Scotland (ABN AMRO BANK), PAKISTAN:-
TheRoyal Bank of Scotland (RBS)Group formally re-brandedABN AMRO branches in Pakistan on Friday, August 1, 2008.
Pakistanis among the first Asian markets where ABN AMRO has been re-branded as RBS effective from August 1 as approved by local regulators. ABN AMRO Bank (Pakistan) Ltd will now be officially renamed as The Royal Bank of Scotland Ltd. This follows the successful global acquisition of ABN AMRO in October 2007 by an RBS-led consortium.
A press statement of the bank said presently RBS was the second largest financial services group by profit, with an ‘AA-‘ credit rating with total assets of 1,900.5 billion pound sterling as of December 31, 2007.
TheRoyal Bank of ScotlandGroup has grown from small beginnings nearly 300 years ago to become the second largest financial services group by profit in the world. With an AA credit rating, RBS group has more than 40 million customers’ worldwide and total assets, as of 31 December 2007, of â‚¬2.4billion. Our brands operate around the globe and down your street to provide banking services for individuals, businesses and institutions. Proud of our history, we remain committed to innovation and service – in business and through our many sponsorship activities.
Benefits of Changing
Some benefits are as below of management change in ABN AMRO Bank, Pakistan.
- The bank strives to set standards of excellence, explore new opportunities and pursue innovation.
- To become the second largest financial services group by profit in the Pakistan.
- Increase the yearly profit.
- Achieve its deficiencies within 2 years.
Third organisation is as under;
3). WALKERS CRISP:-
In the 1880s Henry Walker moved fromMansfieldtoLeicesterto take over an establishedbutcher’s shop in the high street. Meatrationing after World War IIsaw the factory output drop dramatically and the company looked at alternatives to make use of the wasted capacity. With potato crisps being increasingly popular with the public, managing director R.E. Gerrard helped the company shift focus and began hand-slicing and frying potatoes.
Walkers is now owned byFrito-Lay, which in turn is a subsidiary ofPepsiCo, with the current logo a derivative of the North AmericanLay’slogo. The company is still a significant presence in Leicester and sponsorLeicester Cityfootballteam’s stadium, theWalkers Stadium.Gary Lineker, formerly a Leicester City footballer, is now the face of the company, starring in most of theiradvertising campaigns. The official website states that an estimated “11 million people will eat a Walkers product every day”. The company employs over 4000 people in 15 locations.
Transformation in Walkers Crisp:-
In February 2006 Walkers changed their brand label andtypeset. They also announced they were to reduce thesaturated fatin their crisps by 70%.They started frying their crisps in Sun Seed oil, a variety of sunflower oil, claiming the oil’s higher monounsaturated fat content made it healthier than the sunflower oil which they used previously.They once again changed their packaging style in June 2007, rather similar to the logo used from 1998-2006.
In July 2008 Walkers launched its “Do Us A Flavour” campaign, challenging members of the public to think up a unique flavour of crisp. In January 2009 six flavours were picked and released as special editions, available until May 2009. During this period, consumers could vote on their favourite and the winner would become a permanent flavour. The winner of the competition was Builder’s Breakfast by Emma Rushin fromBelperinDerbyshire.
Management transformation and other alteration gives benefits to Walkers Company and strengthen the company. The some benefits are as under;
- Walkers become world’s largest crisp producing company after joining the Pepsi Co.
- It becomes more profit able company in 2007 after transforming.
- Walkers launched its “Do Us A Flavour” campaign, challenging members of the public to think up a unique flavour of crisp.
- An estimated “11 million people will eat a Walkers product every day”.
From: – Ch.Asif Hussain
To: – Board of Directors
Subject: – Change in Current Economic Scenario
Date: – 10 March 2010
Changes in current economic situation are very difficult for any organisation because any big change in organisation is an experiment which can be harmful for the organisation in current economic scenario.
- Any changes can be effect positively or negatively.
- Any change can change the basic strategy of the organisation.
- Change can be the method through which any organisation move up or down.
