Threats to organisations, systems and data

There are various threats occurring in organisation, which needs to be prevented. There are many threats coming from external and internal, which the organisation needs to be aware of. I will describe many types of threats to organisation, the system and the data.

Unauthorised access occurs when an outside user has a target to damage or gain access to another user’s machine. This occurs because unauthorised user is trying to find some information about the user or potentially damaging the data.

Internal: A scanner is a method used to identify user address through internet. It is possible to use the scanner to scan addresses to identify users IP address. By using this it would enable hackers to see what machine are active and able to hack.

Internal: A magic disk is another method of rebooting computer system. It can be downloaded from internet which would restart your system and subvert the operating system. Some magic disk would scan you hard drive for usernames and password hashes. By doing this it would enable the computer to analyse the administrator password.

Internal: A keylogger is a monitoring application which will record every key entered on the keyboard. The person who installs this application can view all the keys entered by the user who uses it. The program runs without the user knowing its monitor, this can be harmful because the administrator would try to record user personal information such as username and password.

External: A worm is a program that is used to replicate itself automatically from one computer to another without human knowing. Worms can go through your address book or email contacts sending message that contains executable scripts. Worms spreads really quickly and it will clog the network which can cause slow connection to view webpage.

External: A Trojan is an application allowing others to access your computer system. It’s a harmful application which can destroy files on your system. It allows hackers to remote access to user computer system by entering through email attachments, downloads, CD/DVD, advertisement and program.

External: Phishing is a method to gain information about the user by using fake forms to attract the user. This can be done by email message which claims to be from the bank asking to click on a url or complete a attachment of a form. There are many ways being used to find users secret question and answer, personal information and many more to get personal information.

Damage To or Destruction of Systems or Information

Damages can occur anytime without user knowing therefore it is very important to back up data before any damages happen to the computer system. Damages can be done by natural disaster, human errors, malicious damage, technical damage and theft.

Natural Disaster: This occur naturally not technically disaster. It cannot be prevented but can be backed up after the damage has been done. Damages occur from environment such as flooding, fire, power outage and much more which causes damages. Organisation can back up files daily to prevent from fire or any other damages, have a back up server so that if the original server went down you can use back up server, have a power generator so that when power goes down you can use generator to gain electricity and additional building if there was a problem.

Technical Failure: Computers are always increasing its performance and becoming much reliable. As computers become complex, technical errors becomes complex. There would always be technical risks such as loss of server, software errors, device errors, or internet connection can cause a lot of problems to users and organisation.

Malicious Damage: This damage can come from internal and external. The damage can be done by archetypal external hackers who will go into the system and damage the system. There are disgruntled employee who would try to destroy data or make organisation to fail.

Information Security

Information should be stored secured from others to keep user and organisation safe. There are different types of ways information that can be secured such as confidentiality, principles, integrity and availability.

Confidentiality: This would enable who can view the information, who can update information, what information can be stored, how long will the information be stored, availability for storage of information. By storing information such as personal information, credit card, medial record, it needs to be accurate and managed confidentially.

Integrity and completeness of data: Data needs to be stored accurately, safe and ensure it’s reliable to store. Data integrity ensures that the data is complete, its protected for its usage and transferred to a back up storage such as USB and external hard drive. Data integrity will keep data always correct, consistent and accessible.

Availability of data as needed: Data should always be protected from unauthorized users. Data will always be stored and only be modified by user authorization but it needs to be available when it’s needed. User who has authorization to view the data can access data or employees within the department can have access to data. High availability will aim to keep it available at all times and preventing from denial of service attacks.

Threats Related To E-Commerce

E-commerce is the popular and profitable way of marketing. There are many advantages of e-commerce but there are also threats from external side who targets e-commerce for bank details of users.

Website Defacement: This is an attack made from hackers who will change the appearance of the website or misleading information. This is done by hacking into the web server and replace the host website with one of their own one. This can be a threat to e-commerce as it can make users to stop browsing that site, leading to false information, inappropriate images and show hackers tags.

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Control of access to data via third party suppliers: There are many e-commerce website who uses third party to increase their service. It is an advantage of working with third party as they can manage data and speed up the process with the company but it can also be a threat because third party can be managing personal information in transaction. You also have to check if they are trustworthy because some suppliers may not deliver their goods to other company and it would impact the business itself.

Denial of service attacks: This is an attack from hackers, which is used to prevent legitimate users from accessing information. It will target users computer system and network connection. The attacker may able to prevent user from accessing email, websites, online banking or any other tasks. Most common attack is flooding user network, which will deny to process any request made to access Internet or web page. If it happens in e-commerce system then it would attack for few minutes with loss of service but organisation will lose amount of income.

Counterfeit Goods

There are many best products available to buy but too expensive to buy, many markets provide counterfeit goods at low cost and ensure the quality is exactly the same but it can impact many customer has the good would become easily damaged or breaking down.

Products at risk: As technology increases portable devices also become more powerful which means media formats such as music, DVD, games and software can be duplicated with the same quality as original. This can be a risk as its illegal to make copies of other data without any permission from the creators and some formats such as software’s and DVD may contain harmful files that can damage computer system.

