Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment Management Essay
Job satisfaction is the variable used to explain whether employees are happy, pleased and contented with their jobs. Job satisfaction explains the ease, affirmative emotions, comfort, contentment, pleasure of the employee at the workplace he/ she is working in. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment both have an impact on turnover intension. Job satisfaction has an opposite relation to turnover intention of the employees(Griffeth, Horn, & Gaertner, 2000; Currivan, 1999). According to a research organizational commitment and turnover intension are found to be inversely related of one another (Horn & Griffith, 1995; Mathieu & Zajac, 1990; Mowday, et al., 1982) As explained by Frederick Herzbergs theory that satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employee are determined by different factors including stimulating or motivation and hygiene factors. Motivating factors involves those aspects of the job that make the employee to perform better, this factor provides employee with contentment, for example achievement in work, acknowledgment, promotion, learning, growth in career opportunities. The factors which are said to be motivating for the employee are basically considered to be central to the job, whereas the Hygiene factors include aspects of the work that are more extrinsic such as such as company policies, supervision, pay, evaluation of the employee and other working conditions. Job satisfaction can be manipulated by many factors, example, one’s relationship with their supervisor, physical environment in which they work, degree of achievement in their work, etc. Job satisfaction in the employees of any organization can give remarkable advantage to any organization, as high in spirits workers are supposed to work better and to produce more, take fewer days off, and stay devoted to the company. Job satisfaction is defined as the approach of physiothrapists toward the organization, their job, job environment, culture in the organization, achievements from the organization. A positive attitude of the employee toward these aspects indicates job satisfaction and vice versa. Job satisfaction can be analyzed directly through a survey by asking the physiotherapists questions about the company, the job, etc., The physiotherapists are asked to respond in a manner which is quantifiable. Job satisfaction is inversely proportional to turnover intension. This shows that lower level of job satisfaction give rise to greater turnover intension among employees in any organization. there is a positive relationship between person-organization fit and job satisfaction ( Kristof, 1996). Job satisfaction have been negatively related to turnover intension ( Eby, 1999). . Low job satisfaction, at the organizational level, has been linked to decrease Task performance, increased absenteeism, job turnover, and Deteriorating organizational morale( Mathieu& Hamel,1 989; Petty, McGee,& Cavender, 1984)
2.4 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Organizational commitment can be defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of organizational goals and values,. It a said to be a feeling of loyalty and sincerity towards the organization. It is a state where there is a firm aspiration of the employee to maintain association in the organization. stated by ( Mowday 1979). Organizational commitment is further explained in three types of commitments to the organizations they are, AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT which tells the emotional commitment and attachment to the culture, work place, location or the organization itself. It shows individuals working with dedication because they are more attached to the organization. Affectively committed employees in the organization can strongly identify with the goals of the organization and desire to be a part of the organization. Another type of commitment that individual shows towards organization is due to the threat of losses that the employee would incur if they have to leave the organization. For example an experienced employee who have developed skills that are specific to the organization in which the individual is working would be more committed to the organization as he/ she might be scared that the skills or learning capabilities developed in this organization might be un effective in other organization. this fear makes the individual much more committed to the organization he or she is working in, this commitment is said to be CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT which shows the threat to the individual of certain losses that the employee would incur if they were to leave organization. Here the commitment of the employee to the organization is due to the reason that the decision of quiting from the organization is costly for the employee. He / she perceives high price from losing the membership of the organization. This cost includes the (economic cost) such as pension and (social cost) such as (friendship with the co workers . There is more committment to the organization in continuance commitment because he she “has to”. NORMATIVE COMMITMENT refers to the obligation or responsibility that the individual feels due to the benefits such as training , education, learning opportunities , career growth given by the organization to the individual. The feeling of obligation makes the individual more committed as the feeling that the organization has invested on the individual makes him stay in the organization to “repay the debt” .the employee stays with the organization in normative commitment because he ” ought to” This is explained by (Meyer and Allen, 1991).. organization commitment was explained as an antecedent of organizational conflict. by ( Aranya and Ferris 1984). An important determinant of organizational