Organizational Behavior Of Motivation Leadership And Communication Management Essay
Organizational behavior includes individual behavior and group behavior. Individual behavior contains motivation and group behavior includes leadership and communication. There are the important skills in organization. In this essay, the two methods of motivation will be covered, there are financial motivation and non-financial. In addition, the situational leadership theory will be discussed. Finally,
Aiming at motivating workers, there have been two different kinds of motivation named financial motivation and non-financial motivation methods for companies to use. Motivation is necessary for companies’ operations because a lack of motivation in the short run will result in the reduction of effort and disappearance of commitment (Hall, D et al, 2008). Motivation can be defined as a desire that employees have to do their jobs better. There are some conventional theories of motivation. For instance, Taylor’s Scientific Management puts forward ‘a fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work’, which is one method of financial motivation theories. The other two examples are Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which include both financial and non-financial methods. In fact, financial methods indeed have significant impacts in motivation. Be similar to them, non-financial methods have functional results in motivating employees as well, not as people’s general thoughts that non-financial is less practical.
Firstly, financial motivators are efficient because financial methods are major about money that can also be explained as financial rewards to employees, which can satisfy the basic needs of workers, such as salaries and wages, and different types of payment which involve performance related pay, profit sharing. The great example of financial methods for motivation is Taylor’s theory, a fair day’s pay for a fair day’s work. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Hall, D et al, 2008), money is a fundamental need which belongs to physiological needs for workforce. In addition, Maslow (Hall, D et al, 2008) had divided the needs of staff into five parts, for example, the physiological needs mentioned before is the basis, and the highest level of needs is self-actualization. Figure 1 shows a model of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Source: from Success Circuit (2009)
Furthermore, in research by Hays in 2006, 42% of employees surveyed said they preferred financial rewards, while 9% focused more on non-financial rewards. “This shows a significant increase in the number of people preferring cash rewards” (Hays, 2009). These are the reasons why raising the income may motivate people to become more efficient than other methods.
Despite of that financial motivation methods have significant advantages; monetary methods of incentive are less effective in some situations. The first one is that employees may be paid the same as others who are not as productive as them (Tutor2U, n.d), which can lead to unfairness and dissatisfaction that can be commonly seen in team-work. In addition, rigidity is a serious problem in financial methods of motivation, which means that some workers may enjoy the same income without productivity in the given time. Moreover, financial methods may be useless for high level employees. For example, some employees work in international companies can get high salaries and wages. “When a need is mostly satisfied it no longer motivates and the next higher need takes its place” (Net MBA, 2007). That is, they would pay more attention to other areas of their jobs, such as safety needs and belonging that rank a higher position in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. In a word, those problems of financial motivation methods can not be ignored when doing business.
Non-financial motivation methods may be more available for companies in the long run because they are flexible. Employees may perform better in their given tasks and responsibilities in this way (Scorecard Metrics for HR, 2010). Herzberg’s two-factor theory has stated that there are not only financial methods for motivating the workforce, such as job satisfaction, job enrichment, job rotation, as well as empowerment (Hall, D et.al, 2008). Job enrichment can give new energy to those workers who have been bored with their work and then bring higher productivity (Tutor2U, n.d). Empowerment can fulfill workers’ belonging and the small ambition of power. Furthermore, non-financial methods of motivation are valid motivators for those people who have been appeased with their incomes and ask for higher needs of jobs. For instance, the feeling of belonging as well as a comfortable environment may be needed for employees in companies. Consequently, the benefits of non-financial motivation methods are practical and should be well used.
On the other hand, non-financial motivators also have barriers to a company on some sides, such as difficulties in controlling and unfairness. Firstly, they are hard to operate. For empowerment, the power that is divided into different parts need to give to some excellent and honest employees. However, it is hard for managers to judge whether an individual can deal with authority and decision-making well (Tuto2U, n.d). Secondly, non-financial methods are unfair sometimes, especially in team-work. Everyone in a team may enjoy the same environment and security as fair, but not all colleagues will expend a same effort, which will break the balance in a team. Non-financial methods are definitely beneficial for motivating the workforce, but the limitations will also affect the profit of a firm in a negative way, which should be paid more attention to.
Based on those motivation methods, there could be given some basic recommendations. The first one is that a business ought not to only use financial or non-financial methods in the process of doing business. “A combination of financial and non- financial incentives help together in bringing motivation and zeal to work in a concern” (Management Study, 2009). For example, linking increasing wages to improving working environment or hold activities after working is a functional way to motivate bottom workers and high level employees. Figure 2 shows a model of ideal combinational operation in a firm.
Figure 2: The Model of Ideal Combinational Method
Source: from Derek Stock ley (n.d)
Moreover, as a non-financial method for motivating employees, training is efficient in improving their abilities and getting more professional knowledge. Another useful method is doing researches between employees to make sure what they need. “Staff surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether staff in your company is motivated and therefore performing to best effect”(Business Balls, 2009)
All in all, doing business is a complex process, which needs different directions of information to make strategies. Motivation is one of the most important elements for the operation of a company. Financial and non-financial methods of motivation have different functions in work places. Furthermore, non-financial methods, such as enriching jobs and empowerment to motivate white collar workers could be used more efficiently for managers to avoid defects of non-financial and financial methods. That is, decision makers should be more careful in this area by making a best use of motivation theories and in a practical way.
Except motivation, the situational leadership theory is one of the important theory in the leadership (Bratton et al 2007). It developed by Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard. “Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people” (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973). A good leader uses all of three styles, because different kinds of case they need to use different leadership styles, in order to success (The Performance Juxtaposition Site, 1997). According to Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1969), advised that ‘the leader’s behavior should be adjusted to the maturity level of the followers’. In addition, they sorted the styles of leadership into four behavior types, which includes telling, selling, Participating and Delegating. There are base on the Ohio State leadership studies.