- By the changing of strategy they any organisation can improve their market value.
- Change can decrease management level.
In this task we will discuss about the organisation those are practicing bureaucratic management style. These organisations are well known and strong organisations. In this task we will take an over view the strength and the weaknesses of these bureaucratic organisations and assess them. And analyse that how they works and how they adopt the change.
Objectives of Task
The objectives of this task are as under;
- Assess the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucratic organisations.
- Role of bureaucratic organisations.
- To identify two bureaucratic organisations.
- Change in bureaucratic organisations
- Report on bureaucratic organisations.
From:- Chaudhry Asif Hussain
To:- Managing Director
Subject:- Analysis of two bureaucratic Organisations
Date:- 03 April 2010
There are so many bureaucratic Organisations in the world al are well known and establish organisations but I have selected two organisations those are as under;
- Pakistan International Airline (PIA)
- British Airline, England
1). Pakistan International Airline (PIA)
After a short period of independence, Pakistan decided in 1951 that it needed a national flag carrier airline; the government of the country accordingly establishedPakistan International Airlines (PIA)in this role, and on 25 May ordered three examples of theLockheed L-1049C Super Constellationfour-engined airliner as the new operator’s initial equipment. PIA flew its first service with the Super Constellation on07 June 1954on the route linking Karachi and Dacca (now Dhaka), which were the main cities of the country’s western and eastern halves, of which the later is now Bangladesh. On1 February 1955the airline flew its first international service, between Karachi and London via Cairo.
In the first half of the year 1999, PIA acquired fiveBoeing 747-367aircraft (initially leased fromCathay Pacific) for its European and North American destinations. In 2002 PIA signed an agreement with Boeing Company for the biggest aircraft deal in the history of PIA. After a dry spell of 10 years, PIA ordered new aircraft – 8 wide-body aircraft from theBoeing 777family for its long-haul flights. The airline accepted delivery of its firstBoeing 777-240ERaircraft at Boeing Field in Seattle, USA, on 29 January, 2004. On 2 November, 2005, PIA signed an agreement withAvions de Transport Regional(ATR) of France to purchase seven brand new ATR 42-500 turbo prop aircraft. These new 48-seater ATRs will replace PIA’s ageing fleet of Fokker F-27s on airline’s domestic and regional route network. On May 31, 2006, PIA received its first ATR 42-500 in Toulouse, France. The remaining six ATR 42-500s were delivered to the airline between 2006 and 2007.
Working Methods of PIA
PIA is a well known organisation in the word. PIA is having very experienced and skilled crew members, equipped with latest tools and technology. They provide best services during the travel and make the journey happy. PIA also launches so many packages for their regular customers which enhance their profit revenue.
The airline, with its head office on the grounds ofJinnah International AirportinKarachi,is the 31stlargest airlinein Asia, operating scheduled services to 23 domestic destinations and 36 international destinations in 25 countries across Asia, Europe and North America.
Its main bases are Karachi,LahoreandIslamabad/Rawalpindi. The airline’s secondary bases includePeshawar,Faisalabad,Quetta,SialkotandMultan, from which it connects the metropolitan cities with the main bases, the Middle East and theFar East. The airline is owned by the Government of Pakistan (87%) and other shareholders (13%). It employed 18,043 people as of May 2008.
Impact of Bureaucratic PIA
PIA is a very big and old organisation having thousands of employees and dealing with such a big number of customers, they are having a very good organisational structure using the bureaucratic approach to execute their policies. In PIA they use the traditional form of bureaucracy, the law, policy and regulations are normally created by the top management or board of executives and there is also a big role of Government intervention.
Changing Methods in PIA
As we know PIA is a bureaucratic organisation and it’s a very long and difficult process to introduce new change to their organisation. They follow a very systematic way to cup up with changes. To bring change into the organisation the decision is taken by the higher authorities and implementation is made on the ground in a series of steps instructed by the top level management.