commitment is the presence of individual and organizational compatibility, which states that there should be a fit between personal and organizational characteristics. the organizational characteristics may be defined as culture, climate, values, goals, and norms. Whereas the individual characteristics may be values , goals, personality, and attitudes explained by (Kristof 1996) . the greater the compatibility between the individual and the organization , the more will be the organizational commitment. Stated by (Finegan, 2000). Hence there is a positive relationship between organizational-individual fit and organizational commitment in an organization. the role of organization is very significant in developing organizational commitment. If the organization is fulfilling the expectations of the employee by providing an environment that provides professional values and personal development , the employee is likely to be more committed rather than the organizations not giving such healthy environments to the employees. Increase in Conflict in the organization between two opposed groups decreases the organization commitment which in turns give rise to further outcomes such as increase turnover intension. Whereas decrease in conflict in the organization can increase the organizational commitment , which decreases the turnover intension of the employees. (Shafer, 2002). Organizational commitment is defined as relative strength of individual identification with and involvement in the organization (Steers, 1977). Organizational commitment has three components. First component is about the belief in and acceptance of organizational goal. Second component shows the desire to make better attempts on behalf of organization. it is a willingness in the employee to be loyal with the organization.. Third component shows the individuals willingness or desire to maintain membership in the organization. the three components are explained be (Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974). There are positive as well as some negative consequences of organizational commitment. Negative impacts of low level of organizational commitment of the employees in any organization can be shown as high turnover (Koch & Steers, 1978; Porter, Crampon, & Smith, 1976; Steers, 1977; Wiener & Vardi, 1980), it also gives high absenteeism (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979; Smith, 1977; Steers, 1977), greater tardiness (Angle & Perry, 1981), a lack of intention to stay with the firm (Angle & Perry, 1981; Mowday et al., 1979; Steers, 1977; Wiener, 1982), low quantity of work (Steers, 1977), disloyalty to the firm (Schein, 1968). It appears that low levels of commitment are largely dysfunctional for both the individual and the organization. The organization may suffer from an unstable, disloyal work force. There are some of the positive consequences which are seen among the behavior of employees working in any organization. Positive consequences for employees and therefore for the organization could include longer tenure (Mowday et al., 1982), limited intention to quit (Steers, 1977), limited subsequent turnover (Stumpf & Hart-man, 1984), and greater job satisfaction (Hall & Schneider, 1972; Porter et al., 1974). Five foci of organizational commitment have been identified: the job, the organization, the work group, the career, and work values (Blau, 1989; Morrow and McElroy, 1986). ) Organizational Commitment to the organization is defined as an attitudinal variable characterized by an enduring psychological attachment of the employee to the organization. Committed employees are characterized as loyal, productive members of work organizations (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974) who not only recognize the vision and goals of the organizational and but also identify the principles of organization (Buchanan, 1974). A wide array of desirable behavioral outcomes have been linked to work-related commitment of the employees working in the organization including: employee retention, job performance, attendance, work quantity, work quality, and personal sacrifice on behalf of the organization (London, 1983; Rabinowitz and Hall, 1977; Randall, 1990). Proposed linkages between commitment and job performance were initially driven by the properties recognized to each form of work-related commitment. That is, one of the hypothesized benefits of being committed at work (to the job, career and/or organization) is improved job performance. There is a direct relation between organizational commitment and performance and productivity of the employees working in any organization. Organizational commitment is considered to be an important variable due to many reasons. Organizational commitment is a better analyst of turnover intension of the employee than is job satisfaction described by (Koch and Steers, 1976) according to the research of Morday, Porter and Dubin (1974) highly committed employees may perform better than the employees who are less committed or loyal to the organization they are working in. it has been suggested by the research that organizational commitment may represent as a useful and significant indicator of the effectiveness and efficacy of the organization. explained be (Schein 1970, Steers 1975). Organizational commitment is said to be associated by various outcomes among which turnover intension is an important consequence explained by ( Chang, 1999). There is a negative relation between organizational commitment and turnover intension, which means that if an individual is less loyal or less committed to the organization he/ she is working ,the intension to quit from the organization of that individual would be more. As a result the lowering of organizational commitment and increase of turnover intension decrease the productivity, efficacy, profitability of the organization.