Figure 3: The situational Leadership model
Source: From Organizational development training [on line] (n.d) Leadership Skills
Figure 4: Categorizing Leadership styles
Source: Bratton, J., Callinan, M., Forshaw, C., and Sawchuk, P (2007). Work and Organizational Behavior (Palgrave macmillan 2007), 140
Telling style is the first type of situation leadership, which is similar to the autocratic style that control employee very closely and without consulting (Hall et al 2004). Telling style defines the leader make the important decisions and telling follower to do the roles and tasks (Money-zine, n.d). In addition, this style is suitable for a new environment for the employee, who can be motivated to learn a new skill (The Performance Juxtaposition Site, 1997). According to figure 3 and 4, telling style is used for employees who are unable and unwilling to achieve their work. This mean the characteristic of tell style is high task behavior and high initiating structure, low relationship and little consideration behavior (Bratton et al 2007). As mention before, this style like to autocratic style, if leader use this style should choose the immature subordinates to motivate them. For example, in the modern organization, if your employees are mature, they may de-motivate and resulting in a lack in cohesion because leaders always have a strong control of their subordinates.
The second style is selling leadership style which is similar to telling style. As figure 3 shows, this style of leadership is high task and high relationship behavior. For instance, the leader also makes all the decisions at the end and they will take into subordinates’ benefits, which are relative with high tasks and high relationship. According to Bukisa (2010) listed the leader provides the roles and tasks for each follower but leader will accept the good ideas and suggestions from employees. The different between telling style and selling style, it is communication style, which from one-way to two-way (Money-zine, n.d). In addition, selling style is used for employee who is unable and willing to do the tasks (Bukisa, 2010). It means the workers may not have the skills to success their job and they want to learn some knowledge from their leader in order to develop them to be more confident when they do the job next time.
The third type of situation leadership is participating style, in modern organization; this is a useful style in business, which can develop between employees and their leader (Buzzle, 2010). Participating style define as one or more employees in the decision making. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority (The Performance Juxtaposition Site, 1997). For example, if a manager in a company has a project that needs him to make decision, he would discuss with his team members about the requirements and essential aspects instead of taking direct decision (Buzzle, 2010). In addition, this style is use on employees who are experience and able to do the task. However, they are lake of confidence to take on responsibility (Hersey and Blanchard 1969). According to figure 3, participate style has a high relationship behavior and low task behavior. It showed that it is use on employee who is able but unwilling or insecure (Bratton et al 2007). It may can improved the decision to be better because employees need to communicate with other people and share their ideas. Furthermore, this style also can motivate the worker when they work together is similar to team working. As a result, that is why this style is useful in today’s business sector.
The final one situation leadership is delegating. This style can be interpreted as free reign, because the employees can make decision by themselves. According to Hersey and Blanchard (1969), explained that the characteristic of delegating style is low concern with relationship behavior and task behavior, as shown in figure 3. In addition, they thought that it is used for mature followers who are able and willing to take on the task. For example, “when the leader is working with experienced followers that do not need prompting to take on a new initiative” (Money-zine, n.d). However, this style is rarely use in modern origination today because if employees are unable or unwilling, delegating style will de-motivate the employees (Buzzle, 2010). As a result, most managers may not trust their workers and subordinates, because they afraid of employees cannot achieve their task.
As what is mention above four points, a successful leader need to use different leadership style base on different situations in order to improve employees who can finish their job more efficiently. At the same time, they could be motivated through this process.
Not only for working in organizations, but also for general life, communication is undoubtedly becoming an essential behavior in daily life. Communication is generally defined as any act or process that an individual gives to or receives from others information about mutual requirements, views, knowledge, or emotional states (National Joint Committee for the Communicative Needs of Persons with Severe Disabilities, 1992, p. 2). As a comprehensive concept, communication could be universally divided into two extensive departments, which are non-verbal and verbal communication. Both non-verbal and verbal ways are efficiently used in organization behavior which could become a accelerant of effective motivation and efficient leadership if they are under a positive use.
According to Relationship website (n.d), non-verbal communication could be explained as those acts that shows what people are thinking without using verbal expression. Categories of this include aesthetic, physical, signs, and symbols (Your Dictionary, n.d), which two of them will be talked about through the following parts. ‘Aesthetic communication occurs through creative expression’ (Your dictionary, n.d), which would include all the arts, such as music, dance, theatre, crafts, art, painting, and sculpture. For example, ballet is as there is dance and music, without spoken or sung words. Swan Lake as the most famous and fascinating ballet in the world, audiences may have a sense of that the ballet is expressing its sentiment while watching. That is a nonverbal way of communication; target can understand many even more than language speaking from arts even though they cannot talk. Physical is another sample of nonverbal communication, which contains body language, facial expressions, touch, and gestures. The eyes of a person can be an assistant while communicating. To give an example, when a person could make frequent eye contact with others, it means that that this individual is confident and almost full of positivity. On the other hand, if the particular person is not too consistent with contact in eyes, there is almost no doubt that this person is trying to cover something or is averagely under a low confidence (Lifestyle, n.d). Touch can behaves efficiently under some circumstances. For instance, the certainty seen from someone’s handshake can indicate the other person with self confidence when this person is meeting for the first time. In addition, a gentle touch on the shoulder or light hug can show empathy and solicitude when someone is getting angry or sad. With the growing comprehensive conception of nonverbal communication, revolution in the history or between cultures could be regarded as a great example of a historical particular way of nonverbal communication. The New Culture Movement is a applicable example of the concept above, which out broke in May 1919 in China. This historical movement could be seen as a communication between new culture and obsolete culture in China. Although it didn’t completely succeed, it still change the style of attire and the written form, which are more succinct and convenient.