British Airways (UK)
British Airways is theflag carrierairlineof the United Kingdom. BA has its headquarters inWatersidenear its mainhubatLondon Heathrow Airportand is the largest airline in the UK based on fleet size, international flights and international destinations. Its second hub isLondon Gatwick Airport. British Airways signed an agreement with Spanish carrierIberiato create Europe’s second largest airline group. British Airways has discontinued all direct overseas flights from UK airports other than Heathrow, Gatwick andLondon City Airport. BA’s UK passengers originating at non-London airports must now connect via London or use other airlines with direct services. The British Airways Group was formed on 1 September 1974 throughnationalizationby the Labour Government of the time. BA was formed from two large London-based airlines,BOACandBEA, and two much smaller regional airlines, Cambrian AirwaysCardiffand Northeast AirlinesNewcastle upon Tyne. All four companies were dissolved on 31 March 1974 to form British Airways (BA) and almost thirteen years later, in February 1987, the company was privatized. The carrier soon expanded with the acquisition ofBritish Caledonianin 1988 and Gatwick-based carrierDan-Airin 1992. Despite being a primarily Boeing customer, British Airways placed a major order for Airbus aircraft in November 1998 with the purchase of 89A320 Familyaircraft. In 2007, the carrier placed its next major order, marking the start of itslong-haulfleet replacement, orderingAirbus A380sand Boeing 787s. The centerpiece of the airline’s long-haul fleet is theBoeing 747-400; with over 50 examples in service, British Airways is the largest operator of the type in the world.
The formation ofRichard Branson’sVirgin Atlantic Airwaysin 1984 began a tense relationship with BA. In 1993, the fierce rivalry led to “one of the most bitter and protracted libel actions in aviation history” in which British Airways apologised “unreservedly” for a “dirty tricks” campaign against Virgin leading to them paying damages and legal costs. Until 2008 British Airways was the largest airline of the UK, measured by passenger numbers. In 2008, the airline carried 35.7 million passengers. Rival UK carrierEasyJetcarried 44.5 million passengers in the same year, taking the title from British Airways.
British Airways is listed on theLondon Stock Exchangeand is a constituent of theFTSE 100 Index.On 31 March 2009, the airline celebrated its 35th anniversary. On 12 November 2009, British Airways confirmed that it had reached a preliminary agreement to merge withIberia. The merger between the two carriers will create the world’s third-largest airline in terms of annual revenue.The merger was confirmed on 8 April 2010, and it is expected to be completed by the end of the year.
Working Methods of British Airline
British Airline is the largest travelling service provider in UK and also part of the conglomerate of airline. They provide best travelling services to their customers and they are having good relationship among the customers.
British Airline using advertising method and using advertising agency for many years by BA wasSaatchi & Saatchi, who created many of the most famous advertisements for the airline. It created the influential “Face” commercial for the airline; following the termination of its relationship with BA, it also made an imitation of this commercial for rivalSilverjetin 2007.As of February 2007, BA’s advertising agency isBartle Bogle Hegarty.
British Airways’speedbirdlogo marks the entrance toLondon Heathrow Terminal 5
Prior to “The World’s Favorite Airline”, advertising slogans included:
- “The World’s Best Airline”.
- “We’ll Take More Care Of You”.
- “Fly the Flag”.
Online, the value of the British Airways Brand was pushed in 2002 as that the company was able to buy its acronym, and itsIATAAirline code the letters “BA” as theirinternet domainba.com. The domain was previously owned byBell Atlantic. Only five airlines (AA, BA, LH, RJ, XL) and a few companies own a two-letter .com domain name.
British Airways is the official airline of theWimbledon Championship tennis tournament, and the official airline and tier 1 partner of the2012 Summer Olympics.
Bureaucratic Management in British Airline
Management structure type is the same like PIA management. British Airways is also using bureaucratic management method. British Airways is using management approaches like other bureaucratic organisations, they are very systematic and structured in bringing any change into their organisation and the way they are working. On the Government level, a comprehensive liberalization policy for telecoms sector is was offered. Which bring the concept of privatizing the public sector organisations and British Airways was one among those.