Distribution Mechanisms: This is another method which can be used to find software’s, music, games, DVD, files and much more by illegal software for free. It is designed by using a peer-based file sharing system which user keeps collection of data (music, games, DVD, software) that can be distributed via the peer software. It is offence of doing this and it can cause a big fine and also losing your computer system.

Organisational Impact

After looking at the various threats to organisation it would require a lot of time and money to keep the company going without losing income or data.

Loss of service: This is done by losing out service on Internet or telephone. This can lead to many major problems for businesses and customer. For businesses they would loose out on ability to function their work through the Internet and also may loose out on some data if it’s from the Internet. In customer aspect the loss of service from the organisation will lead to website service down, problem with customers cannot be solved due to no connection with the server and loosing out potential money.

Company Poor Image: After organisation having a big impact on threats or damages to computer system it would require some back up or information towards customer about the organisation status. This would give an image of the organisation in poor image, as customer would expect better security to the business. It would impact the organisation of reputation from customers, by getting better security and showing better performance it wouldn’t impact as much as before.

Increase cost: As there would be damages done at organisation it would require cost to repair what has happened. The cost will significantly increase on technology and insurance, the organisation will become low on budget therefore services and goods would increase to customers. This would impact the company as they can loose out on business because of cost of replace or repairing technology and loosing out on customer due to price increasing.

P2. Describe the potential impact of four different threats

Trojan: Trojan is a dangerous malicious threat that can damage computer system. This can impact organization really bad as the trojan can be controlled by the attacker who may whish to destroy data. This can lead organization to fall apart as the data can be the key factor to the business or data can be seen and destroyed such as seeing bank information or personal information.

Website Defacement: This allows attackers to gain access of organisation website and change the appearance. This can impact the organisation in a major way with security and reputation toward the company. The attackers can write false information, which would give customers different impression towards the company and customers wouldn’t trust the website due to security issues. Organisation that has an attack would be a hidden activity without customers knowing but with website defacement it would be a public attack which everyone can see how weak their security can be.

Loss Of Service: Loose of service would lead to major problem to the business as they cannot get access to Internet or cannot do some work. This can impact the organisation in big deal as they can loose out on many customers, income, ability to operate and cost of technology may be required for replacement. So the organisation would face many obstacles and money loss from customers aspect to organisation equipments.

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Confidentiality: Confidential information must not be shared to other company, if there are companies who share information to third party then there are penalty for violation. Information must be kept at all time secured from others but there are always external intruders who are trying to gain confidential information from companies so this can impact the organisation of theft and bring the company down.

P3. Describe countermeasures available to an organisation that will reduce the risk of damage to information

CCTV: CCTV are the most popular security being used because it allows 24/7 recording, used for evidence, control and maintain monitoring, developed CCTV enables rotation from user, undetectable for intruders and different technology used (night vision, zooming, etc). This would be available to organisation that can reduce the risk of damaging information, it can be done by installing few CCTV in every room or different angle of the area and enables monitoring at all time so this can help to view what’s happening.

Security Personnel: Security personnel offer managing the security of an organisation and computer system. They can reduce the risk of an organisation by offering full alert around the building, discovering all area for suspicious, prevent unauthorised people to access the building, working out of normal hours and identifying problems.

Encryption: Encrypting allows data to be guaranteed to be stored safe. This can reduce the risk of damage to information as data would become unrecognizable to application and attackers. As technology increases, security needs to be much powerful, these days encryptions are 128-bit to keep it hard to decrypt from unauthorized access. By having encrypting data it would allow organisation to be secured and reduce the risk of damage to information.

P4. Describe the countermeasures available to an organisation that will reduce the risk of damage to physical systems.

Backups: To reduce the risk of damage to physical system organisation can backup data to ensure it’s safe and secured onto another portable device. Computer systems are unreliable as it can have technical failure, intruders can damage data and software failure. All this can occur but to reduce the factors of the risk, organisation should back up data regularly, ensure data is stored up to date, accurate and ensure it’s stored on various portable devices to keep it secured. Organisation that stores data should be managed by RAID because it allows data to be recovered from duplicated hard drive.

Firewalls: Firewalls can reduce the risk of damages to an organisation as it helps to block unwanted traffic from entering the network. To reduce the risk organisation can download software to help filtering incoming access to computer system. Firewall will help to reduce risk of damages by preventing remote login, application backdoor, operating system bugs, denial of service, email bombs, macros, viruses, spam and redirecting routing.

Passwords: Password can be used to reduce the risk of damages, as organisation data would be encrypted or password locked. To guarantee a good security password, ensure password has a minimum of 6 characters long, enable upper and lower cases for strong password, do not relate password to yourself and make sure password is changed every month for better security and strong password.

M1. Explain possible security issues which exist within a given system

Nature of Business: Vermason is a manufacture specialised in wide range of ESD protection products. The production they use are computer control matt cutting, sewing machine, field service kit and sewn item. They have several light assembly processes such as crimpers, moulding machine, riveting presses and ultrasonic welders. These are used to create wristbands, coiled cords, and earth bonding points amongst others. The company has practical knowledge of ESD also ability to develop new products and to test raw material. The company also offer a range of electrostatic discharge protection products including: bench matting, ionisers, packaging foam, WEZ containers, and much more.