2.5 TURNOVER INTENTION
Turn over intention is the best predictor of whether an employee will leave the organization ( Steel 2002); and job satisfaction is one of the major factors affecting an individual’s decision( Hom and Kinicki2 001;Griffeth, Hom and Gaertner 2000). It is described as the propensity to leave the organization , it is a behavioral intension that precedes actual turnover (Futrell 1984). Propensity to leave is explained as predictor to turnover by (Johnston 1987). Researcher like (Johnston , 1987 , Fern , Avila 1989) have explained that propensity to leave the organization have a significant impact on performance. Turnover intension is a variable that is linked with various work related outcomes such as job satisfaction, performance, pay, pay satisfaction explained by (Porter and Steers, 1973, Griffeth and Hom ,1995).
Performance in any organization has a multifaceted and a complex nature. relation to a pre-determined set of expectations Organizational performance may similarly be evaluated by comparing the performance profitability and achievement of various organizations in specific measurable areas (e.g. production output, number of clients seen, percentage increase in profit), or evaluation of the organization performance by pre-determined set of expectations. Organizational effectiveness is likely to be characterized in terms of the attainment of specified goals such as financial or productivity outcomes and the satisfaction of strategic constituencies such as owners, shareholders, customers, suppliers and creditors (Robbins & Barnwell 1994). The increase in job satisfaction and increase in organizational commitment as a result increase the overall performance of the employees.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.1 DATA COLLECTION:
Through field work which includes visiting physiotherapy departments of various hospitals and make the 1st questionnaire filled by the physiotherapists and 2nd by the coordinator for performance evaluation of physiotherapist The questionnaire is designed on research articles and questionnaire related to topic. In hospitals meeting the coordinator of physiotherapy department in order to take his or her help to identify the physiotherapists who could be the participants. The survey would be self administered and data that is collected from respondent will then be used for statistical work from each hospital.
3.2 : TESTING INSTRUMENT
For the collection of data the instrument which is used in this research is questionnaire for surveys and module of SPSS as a testing tool. The technique of GENERAL LINEAR MODEL was used for the testing because the data collected by the survey has both nominal and ordinal type of data. Therefore GENERAL LINEAR MODEL is the best way to evaluate the data.
3.3 QUESTIONNAIRES TAKEN FOR INSTRUMENT:
2 questionnaires are designed for this study contain closed ended questions. 1st questionnaire is for the physiotherapist taken from the source Pelled & Eisenhardt & Xin (1999) for emotional and task conflict whereas organization commitment, turnover intension, job satisfaction from the university of Minnesota (2001). 2nd questionnaire is the performance evaluation of physiotherapist for the coordinator of physiotherapy department taken from source of university of Minnesota.(2001). All answers will be recorded on likert five point scales.
3.4 TESTING OF QUESTIONNAIRE
In order to evaluate whether the questionnaire has any biased questions , ambiguous questions, and questions that are irrelevant to the study ,it is gone through a pre-test. Reliability of the questionnaire is checked in Pilot testing where 25% of the sample size is checked. This pre-testing of the questionnaire is done in order to find out the potential problems.
3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:
Sampling technique used in this research is “convenience technique”. Hospitals of Karachi would be the target segment for the collection of primary data through questionnaires. Sampling is done on the bases of sources used in order to approach the respondents. 4 hospitals have been selected. Among them 2 are selected due to geographical access and other 2 are selected due to employee references. Physiotherapists are chosen who ever available easily bases.
3.6 SAMPLE SIZE: The sample size consist 100 physiotherapists, that consist of :
Male / Female
Four Age group including (25—35), (36—45), (46—55), (56—above) .
Qualification of BSPT (bachelors of physiotherapy) and MSPT (masters of physiotherapy).
Having experience of at least one year.