Changing Approach of British Airways
British Airways is a bureaucratic organisation and having a big Hierarchy in the management. Once BA change the traditional Flag Scheme several people spoke out against the change from the traditional Union Flag Scheme, including the former Prime MinisterMargaret Thatcherwho covered the tail of a model BA plane with a white handkerchief captured by BBC News cameras. BA’s traditional rivals, Virgin Atlantic, quickly adopted the British flag along with the slogan “Britain’s national flag carrier”. But BA management doesn’t get back.
- They work efficiently in big organisational structures
- To bring change in organisation is very lengthy and time consuming process, it also takes more efforts as compared to other types of organisations.
- Bureaucratic organisations are very systematic and well structured
Most of organisations are using the concept of Fordism to have more advantages. In this task the focus is on how organisation can work more effectively by using alternative forms of organisational development except that they are using.
They need to respond to the situations quickly and efficiently by providing good products and services to their customers. To have competitive advantages organisations needs to adapt to newer and better methods of organisational management.
Following are the main objectives of this task
- What is Fordism and its importance.
- Fordism in modern management.
- Comparison of two organisations between alternative forms of organisational development.
Fordism refers to the system ofmass productionand consumption characteristic of highly developed economies during the 1940s-1960s. Under Fordism, mass consumption combined with mass production to produce sustained economic growth and widespread material advancement. The 1970s-1990s have been a period of slower growth and increasing income inequality. During this period, the system of organization of production and consumption has, perhaps, undergone a second transformation, which when mature promises a second burst of economic growth. This new system is often referred to as the “flexible system of production” (FSP) or the “Japanese management system.” On the production side, FSP is characterized by dramatic reductions in information costs and overheads, Total Quality Management (TQM), just-in-time inventory control, and leaderless work groups; on the consumption side, by the globalization of consumer goods markets, faster product life cycles, and far greater product/market segmentation and differentiation.
Henry Ford was once a popular symbol of the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial, mass production, mass consumption economy. Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), for example, styles the modern era AF — after Ford. Although partly myth, there is some merit to this attribution. Ford was the creative force behind the growth to preeminence of the automobile industry, still the world’s largest manufacturing activity. As Womack, Jones, and Roos (1990: 11) explain: “Twice in this century [the auto industry] has changed our most fundamental ideas about how we make things. And how we make things dictates not only how we work but what we buy, how we think, and the way we live.”
The Standardization of the product
- The use of Special-purpose tools and/or equipment via the assembly line
- The Elimination of skilled labor in direct production, while simultaneously paying the worker higher wages.
Fordism is a production process that standardized the production for a lower price and for a larger production. The factories were built on places where labor or raw materials for the product were available. The companies were in this way dependent of the place they were built. Besides that the city was dependent of the companies, because they served employment.
Fordism in modern management:-
Fordism posits a binary history, in which the moving forces of the age are captured in a transition between ‘eras’ of ‘Fordism’ and ‘post-Fordism’. This two volume set contains reprints of 48 journal articles addressing the associated debates. The editors note two versions of the concepts: ‘Fordism 1′ is exemplified by the work of the French Regulation School, and discusses changes in the capitalist ‘mode of regulation’, in which ‘Fordism’ is an international ‘system’ of national capitalisms. Mass production and mass consumption are articulated through Keynesian policy instruments. Since this is the subject of another volume in the same series edited by Bob Jessop, the focus of this two volume set is ‘Fordism 2′–or the idea of ‘mass production’ system, characterised by long production runs of standardised products on dedicated production equipment by unskilled workers. When such a ‘brittle conception’ (Vol. 1, p. xiv) forms the template against which developments in production are compared, new forms of work may appear ‘post-Fordist’, and one may have a feeling that something has been explained by applying the label. Thus, the questions at the heart of the two volume set are: to what extent did the ‘Fordism of Ford’ correspond to the ‘brittle’ stereotype, and to what extent are recent trends in complex manufacturing–like lean production, or ‘flexible specialisation’-
In the context of this factsheet, we define OD as ‘planned and systematic approach to enabling sustained organisation performance through the involvement of its people’. Behind this definition lies a depth of research and practice, but also confusion.