Hardware: The business has production automated machines such as

mat cutting, ultrasonic welders, insert moulding machines, bottle filling machine, wrist strap tester, EPA tester, versatile climate chamber and sewing machine. They use personal computer for managing data and processing information. A good network card is used for joining local area network, this is essential for web server. A good hard drive needed for storage, reasonable RAM for processing and speed, may also have a printer and scanner for documentation purposes.

Software: The business uses management software packages to enable good management of the business side and customer side. Common OS being used in business is windows; this means software being used for management data could be Microsoft Office package. The company may use Paypal service for online transaction or software that manages online banking for security. The business would also use encryption for personal information within the company and use a strong security; therefore business would use encryption application, antivirus software and high firewall protection. Businesses would also use productivity application such as web creating, graphic design and documentation.

Business Communication: Communication is required to ensure business is operating well. The business uses hardware such as automated machines to process the workflow. They would use computer for managing data such as storage, information, productivity and much more. Server would be used for storage and providing service across the network. They would use software for processing information such as database for storing data, web program for creating and maintaining the website, anti-virus program for security and electronic communication for instant message or update information.

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Security Issues: Website always needs to be secured, updated and checked regularly to keep data secured from intruders. The organisation may face different type of threats especially targeted to e-commerce website as these website consist data of customers bank details.

The website may face threats such as:

Phishing: This can occur to the organisation as the intruder would claim to be a supplier, customer or third party. This would attract the organisation to follow intruders trap and eventually organisation can be at risk of giving out information.

Recommend: I would recommend using an email provider who has great security filtering, install a good anti-virus and firewall software. Adjust the web browser security to ensure you are avoiding bad sites.

Web Defacement: This can occur to website which are not popular in the marketing, this is because intruder thinks the website security isn’t secured as much enabling them to change the appearance, change the information or damaging the website. This can occur to this organisation as the business is not related to I.T meaning they wouldn’t have top security or good system.

Recommend: I would recommend increasing the server security, encrypting data and data streams accessing server, installing web application firewall and testing how secured your website is.

Worms: This attack can happen to the organisation because worms pass through emails, USB, application, files and address book. This can cause the organisation to clog the network giving result of slow connection to website browsing.

Recommend: Ensure firewall is turned on to keep you aware of incoming access, always update operating system and security update, use antivirus software and don’t open attachments from unrecognised email or unexpected email from someone.

Natural Disaster: Natural Disaster can occur anytime without anyone knowing. The organisation can face natural disaster such as fire due to heat of the machine or natural cause from materials. Flooding can occur which will damage the organisation production line, power outage can occur and many more other natural disaster can happen which can damage or loose the organisation data, technology and building.

Recommend: Natural disaster is unpredictable which means organisation needs to look at the future possible outcome. To ensure organisation doesn’t risk any causes it is best to back up electronic data onto portable device, ensure you have secondary server just in case if the primary server went down, have a generator when power cut happens and have additional building for employees who can transfer after a cause of damage to the organisation building.

Technical Failure: Organisation would always have some sort of technical failure with technology, the risk can be software error, loss of data, Internet connection problems or hardware failure can cause a lot of problem to the organisation.

Recommend: Technology cannot be prevented but it can be upgraded to become better usage than before. I would recommend organisation to back up data onto portable device, every year or so upgrade the hardware to ensure better performance and update software packages or operating system as it can solve a lot of bugs or errors occurring.

M3. Explain the operation and use of an encryption technique in ensuring security of transmitted information.

Definition of encryption: Encryption is a conversion of data into a form called cipher text. This is a code that cannot be understood by user. By encrypting data it would convert into a secured form preventing intruders to hack into.

RSA: This is a encryption that uses asymmetric cryptographic exchange to secure data. This was the first algorithm known to be a suitable for signing and encryption. It is used widely in electronic commerce protocols.

History/Developer: RSA stands for Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. These are the names, named after its inventors. The RSA was published at 1977 and it was the first advanced in public key cryptography. At 1996 RSA partner shipped with CyberCash to enable company to provide security on online transaction to consumers and businesses.

Explanation of the technique: It is known as public key encryption, the key is asymmetric which means data will be encrypted but it will not decrypt the data, unless someone with the private key can decrypt the data.

Diagram: When a computer system makes a connection to a website, everything that a user sends such as username/password to website server, it would be encrypted using website public key.

Application example: RSA is used anytime you are given out bank details on online shopping, online banking or emailing. Many organisations relies on RSA encryption because it’s the most secured encryption algorithm available. With other encryption it uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt but RSA is unique as it uses two key from encrypting and decrypting, this is why it is much more secured for data being transmitted from the user to the other side recipient.

The value for Vermason Ltd: RSA is essential to be used on this organisation because Vermanson provides online shopping, which means personal information being sent should be private from other people. It will value the company as its using an encryption to keep customer bank details secured which gives a result of safer shopping, preventing intruders to gain access.

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