Physiotherapists of four hospitals ( Liaquat National Hospital, Agha Khan Hospital, Tabba Hospital, National Hospital, Zubaida Hospital)
Physiotherapists qualified from the institutes ( Liaquat National Hospital, Jinnah Hospital, Ziauddin 4.1.1 ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN HOSPITALS
Organizational commitment is highest in hospital 5 ( national hospital ) as its beta value is highest that is 0. In hospital 4 ( zubaida hospital ) organizational commitment is second highest as its beta value is 2nd highest -0.183. In hospital 3 ( Tabba hospital ) the organizational commitment is 3rd highest due to its 3rd highest beta value that is -0.196. In hospital 1 ( liaquat national hospital ) the organization commitment is 4th highest as its beta value beta value is also 4th highest -0.322 . In hospital 2 ( agha khan hospital ) organizational commitment is lowest as it has lowest beta value -0.379
4.1.2 IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Emotional conflict among the physiotherapists have no significant impact in this research.
4.1.3 IMPACT OF TASK CONFLICT ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Task conflict shows negative relation which means low level of organizational commitment exist if higher level of task conflict is there in organization. As the beta value -0.247 for task conflict showing negative relation with organizational commitment.
4.2.1 TURNOVER INTENSION IN HOSPITALS:
The highest turnover intension is present in hospital 1 ( agha khan hospital ) as its beta value is highest ( 0.101) . than 2nd highest TOI is in hospital 5 ( national hospital) its beta value is 2nd highest ( 0 ). 3rd highest TOI is in hosp 4 ( zubaida hospital ) as its beta value is 3rd highest (-0.022) 4th highest TOI is in hospital 3 ( tabba hospital ) as its beta value is 4th highest ( -0.146) 5th highest TOI is in hospital 2 ( liaquat national hospital) as its beta value is 5th highest ( -0.147)
4.2.2 TURNOVER INTENSIONS IN AGES:
The highest turnover intension is in age 3 ( 46——-55) as its beta value is highest that is 0. Second highest TOI is in age 2 ( 36———45) as its beta value is 2nd highest -0.306. Third highest TOI is in age 1 ( 25——-35) as its beta value is lowest -0.422.
4.2.3 IMPACT OF TASK CONFLICT ON TURNOVER INTENSION
TASK CONFLICT has no significant impact on the turnover intension.
4.2.4 IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL CONFLICT ON TURNOVER INTENSION
EMOTIONAL CONFLICT shows a significant direct relation with TOI as its value is positive 0.519 which means people quit from there jobs due to emotional conflict. Higher emotional conflict is the indicator of high turnover intensions
4.3.1 TENURE : The tenure in the hospital has positive impact on job satisfaction, as the beta value is positive (0.049) shows that higher the tenure, higher will be the job satisfaction.
4.3.2 JOB SATISFACTION IN HOSPITALS:
Job satisfaction is highest in hospital 1 that is agha khan hospital as its beta value is highest 0.102, 2nd highest satisfaction is in hospital 3 that is tabba hospital as its beta value is 2nd highest that is 0.017. 3rd highest satisfaction is in hospital 4 that is zubaida hospital as its beta value is 3rd highest 0.001. 4th highest satisfaction is in hospital 5 that is national hospital as its beta value is 0 which is 4th highest. lowest satisfaction is in hospital 2 that is liaquat national hospital where the beta value is -0.343.
4.3.3 JOB SATISFACTION IN AGES:
Highest job satisfaction is found in age 1 (25——35), as its beta is highest 0.422. 2nd highest satisfaction is in age 2 ( 36——-45), as its beta is 2nd highest 0.337. lowest satisfaction is found in age 3 (46——–55) , as its beta is lowest that is 0.
4.3.4 JOB SATISFACTION IN QUALIFICATIONS: There is more job satisfaction in physiotherapist who are MSPT ( qualification 2) as the beta value is more which is 0. The satisfaction in BSPT ( qualification 1) is less as the beta value is -0.017.
4.3.5 TASK CONFLICT: The task conflict has a negative impact on job satisfaction as the beta value is negative ( -0.131) shows higher the task conflict , lower will be the job satisfaction.