Others have described OD in the following ways;
- A planned process of change in an organisation’s culture through the utilisation of behavioural science technology, research and theory. (Warner Burke)
- A long-range effort to improve an organisation’s problem-solving capabilities and its ability to cope with changes in its external environment with the help of external or internal behavioural-scientist consultants, or change agents as they are sometimes called. (Wendell French)
- An effort (1) planned, (2) organisation-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organisation effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organisation’s ‘processes’, using behavioural science knowledge. (Richard Beckhard)
- A system-wide process of data collection, diagnosis, action planning, intervention, and evaluation aimed at (1) enhancing congruence among organisational structure, process, strategy, people and culture; (2) developing new and creative organisational solutions; and (3) developing the organisation’s self-renewing capacity. It occurs through the collaboration of organisational members working with a change agent using behavioural science theory, research and technology. (Michael Beer)
These definitions may vary in emphasis, but there are common features:
- OD applies to changes in the strategy, structure, and/or processes ofan entire system, such as an organisation, a single plant of a multi-plant firm, a department or work group, or individual role or job.
- OD is based on theapplication and transfer of behavioural science knowledge and practice(such as leadership, group dynamics and work design), and is distinguished by its ability to transfer such knowledge and skill so that the system is capable of carrying out more planned change in the future.
- OD is concerned withmanaging planned change, in a flexiblemanner that can be revised as new information is gathered.
- OD involves both the creation and the subsequent reinforcement of change byinstitutionalising change.
- OD is orientated toimproving organisational effectiveness by:
- helping members of the organisation to gain the skills and knowledge necessary to solve problems by involving them in the change process, and
- by promoting high performance including financial returns, high quality products and services, high productivity, continuous improvement and a high quality of working life.
The challenge with many of the definitions of OD is that they may be technically correct, but do they actually help people to understand and practice in the field of OD? This factsheet explores the history of OD to increase the understanding and looks at the characteristics and examples of ORGANISATION DEVELOPMENT in practice.
Comparison Between PIA & British Airways
Both these companies are public sector organization with big revenue generation each year and thousands of employees providing air treveling services to their customers throughout their respective countries.
- Fordism is the assumption which helps organizations in the development of the
- Consistency of the product.
- Fordism helps organizations in modern management to produce good services to their customers.
- Help organizations in developing goods and services in as assembly line.
In this task we have to analyse the various models that one of the organisation hired me and they require from me to come up with a clearer idea of the available models for change and come up with a presentation to the management of the describing the various models available for the organisation during the exchange from ‘shop’ environment to ‘internet sales’, and advise the management which model to use, which is the best, and appropriate for the organisation.
The objectives of this task are as under;
- Explore models for organisation.
- Express the appropriate model for change from shop environment to internet sale.
Organisation change model
When an organization changes its overall strategy for success, adds or removes a major section or practice, and/or wants to change the very nature by which it operates. It also occurs when an organization evolves through various life cycles, just like people must successfully evolve through life cycles. For organizations to develop, they often must undergo significant change at various points in their development. That’s why the topic of organizational change and development has become widespread in communications about business, organizations, leadership and management.
The available models for British Airways are as under;
Vibrant Model for BA
Vibrant model is focused on the increasing need due to increasing change of pace for the change process. This model was produced by Schon. The intention of this process model is to make the change process in organizations more flexible and dynamic.
Tom Peters and Robert Waterman Change Model
The McKinsey 7-S Model was created by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman while they were working for McKinsey & Company, and by Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos at a meeting in 1978 (12Manage, 2007). The McKinsey 7-S model is a holistic approach to company organization, which collectively determines how the company will operate (12Manage, 2007). There are seven different factors that are a part of the model: shared values, strategy, structure, systems, style, staff, and skills, which all work collectively to form the model (12Manage, 2007).