4.3.6 IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL CONFLICT ON JOB SATISFACTION :
Emotional conflict among the physiotherapists have no significant impact on the job satisfaction of the physiotherapists
4.3.7 QUALIFICATIONS IN HOSPITALS:
In liaquat national hospital BSPT has highest job satisfaction, as its beta is highest (0.238) . in agha khan MSPT, In liaquat national MSPT, In tabba hospital BSPT, in zubaida hospital both BSPT and MSPT and in national hospital BSPT have 2nd highest job satisfaction, as the beta value is 2nd highest that 0. In agha khan hospital BSPT have lowest job satisfaction as its beta value is lowest that is -0.188.
QUALIFICATION is not significant in this model . qualification that is BSPT has greater beta value that is 0.384 so it has greater performance. Where as beta of MSPT is low that is 0 it shows is lower performance.
AGE : age is also not significant in the model. Age 1(25——–35) has greatest beta that is 0.34 showing greatest performance , than age 2 (36—45) which shows 2nd best performance as its beta value is 2nd highest 0.05. and age 3 ( 45—–55) has lowest beta value that is 0, showing lowest performance .
4.4.1 IMPACT OF HOSPITALS:
Hospital 5 that is national hospital has the highest performance as the beta value highest (0). Hospital 3 that is tabba hospital has the 2nd highest performance as the beta value is 2nd highest (-0.155). hospital 1 that is agha khan hospital shows the third highest performance as the beta value is third highest (-0.358). hospital 2 which is liaquat national hospital has fourth highest performance as the beta is fourth highest (-0.366). hospital 4 that is zubaida hospital has lowest performance as the beta value is lowest (-0.380).
4.4.2 EMOTIONAL CONFLICT
The emotional conflict has no significant impact on performance of the physiotherapists.
4.4.3 TASK CONFLICT:
The task conflict has a inverse relation with performance. As the beta shows a negative value
-0.242 showing that higher the task conflict lower will be performance of the physiotherapists.
4.4.4 TENURE IN THE HOSPITAL:
The relationship between tenure in a particular hospital and performance is positive. Because the beta is positive (0.153) . the higher the tenure, or the more senior the physiotherapist is, the better will be their performance.
4.4.5 IMPACT OF EXPERIENCE:
The relation between experience and performance is negative as the value of beta is negative
(-0.110) this shows that higher the experience, lower will be the performance of physiotherapists.
4.4.6 IMPACT OF QUALIFICATION AND AGES ON PERFORMANCE:
Qualification BSPT having age 2 (36—–45) , qualification MSPT having age 1
(25——35), qualification MSP T having age (36———45), qualification MSPT having age 3 (46———55) all have higher and better performance as the beta is 0. Where as qualification BSPT having age 1 (25———35) have lower performance as the beta is lower (-0.496).
4.5.1 PERFORMANCE OF QUALIFICATIONS The first qualification that is BSPT has higher beta value that is 0.413 which means it has better performance. Where as second qualification that is MSPT has lower beta value that is 0. The impact of qualifications is not significant on the performance level of the physiotherapists.
4.5.2 PERFORMANCE OF AGES:
age 1( 25——–35) has highest beta value ( 0.364) showing higher performance . second better performance is in age 2(36——–45) having beta value (0.17). lowest performance is in age group 3 (46——55) having lowest beta of 0. Age has no significant impact on the performance level of the physiotherapist.
4.5.3 IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ON PERFORMANCE
Organization commitment having positive beta value 0.412 showing direct relation with performance, this means higher organizational commitment indicates higher performance.
4.5.4 IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON PERFORMANCE :Job satisfaction have positive beta value that is 0.304 higher job satisfaction means higher performance.
4.5.5 IMPACT OF TURNOVER INTENSION ON PERFORMANCE:
Turnover intension has no significant impact on the performance level of the physiotherapists.