A. Kotter model
This is used within the Every Child Matters: Change for Children programme and may be something you have already come across locally.
The model is based on research which shows that there are eight critical steps an organisation or service needs to go through to ensure that change happens and sticks.
These steps are:
1. establish a sense of urgency
- examine market and competitive realities
- identify and discuss crises, potential crises or major opportunities.
2. Form a powerful, guiding coalition
- assemble a group with enough power to lead the change effort
- encourage the group to work together as a team.
- create a vision to help direct the change effort
- develop strategies for achieving that vision
4. communicate the vision
- use every vehicle possible to communicate the new vision and strategies
- teach new behaviours by the example of the guiding coalition
5. empower others to act on the vision
- get rid of obstacles to change
- change systems or structures that seriously undermine the vision
- encourage risk taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions.
In tasks we have to take an over view on the change models and process are provided, now in this task the focus is on the implementation of the change process and its activities. In this task it is required to show the execution process of the change model for British Airways, because without proper and good implementation planning is just waste of resources and time.
The objectives of this task are as under;
- Assess the effectiveness of the change models for British Airways.
- The implementation plan for the process of change for PIA.
Execution of the change process:-
- Check on and record progress
- Make sure that change is permanent
- Evaluate the change
- Improve on any weak areas
- Overcome resistance
- Involve all personnel affected
- Keep everyone informed
- Devise an appropriate reward system
- Be willing to compromise on detail
- Ensure that strategies are adaptable
- Select people to champion change
- Provide support and training
- Monitor and review
Two types of change
(1) Step change:-
- Dramatic or radical change in one fell swoop
- Radical alternation in the organisation
- Gets it over with quickly
- May require some coercion
(2) Incremental change:-
- Ongoing piecemeal change which takes place as part of an organisation’s evolution and development
- Tends to more inclusive
Organization members are the key source of energy for change. Key members recognize the need for change and are attracted by the positive outcomes of change.
Steps in Change Process
- Recognition of the need for change
- Establishment of goals for the change
- Diagnoses of relevant variables
- Selection of appropriate change technique
- Planning for implementation of the change
- Actual Implementation
- Evaluation and follow up
In this task we have to ask to look at the current situation at organization of British Airways and develop systems to involve appropriate stakeholders in the introduction of change. Approach to this task must reflect the materials covered in the previous tasks.
The objectives of this task are as under;
- Identification of key stakeholder of PTCL
- Development of a system to involve the major stakeholders in the change process
Current Scenario of PIA
I have observed a trend of aggressive marketing and advertisement by the airline operators in Pakistan.
PIA in-flight magazine,Humsafar(Urdu for “travel companion”), is provided to all passengers on all international and domestic flights. Humsafar was introduced on PIA flights in 1980 and is printed and published in-house on a bi-monthly basis. General Urdu and English newspapers and magazines are available to all Business Plus and Economy Plus class passengers on PIA flights. Free newspapers are provided to all Economy class passengers.
Role of Management in Change process
The main role of stakeholders are as under;
- Govt of Pakistan
- Unoin of Employees
PTCL have the opportunity to bring change into their organistion by keeping in streamline the above three stakeholders, we remember that in 2002 when the mangamgent of PTCL decide to sell some shares of the company to Eitesalat which is a UAE company, the employee union start protests against the decision country wide and go on strike, while in some areas they create some technical problems in the telephone exchanges and the communication services in some areas of the country was terminated, they refuse to repair the undersea optical fiber line between Karachi and Singapore and due to that the internet services were badly effected in the whole country. The main reason for all this was the lack of communication between the top management of the company and employees union of PTCL, the employees union was not considered as stakeholder and their problems and reservation was not taken into account properly, and they also feel that by privatizing the company the employee’s rights may be affected.
- All they key stakeholders must be part of organizational change
- Proper activities should be organized with all stakeholders to create awareness about the change
- Everyone in organization must know that why change is needed
- Vision of change must be developed and evaluate time by time
- There should be some contingency plan before starting the change process.