4.5.6 IMPACT OF TENURE ON PERFORMANCE :Tenure in the hospital is also directly proportional having a positive beta 0.152 .it shows the more senior the physiotherapist in the hospital, the better will be the performance
4.5.7 IMPACT OF EXPERIENCE ON PERFORMANCE:
Experience has negative beta value that is -0.113 showing the greater the overall experience , the lower will be the performance
4.5.8 IMPACT OF QUALIFICATION AND AGES ON PERFORMANCE:
Qualification 2 (MSPT) having age 1 (25——-35) , qualification 2 (MSPT) having age 2 ( 36——-45) , qualification 2 (MSPT) having age 3 ( 45——55).
, qualification 1 ( BSPT) having age 2 ( 36—–45) all have higher same performance. But qualification 1 ( BSPT) having age 1 ( 25——–35) showing lower beta value ( -0.537) shows lower performance.
4.6.1 IMPACT OF TURNOVER INTENSION ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT:
The organizational commitment of any organization has a negative relation with turnover intension. The beta is showing a negative value (-0.395), that interprets that high organizational commitment leads to low turnover intension.
4.6.2 IMPACT OF TURNOVER INTESION ON JOB SATISFACTION
There is no significant impact of turnover intension on the job satisfaction.
4.7 HYPOTHESIS TESTING:
After applying the statistical test, based on the significant (p value), the study has explored the impact of conflict and its consequences on performance.
Ho1: Task conflict increase the performance of the organization
Result : Ho1 rejected ( task conflict has negative relation with performance)
Ho2 : Emotional conflict decrease the performance
Result : Ho2 rejected (emotional conflict has no impact on performance)
Ho3: Conflict decreases organizational commitment of employees
Result : Ho3 accepted for task conflict ( task conflict has negative relation with organizational commitment,)
Ho3: rejected for emotional conflict (emotional conflict has no impact on organizational commitment)
Ho4: Conflict decreases job satisfaction of employees
Result : Ho4 accepted for task conflict (task conflict has a inverse relation with job satisfaction)
Ho4 rejected for emotional conflict (emotional conflict has no impact on the job satisfaction
Ho5 : Organizational commitment can decrease the turnover intension
Result : Ho5 accepted (organizational commitment has a negative relation with turnover intension)
Ho6 : Job satisfaction can decrease turnover intension
Result : Ho6 rejected ( job satisfaction has no impact on turnover intension)
Ho7:Increase in organizational commitment can lead to increase in performance
Result : Ho7 accepted (increase in organizational commitment can lead to increase in performance)
Ho8: Increase in job satisfaction can lead to increase in performance
Result: Ho8 accepted (increase in job satisfaction can lead to increase in performance)
Ho9 : Increase in turnover intension can lead to a decrease in performance
Result : Ho9 rejected ( Turnover Intension has no impact on performance of employees)
CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION
After doing a survey in five well-known hospitals of Karachi where the service of physiotherapy has been provided, through two questionnaires one of which is filled by the physiotherapist and the other by the coordinator of the department of physiotherapist it was found that inspite of the fact that conflict is an unavoidable phenomenon and it do has some dysfunctional consequences it is not necessary that the conflict in the organization and its consequences always have an impact on the performance of the physiotherapist. The analysis of the result shows that task conflict, organizational commitment and job satisfaction do have significant impact on performance where as the emotional conflict and turn over intension has no influence on the performance of the physiotherapist.
The questionnaires was taken from the source university of Minnesota(2001) and its result is based on Likert scale. 100 respondents have been chosen to fill the questionnaire who were qualified physiotherapists of various hospitals in Karachi having four years degree of bachelors in physiotherapy. Having age 25-40 would be male or female, having experience of at least one year.
General linear model (GLM) has been applied on the data which is collected through questionnaires to check the significance level of all the selected variables. This model is applied in this research as it handle all type of data (Nominal, Scale, Ordinal) Based on the significant p- value 0.05, variables having highest p-value have been removed from the table one by one till all the variables have p-value less than 0.05. Hypotheses testing has been done among which six hypotheses have been rejected, and rest are accepted.
Through this study, it has been concluded that hospital is an organization which plays a vital role in the health care sector of any country but conflict is a phenomenon which is unpredictable in any organization. It may be have both functional and dysfunctional impact on the performance